Polygala senega - L.
Seneca Snakeroot
Other Common Names: Seneca snakeroot
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Polygala senega L. (TSN 29316)
French Common Names: polygale sénéca
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.142918
Element Code: PDPGL021L0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Milkwort Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Polygalales Polygalaceae Polygala
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Polygala senega
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 03Nov2016
Global Status Last Changed: 03Nov2016
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Polygala senega is very widespread in the eastern United States and southern Canada, although unevenly distributed, and it has fairly often been reported as locally frequent or common. The species occurs in a range of habitats, some of which (e.g. mesic or dry woodlands) are widespread and plentiful. However, the ecological requirements of the species do not seem to be well understood. Also, there may be two biological entities (e.g. varieties or species) within Polygala senega as presently understood; if so, the conservation status of each taxon should be assessed independently.

The roots of Polygala senega have long been used medicinally as the product "Senega Snakeroot" (or similar names). The extent and intensity of collecting for the medicinal trade may be affecting significant populations or portions of its range, so that perhaps Polygala senega is being seriously changed genetically and in decline as a truly wild-functioning species. As well, there are a considerable number of states and provinces that have recognized vulnerability or even loss of populations within their areas of geographical expertise.

Nation: United States
National Status: N4?
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (01Sep2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNR), Connecticut (S1), Delaware (SX), District of Columbia (SH), Georgia (S2?), Illinois (SNR), Indiana (SNR), Iowa (S4), Kansas (SH), Kentucky (S4?), Maine (S1), Maryland (S2), Massachusetts (SH), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (SNR), Missouri (SNR), Nebraska (S1), New Jersey (S1.1), New York (S5), North Carolina (S2), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (SNR), Oklahoma (SNR), Pennsylvania (S2), Rhode Island (SNR), South Carolina (SNR), South Dakota (S4), Tennessee (SNR), Vermont (S2S3), Virginia (S4S5), West Virginia (S4), Wisconsin (SNR), Wyoming (S2)
Canada Alberta (S4), British Columbia (SH), Manitoba (S4), New Brunswick (S2), Ontario (S4), Quebec (S2S3), Saskatchewan (S4)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Canada from Quebec and New Brunswick to British Columbia; southward in the U.S. east of the Rocky Mountains (except Montana) to Wyoming and Oklahoma, eastward (except Alabama) to Georgia, and northward through New England (except New Hampshire) to Maine (Kartesz 1999, Fernald 1970).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Hinds (1986) reported that the species is uncommon and scattered in New Brunswick, but can be locally common in the western counties of the province. Manitoba Agriculture and Food (2000) state that it is found quite commonly throughout the southern part of their province. Voss (1985) said it is surprisingly spotty in its distribution in Michigan, although locally frequent. In a northern Illinois county, Fell (1955) reported that the species was common in two quite different situations: wooded streambanks, and low prairies. Cusick and Silberhorn (1977) considered it to be rare in unglaciated Ohio.

Medley (1993) reports that Polygala senega var. latifolia is frequent in mesic woodlands in several of the floristic regions in eastern and central Kentucky, whereas P. senega var. senega is rare in prairie patches in two of the central regions. Strausbaugh and Core (1978) stated that in West Virginia P. s. var. senega is mostly in 14 mountain counties, whereas P. s. var. latifolia had been found in just one county.

Population Size Comments: Strausbaugh and Core (1978) cited an 1892 report that in West Virginia, "Long Glade is said to be white with this species when it is in bloom".

Overall Threat Impact Comments: There is evidence, acquired from reliable sources, of wild-collection of this plant for trade.

Over 90% of wild senega roots exported from Canada originates in Manitoba (Elsasser 1999; Parkland Botanicals 1998). The Saskatchewan Herb and Spice Association (2000) states that most [wild] senega presently harvested comes from Manitoba and eastern Saskatchewan (although it is not clear whether this statement is intended to apply to Canada alone or includes the United States). Manitoba Agriculture and Food (2000) state that wild populations in Manitoba and Saskatchewan are currently the major sources of supply for the North American market, and that a large tonnage is also being exported to Europe. Demand is estimated to have an annual growth rate of 5%. Because of overharvesting in past years, they state that there is a great need to cultivate the species.

