Polygala polygama - Walt.
Racemed Milkwort
Other Common Names: racemed milkwort
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Polygala polygama Walt. (TSN 29308)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.136232
Element Code: PDPGL021B0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Milkwort Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Polygalales Polygalaceae Polygala
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Polygala polygama
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 16Aug2016
Global Status Last Changed: 25Jun1984
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Widespread in the United States and Canada.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5
Nation: Canada
National Status: N4 (08Jul2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNR), Arkansas (SNR), Connecticut (SNR), Delaware (SNR), Florida (SNR), Georgia (SNR), Illinois (SNR), Indiana (SNR), Iowa (S1), Kentucky (S2), Louisiana (SNR), Maine (SNR), Maryland (S1), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (SNR), New Hampshire (SNR), New Jersey (S2), New York (S5), North Carolina (S2S3), Ohio (S3), Oklahoma (S2), Pennsylvania (S1S2), Rhode Island (SNR), South Carolina (SNR), Tennessee (SNR), Texas (SNR), Vermont (S2), Virginia (S4), West Virginia (S4), Wisconsin (SNR)
Canada Nova Scotia (S1), Ontario (S4), Quebec (S2)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Nova Scotia, Quebec, and Ontario, south through the eastern United States to Florida, west to Minnesota, Iowa, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Nova Scotia, Quebec, and Ontario, south through the eastern United States to Florida, west to Minnesota, Iowa, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, CT, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Canada NS, ON, QC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IA Allamakee (19005), Benton (19011), Buchanan (19019), Clinton (19045), Davis (19051)*, Jackson (19097), Linn (19113), Scott (19163)*, Wapello (19179)*
KY McCreary (21147)
MD Allegany (24001), Charles (24017), Montgomery (24031), Prince Georges (24033), Washington (24043)
NJ Atlantic (34001), Bergen (34003)*, Burlington (34005), Camden (34007)*, Cumberland (34011), Gloucester (34015)*, Middlesex (34023), Monmouth (34025)*, Morris (34027)*, Ocean (34029)*, Salem (34033), Sussex (34037)*
OH Ashtabula (39007), Fulton (39051), Henry (39069)*, Lucas (39095), Williams (39171)
OK Le Flore (40079)*, McCurtain (40089), Pushmataha (40127)*
PA Bedford (42009), Berks (42011), Blair (42013), Crawford (42039), Erie (42049), Fulton (42057)*, Huntingdon (42061)*, Juniata (42067)*, Monroe (42089)*, Perry (42099)
VT Addison (50001), Chittenden (50007), Rutland (50021), Windham (50025)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 West (01080107)+, Middle Connecticut (01080201)+
02 Lower Hudson (02030101)+*, Hackensack-Passaic (02030103)+*, Sandy Hook-Staten Island (02030104)+*, Raritan (02030105)+, Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead (02040104)+*, Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105)+*, Lower Delaware (02040202)+*, Schuylkill (02040203)+, Cohansey-Maurice (02040206)+, Mullica-Toms (02040301)+, Great Egg Harbor (02040302)+, Upper Juniata (02050302)+, Raystown (02050303)+*, Lower Juniata (02050304)+*, Lower Susquehanna-Swatara (02050305)+, North Branch Potomac (02070002)+, Cacapon-Town (02070003)+, Conococheague-Opequon (02070004)+*, Middle Potomac-Catoctin (02070008)+, Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan (02070010)+*, Lower Potomac (02070011)+
04 Ottawa-Stony (04100001)+, St. Joseph (04100003)+, Lower Maumee (04100009)+, Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101)+, Mettawee River (04150401)+, Otter Creek (04150402)+, Winooski River (04150403)+, Lake Champlain (04150408)+
05 French (05010004)+, Upper Cumberland (05130101)+, South Fork Cumberland (05130104)+
07 Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Upper Iowa (07060002)+, Apple-Plum (07060005)+, Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102)+, Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103)+, Middle Cedar (07080205)+, Lower Des Moines (07100009)+*
11 Poteau (11110105)+*, Kiamichi (11140105)+*, Upper Little (11140107)+*, Mountain Fork (11140108)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Erect or spreading herb, branching from the base, with narrow alternate leaves and small, pink, distinctively shaped, fringed flowers.
Technical Description: Stems mostly numerous from the biennial or perennial root, simple or forking, ascending to depressed, very leafy, 1-4.5 dm high, bearing 1-sided racemes of minute cleistogamous flowers and plump pale fruits from the base in summer and autumn (these usually subterranean); rosette-leaves spatulate, cauline very numerous and narrowly oblanceolate to linear, mostly 2-4 cm long, or in the local forma obovata Blake, obovate or elliptic and only 0.8-2 cm long; racemes very loose, finally elongating to 8-15 cm; the divergent flowers 4-6 mm apart, 5-6 mm long, rose-pink to rose-purple, on pedicels 1.5-3.5 mm long; wings 4-6 mm long, broadly obovate, tapered to claws, longer than the keel and much exceeding the plump ovoid capsule (3-4mm long); corolla slightly shorter than the wings, fringed; stamens 8; seeds black, ellipsoid, pilose, ca. 3 mm long, with conspicuous aril; aril 2-lobed, lobes 1/2 as long as the seed body. Northern plants are often separated as the variety obtusata: racemes becoming 2-12 cm long, closer-flowered; the flowers 3-5(-6) mm long, mostly 1-4 mm apart, on pedicels 0.5-2 mm long; wings strongly rounded above, shorter than to exceeding capsule; late in the season often branching or bearing short racemes of cleistogamous flowers and fruits resembling those of the basal racemes but deeper-colored. (Fernald 1950, with a few additions from Radford et al. 1968)
Diagnostic Characteristics: Loose raceme with well-spaced, distinctly pediceled flowers; cleistogamous flowers from base of plant; largest sepals twice as long as wide; corolla distinctly fringed; flowers pink-purple to white; biennial or perennial.
Duration: BIENNIAL, PERENNIAL, DECIDUOUS
Reproduction Comments: Showy chasmogamous flowers in terminal racemes; also cleistogamous flowers in underground, prostrate, or aerial racemes. Seeds have a conspicuous aril, promoting dispersal by ants; the subterranean cleistogamous flowers are self-"dispersed".
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest/Woodland, Grassland/herbaceous, Sand/dune, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Habitat Comments: Dry woods and openings (Fernald 1950). Ohio: open to semi-open situations in dry to moist usually sandy soil: open woods, woods borders, dunes, banks, and fields (McCance and Burns 1984). Florida: dry pinelands and coastal dunes (Wunderlin 1982).
Economic Attributes
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Economically Important Genus: Y
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 03Mar1995
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: M. E. Stover, TNC-HO
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 03Mar1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): M.E. STOVER, TNC-HO