Felter and Lloyd (1898-1900) mentioned that in commerce a distinction was sometimes made between Southern and Northern Senega. The former came from North Carolina, Virginia, Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri and Arkansas; the latter, with a larger root crown and root [and which they thought might be a botanical variety], was bought (since about 1871) from Minnesota and Wisconsin.

Historically over 90% of the wild senega roots exported from Canada has originated in Manitoba, which is said to also be the current situation. Elsasser (1999) of Parkland Botanicals (in Togo, Saskatchewan) reports that the export records of Canada's Dominion Bureau of Statistics for 1919 to 1957 show that root collection (as fresh weight) varied from a high of 1,820,000 pounds in 1930 to lows of 455,000 pounds in 1955 and 1923. Parkland Botanicals (1998) gives the peak year as 1931 (citing the same source), with an export of 2,000,000 pounds fresh (equals 781,000 pounds of dry roots). These records do not include domestic sales. The trade was much diminished in the 1960s-1980s because of a shift to synthetic chemical compounds.

Recent resurgence of interest in use of natural chemical compounds obtained from raw plant materials has sparked a renewal in the industrial herb trade (Elsasser 1999, Parkland Botanicals 1998). Elsasser (1999) considers the present harvests to be about 10-20% of historic levels, stating that the current annual collection of wild roots in Canada is 100,000 pounds fresh (40,000 pounds dry), with over 90% as usual from Manitoba.

The roots are utilized medicinally, after they have been removed from the knotty crown of the rootstock (Veninga and Zaricor 1976). Root extracts are considered effective for several medicinal uses (e.g. Tierra 1988) since they contain methyl salicylate (Foster and Duke 1990), glycosides, and several other drug compounds (e.g. polygalic acid, senegins, saponins) (Saskatchewan Herb and Spice Association 2000, Kako et al. 1996, Hill 1952). The Saskatchewan Herb and Spice Association (2000) states that senega is an official drug in Germany and France, and is valued for its stimulating and expectorant properties, and that the root also has an essential oil (yield 4.5%). Manitoba Agriculture and Food (2000) state that senega snakeroot is officially recognized as a medicinal herb in Canada (Health Canada-registered 'Herb and Natural Product') (cf. Briggs 1988), Germany (Commission E) and the United Kingdom (General Sales List).

The Saskatchewan Herb and Spice Association (2000) indicates that the flowers are also used [although it appears that this is only to a minor extent].

Michael McGuffin (pers. comm.) said that the American Herbal Products Association fairly recently surveyed its members regarding their trade in various species. He stated that their figures should be considered preliminary, and in general might include some double counting (if one company supplied another), resulting in over-reporting by as much as twice the actual amount. Those members who responded reported that about 600, 2000 and 6000 pounds of dried [presumably wild] roots were supplied respectively in 1990, 1991 and 1992; these might be the maximum totals and the actual totals perhaps only half the above (McGuffin pers. comm.). Although these figures might indicate their trade is going up, he considers senega snakeroot in a long-standing traditional and minor trade, but is not personally familiar with seeing it in the market.

Elsasser (1999) of Parkland Botanicals (in Togo, Saskatchewan) states the current annual harvest of wild roots in Canada to be 40,000 pounds dry weight (100,000 pounds fresh weight). He considers this about 10-20% of historic levels. He stated that most of the 1919-1957 exported production was shipped to England and the U.S., with smaller amounts sold to importers in France, Germany and Italy. Manitoba Agriculture and Food (2000) state that in 1995, most of the 10 tons of wild-harvested root product went to Japan, Europe, and the U.S.

Donais (1997) says that other species like senega root have been very hard hit by habitat loss and overgrazing in agricultural areas [his focus is Canada]. In Maine (and some other states) the species is known to have lost range and habitats to general land conversion (agriculture, urbanization).

Donais (1997) says that the species is not endangered over its entire [Canadian] range; "in parts of northern Alberta, Saskatchewan and especially Manitoba, where rocky native habitat has not been invaded by cattle or destroyed by cultivation, vast stands of senega roots can still be found". Elsasser (1999) also states that Polygala senega is distributed extensively in Manitoba [cf. Scoggan 1957], and that much of the province is rough limestone land that remains uncultivated, ungrazed, and unsuitable for forestry.

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Elsasser (1999) said that a 1958 report compiled by Manitoba's Social and Economic Research Office stated that "The digging of senega root is rarely profitable near home communities since these areas have been intensively harvested and few plants remain to be found. Persons must travel to areas where the root is abundant. Some families go by boat to the more remote areas", and the expedition's collecting could go on for days or weeks or the entire summer. The report indicated that the root was "an important source of seasonal income to some Metis and Indian families".

Manitoba Agriculture and Food (2000) state that senega snakeroot has been seriously overharvested by wildcrafters in many locations.

Elsasser (1999) of Parkland Botanicals (in Togo, Saskatchewan) says that senega roots have been commercially collected on the Canadian prairies since at least 1884, with "many tons" being gathered in 1884 to 1888 from a portion of Saskatchewan for export. He reports that the scientific research of Turcotte (1997) in Manitoba [on Hydro rights-of-way] gave mean densities of 2 plants per meter, or about 1000 plants per acre. The wild harvesters (mainly Cree and Metis peoples) tended to select larger plants and leave the smaller plants undisturbed (cf. Kenkle and Turcotte 1996). He estimates that the current Canadian wild harvest (mostly from Manitoba) is only 10-20% of historic levels, and states that in his opinion this estimated annual collection from Manitoba of 100,000 pounds of fresh roots is sustainable. [A rough approximation on the number of plants obtained can be made based on Manitoba Agriculture and Food (2000) estimates of 160 dry cultivated roots per kilogram, and two-thirds weight loss on drying, which suggests that some 2,400,000 wild roots might be obtained annually.]

Len Donais (1997) [a collector (wildcrafter) and buyer of wild plants through his company Northern Wild Harvest (of Prince Albert, Saskatchewan], states that where plants are vulnerable, like senega root in agricultural Saskatchewan, extreme care should be practiced in harvesting. In this case, he recommends that only the oldest and largest plants should be collected.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Canada from Quebec and New Brunswick to British Columbia; southward in the U.S. east of the Rocky Mountains (except Montana) to Wyoming and Oklahoma, eastward (except Alabama) to Georgia, and northward through New England (except New Hampshire) to Maine (Kartesz 1999, Fernald 1970).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, CT, DC, DEextirpated, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, BC, MB, NB, ON, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Franklin (01059), Jackson (01071)
CT Fairfield (09001), Litchfield (09005)
KS Cherokee (20021)*
MA Berkshire (25003)*
MD Allegany (24001), Baltimore County (24005), Cecil (24015)*, Harford (24025), Howard (24027), Montgomery (24031), Washington (24043)
ME Aroostook (23003)
NC Ashe (37009), McDowell (37111), Stanly (37167), Transylvania (37175), Wake (37183)
NE Antelope (31003)*
NJ Warren (34041)
VT Addison (50001), Bennington (50003), Chittenden (50007), Grand Isle (50013), Rutland (50021)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Aroostook (01010004)+, Housatonic (01100005)+
02 Hudson-Hoosic (02020003)+, Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105)+, Lower Susquehanna (02050306)+*, Chester-Sassafras (02060002)+*, Gunpowder-Patapsco (02060003)+, Patuxent (02060006)+, North Branch Potomac (02070002)+, Cacapon-Town (02070003)+, Conococheague-Opequon (02070004)+, Middle Potomac-Catoctin (02070008)+
03 Upper Neuse (03020201)+, Upper Pee Dee (03040104)+, Upper Broad (03050105)+
04 Mettawee River (04150401)+, Otter Creek (04150402)+, Winooski River (04150403)+, Lamoille River (04150405)+, Lake Champlain (04150408)+
05 Upper New (05050001)+
06 Upper French Broad (06010105)+, Guntersville Lake (06030001)+, Bear (06030006)+
10 Upper Elkhorn (10220001)+*, North Fork Elkhorn (10220002)+*
11 Spring (11070207)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial plant with several to many usually unbranched annual stems 6-18 inches tall from the thick crown of a stout hard woody rootstock, which is horizontal, knotty and with spreading branches; the leaves are alternate, small and lance-shaped. The species has terminal slightly cone-shaped dense clusters of small pea-like white or whitish (or greenish) flowers (Felter and Lloyd 1898-1900, Grimm 1968, Duncan and Foote 1975, Voss 1985, Foster and Duke 1990).
Ecology Comments: Deam (1940) stated that in large old plants, the stems do branch. The species has 2 seeds in each small capsule. The seeds are reported to pop out of the capsule when ripe, during the summer (Donais 1997). Plants in Manitoba with five stems were estimated to produce 370 seeds annually (Turcotte 1997 from Elsasser 1999). Parkland Botanicals (1998) states that a mature plant can have as many as 70 stems, each with 10-40 fruits.
Habitat Comments: Chiefly found in calcareous woods, shores and prairies, often on rocks, gravels or thin soils, and sometimes in wet or boggy habitats.