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Bouchard, A., D. Barabé, M. Dumais et S. Hay 1983. Les plantes vasculaires rares du Québec. Syllogeus no 48. Musées nationaux du Canada. Ottawa. 75 p.

  • Burns, J. F. 1984. The Polygalaceae of Ohio. Castanea 51(2): 137-144.

  • DAVIS, C.A. AND MARYLAND NATURAL HERITAGE PROGRAM. 1994. RARE, THREATENED, AND ENDANGERED SPECIES AND NATURAL AREA SURVEY OF ANDREWS AIR FORCE BASE AND ITS REMOTE PROPERTIES, BRANDYWINE AND DAVIDSONVILLE COMMUNICATION SITES. FINAL REPORT OF FINDINGS AND MANAGEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS. 278 PP WITH MAPS, APPENDICES, ETC.

  • Deam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Division of Forestry, Dept. of Conservation, Indianapolis, Indiana. 1236 pp.

  • Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. Corrected printing (1970). D. Van Nostrand Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1950. Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th ed., Corr. Printing, 1970. Van Nostrand, New York. LXIV+1632 pp.

  • Gillett, J.M. 1968. The Milkworts of Canada. Research Branch, Canada Department of Agriculture, Monograph no 51 24

  • Gleason, H.A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of Northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, Second ed. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY. 910 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • HOWIE, S.L. AND K.C. WATSON. 1995. SPECIES AND NATURAL COMMUNITIES OF CONCERN ON U.S. AIR FORCE LANDS: AN INSTALLATION SPECIFIC HANDBOOK FOR ANDREWS AIR FORCE BASE. THE NATURE CONSERVANCY, ARLINGTON, VA. 494 PP.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1996. Species distribution data at state and province level for vascular plant taxa of the United States, Canada, and Greenland (accepted records), from unpublished data files at the North Carolina Botanical Garden, December, 1996.

  • McCance, R.M., Jr., and J.F. Burns, eds. 1984. Ohio endangered and threatened vascular plants: Abstracts of state-listed taxa. Division Natural Areas and Preserves, Ohio Dept. Natural Resources, Columbus. 635 pp.

  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles, and C. R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. 1183 pp.

  • Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pp.

  • Rousseau, C. 1974. Géographie floristique du Québec-Labrador : Distribution des principales espèces vasculaires. Presses de l'Université Laval, Québec. 798 p.

  • Wunderlin, R.P. 1982. Guide to the vascular plants of central Florida. Univ. Presses Florida, Gainesville. 472 pp.

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