According to Fernald (1970), this species is in dry rocky or gravelly, chiefly calcareous areas. Hinds (1986) gave its habitat as calcareous woods and shores. Gleason and Cronquist (1991) stated that the species occurs in dry or moist woods and prairies, often in calcareous soil. Voss (1985) reported that whereas in northern Michigan it occurs on calcareous rocks and gravels in openings and at borders of coniferous woods, in southern Michigan it occurs in a diversity of wooded, boggy, swampy, rocky, or "even" prairie-like habitats, shores and banks. The species is in the southern two thirds of Manitoba in thickets, prairie, and clearings (Scoggan 1957). Douglas et al. (1990) report that in northeastern British Columbia in steppe vegetation and montane zones, it is rare in moist to mesic sites. Van Bruggen (1976) reported that the species occurs on sterile soil or rocky outcrops in the Black Hills of South Dakota. In Indiana, Deam (1940) stated that it usually occurs on wooded slopes along streams and lakes, but rarely in the open in a prairie habitat. For the Southeast, Duncan and Foote (1975) said that it occurs in dry places, thin woods and rocky soils, which often are calcareous.

Manitoba Agriculture and Food (2000) report that the species is found in open woods, along roadsides, and in prairie areas, and that it is often found in disturbed areas.

Economic Attributes
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Economically Important Genus: Y
Commercial Importance: Indigenous crop, Minor cash crop
Economic Uses: MEDICINE/DRUG
Production Method: Wild-harvested
Economic Comments: A company with a comprehensive herbal marketing site on the internet was offering (on Dec/3/1999) to sell powdered or cut and sifted material of this species in bulk at US$ 18 per pound. Parkland Botanicals (1998) reports that in 1997 the prices reached Can$ 28,000 per clean ton of wild dry roots. Manitoba Agriculture and Food (2000) state that in 1995, the root sold for US$ 6.50-8.00 per pound. Elsasser (1999) states that in 1993 he paid the Cree and Metis peoples (who comprise at least 90% of the senega-root diggers) about US$ 3.50 per pound dry weight, with the peak price for a while in 1998 being US$ 7/lb dry.

In discussion of the family Polygalaceae worldwide in Heywood (1978), it is noted that local medicines are extracted from a few species, and that the best known is snakeroot from Polygala senega in eastern North America.

Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Voss (1985) said the species is surprisingly spotty in its distribution in Michigan, and Hinds (1986) reported that it is scattered (but sometimes locally common) in New Brunswick. Rousseau (1974) commented that its distribution in Quebec was difficult to explain, wondering why it was absent from certain specified areas that seemed to have suitable habitat.
Date: 31Jan2000
Author: MacBryde, Bruce
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 31Jan2000
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Bruce MacBryde

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Bouchard, A., D. Barabé, M. Dumais et S. Hay 1983. Les plantes vasculaires rares du Québec. Syllogeus no 48. Musées nationaux du Canada. Ottawa. 75 p.

  • Briggs, C. J. 1988. Senega snakeroot - A traditional Canadian herbal medicine. Can. Pharmacy J. 121:199-201.

  • Briggs, C.J. 1988. Senega snakeroot, a traditional Canadian herbal medicine. Canadian Pharmaceutical Journal, March: 199-201.

  • British Columbia Conservation Data Centre. Botany Program. 2000. Database containing records of rare plant collections and observations in the province of British Columbia.

  • Catling, P.M., and E. Small. 1994. Poorly known economic plants of Canada - 1. Seneca snakeroot (Polygala senega L.). Bull. Can. Bot. Assoc. 27: 10-11.

  • Cody, W.J. 1988. Plants of Riding Mountain National Park, Manitoba. Agriculture Canada, Publication 1818/E, Ottawa ON.

  • Cusick, A.W. and G.M. Silberhorn. 1977. The vascular plants of unglaciated Ohio. The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH. Bulletin of the Ohio Biological Survey- New Series 5(4): 102.

  • Deam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Division of Forestry, Dept. of Conservation, Indianapolis, Indiana. 1236 pp.

  • Donais, L. 1997. Experience in wildcrafting. Proceedings of the Prairie Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Conference, Brandon, Manitoba, March 9-11, 1997.

  • Douglas, G.W., D. Meidinger, and J. Penny. 2002. Rare Native Vascular Plants of British Columbia, 2nd ed. B.C. Conserv. Data Centre, Terrestrial Inf. Branch, Victoria. 358pp.

  • Douglas, G.W., D. Meidinger, and J. Pojar, eds. 1999. Illustrated Flora of British Columbia, Vol. 4, Dicotyledons (Orobanchaceae through Rubiaceae). B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, and B.C. Minist. For., Victoria. 427pp.

  • Douglas, G.W., G.B. Straley, and D. Meidinger, eds. 1998. Rare Native Vascular Plants of British Columbia. Conserv. Data Centre, Resour. Inventory Branch, B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, Victoria, and B.C. Minist. For., Victoria.

  • Douglas, G.W., G.B. Strayley, and D. Meidinger, eds. 1990. The vascular plants of British Columbia. Part 2. Dicotyledons (Diapensiaceae through Portulacaceae). Crown Publications Incorporated, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. 158 pp.

  • Duncan, W.H., and L.E. Foote. 1975. Wildflowers of the Southeastern United States. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens. 296 pp.

  • Elsasser, D. 1999. Current senega root trade is sustainable. Online. Available: http://www.plantsavers.org/newsletter/summer1999/ar.html. Accessed 2000-Jan.

  • Fell, E. W. 1955. Flora of Winnebago County, Illinois: An annotated list of the vascular plants. The Nature Conservancy, Washington, DC. 207 pp.

  • Felter, H.W., and J.U. Lloyd. 1898-1900. King's American dispensatory. 18th edition, 3rd revision. 2 volumes. The Ohio Valley Company, Cincinnati.

  • Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. Corrected printing (1970). D. Van Nostrand Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1970. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. 1970 printing with corrections by R.C. Rollins [of 1950 8th edition]. D. Van Nostrand Company, New York.

  • Foster, S., and J. Duke. 1990. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants- Eastern and Central North America. Peterson Field Guides Series. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 366 pp.

  • Gillett, J.M. 1968. The Milkworts of Canada. Research Branch, Canada Department of Agriculture, Monograph no 51 24

  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. The new Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 3 volumes. Hafner Press, New York. 1732 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1963. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. D. Van Nostrand Company, New York, NY. 810 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Grimm, W.C. 1968. Recognizing flowering wild plants. Hawthorn Books, New York.

  • Herbarium, Department of Botany, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

  • Herbarium, Museum of Man and Nature, 190 Rupert Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba.

  • Heywood, V. H. 1978. Flowering plants of the world. Mayflower Books, New York.

  • Hill, A.F. 1952. Economic Botany, 2nd edition. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York. 560 pp.

  • Hinds, H.R. 1986. Flora of New Brunswick. Primrose Press, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada. 460 pp. and appendices.

  • Johnson, T. 1999. CRC Ethnobotany Desk Reference. Online. Available: http://www.herbweb.com/herbage. Accessed 1999, November.

  • Kako, M., T. Miura, Y. Nishiyama, M. Ichimaru, M. Moriyasu and A. Kato. 1996. Hypoglycemic effect of the rhizomes of Polygala senega [var. latifolia] in normal and diabetic mice and its main component, the triterpenoid glycoside senegin-II. Planta Medica 62(5): 440-443.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Kawatani, T., and T. Ono. 1968. [Effect of light intensity on the growth and root yield of Polygala senega L. var. latifolia Torr. et Gray.] (In Japanese.) Eisei Shikenjo Hokoku 86: 105-107.

  • Kenkle, N.C., and C. Turcotte. 1996. The ethnobotany and economics of seneca snakeroot, Polygala senega L. Department of Botany, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg. Unpublished manuscript.

  • Kindscher, K. 1992. Medicinal Wild Plants of the Prairie. Univ. Kansas Press, Lawrence. Pp. 164-168.

  • Love, D. & J.P. Bernard. 1959. Flora and vegetation of the Otterburne area, Manitoba, Canada. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 53:335-461.

  • Manitoba Agriculture and Food (MAF). 2000. Native plants as potential crops for Manitoba: Senega snakeroot. Online. Available: http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/medicinal/bkq00s01.ht ml. Accessed 2000-Jan.

  • Marie-Victorin, Fr. 1964. Flore laurentienne. 2e édition revue par E. Rouleau. Les Presses de l'Université de Montréal, Montréal. 925 p.

  • Medley, M.E. 1993. An annotated catalog of the known or reported vascular flora of Kentucky. PhD. dissertation. University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky.

  • Moye, William S. 2006. Highly Ranked Plants of the South Mountain Region. Unpublished notes sent via email to Misty Franklin in February 2006.

  • Parkland Botanicals [PB]. ca. 1998. Operation Senega Root. Online. Available: http://www.agr.gov.sk.ca/adfreports/93000007/. Accessed 2000-Jan.

  • Polygala senega L. Allegany County: 1946-05-12 "south of Bellegrove along Orleans Road" O.M. Freeman SN.

  • Polygala senega L. Allegany County: 1983-05-10, "Carrol Road Barren," D. D. Boone TAWES.

  • Polygala senega L. Allegany County: 1983-06-09, "Warm Spring Road," D. D. Boone TAWES

  • Polygala senega L. Allegany County: 1984-06-05, "Fort Hill, south end," D. D. Boone TAWES.

  • Polygala senega L. Allegany County: 1998-05-17, C. Frye and M. Baranski 1046 TAWES.

  • Polygala senega L. Allegany County: 2005-05-19, Christopher T. Frye 5407 TAWES.

  • Polygala senega L. Baltimore County: 1964-06-21, Baltars 3536 Cylburn.

  • Polygala senega L. Harford County: 1977-06-04, R. E. Riefner 77-477 BALT.

  • Polygala senega L. Montgomery County: 1895-05-12, C. L. Pollard US.

  • Polygala senega L. Montgomery County: 1915-05-02, A. Chase 6885 USDC.

  • Polygala senega L. Montgomery County: 1921-05-01, E. C. Leonard sn US.

  • Polygala senega L. Montgomery County: J. H. Painter 1319 USDC

  • Polygala senega L. Washington County: 1987-08-25, "Roundtop," D.D. Boone, TAWES.

  • Punter, E. 1994. Inventory and annotated checklist of the vascular plants of the Manitoba Model Forest. Project 93-2-6.

  • Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pp.

  • Rousseau, C. 1974. Georgraphical floristics of Quebec-Labrador. Univ. of Laval Press, Quebec, Canada. 799 pp.

  • Rousseau, C. 1974. Géographie floristique du Québec-Labrador : Distribution des principales espèces vasculaires. Presses de l'Université Laval, Québec. 798 p.

  • Saskatchewan Herb and Spice Association [SHSA]. 2000. Herbs for the prairies: Senega. Online. Available: http://paridss.usask.ca/specialcrop/commodity/herb_spice/tou r/senega.html. Accessed 2000-Jan.

  • Scoggan, H.J. 1957. Flora of Manitoba. National Museum of Canada Bulletin No. 140. Canada Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources, Ottowa.

  • Scoggan, H.J. 1978. The Flora of Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museum of Canada, Publ. in Botany 7(4).

  • Smith, E.B. 1988b. An atlas and annotated list of the vascular plants of Arkansas. Second edition. Univ. Arkansas, Fayetteville. 489 pp.

  • Steyermark, J.A. 1963. Flora of Missouri. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames. 1728 pp.

  • Strausbaugh, P.D., and E.L. Core. 1978. Flora of West Virginia. Seneca Books, Inc., Grantsville, WV. 1079 pp.

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