Pluvialis squatarola - (Linnaeus, 1758)
Black-bellied Plover
Other Common Names: Batuiruçu-Cinzenta
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Pluvialis squatarola (Linnaeus, 1758) (TSN 176567)
French Common Names: pluvier argenté
Spanish Common Names: Chorlo Gris, Chorlo Árctico
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.102793
Element Code: ABNNB02010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Shorebirds
Image 10988

© Jeff Nadler

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Charadriiformes Charadriidae Pluvialis
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Pluvialis squatarola
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 09Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 25Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: No real threats to this species at this point in time.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5B,N5N (05Jan1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N3B,N5N,N5M (12Dec2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S4N), Alaska (S4B), Arizona (S2M), Arkansas (S2N), California (SNRN), Colorado (S4N), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (S4N), District of Columbia (S1N), Florida (S4N), Georgia (S5), Hawaii (SNA), Idaho (S1M), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (SNA), Iowa (S4N), Kansas (S3N), Kentucky (SNA), Louisiana (S5N), Maine (S4S5N), Maryland (S3N), Massachusetts (S4N), Michigan (SNRN), Minnesota (SNRM), Mississippi (S4N), Missouri (SNA), Montana (SNA), Navajo Nation (S3M), Nebraska (SNRN), Nevada (S4N), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (S4N), New Mexico (S4N), New York (SNRN), North Carolina (S5N), North Dakota (SNA), Ohio (SNA), Oklahoma (S2N), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), Rhode Island (SNA), South Carolina (SNRN), South Dakota (SNA), Tennessee (S4N), Texas (S4), Utah (SNA), Vermont (SNA), Virginia (SNRN), Washington (S4N), West Virginia (SNA), Wisconsin (SNA), Wyoming (S4N)
Canada Alberta (S5M), British Columbia (S5N), Labrador (S3M), Manitoba (SUM), New Brunswick (S3S4M), Newfoundland Island (S3M), Northwest Territories (S3B), Nova Scotia (S3M), Nunavut (S3B,S3M), Ontario (S4N), Prince Edward Island (S3M), Quebec (S4M), Saskatchewan (S4M), Yukon Territory (S4M)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: BREEDING: northern and western Alaska, northern Canada (north to Melville, Bathurst, and Devon islands, east to Southhampton and western Baffin islands, west to arctic shore); northern Eurasia (AOU 1983). NON-BREEDING: southwestern British Columbia south along Pacific coast to Chile; Atlantic coast from New Jersey south to northern Argentina; important wintering areas in South America are Suriname and north-central coast of Brazil between Belem and Sao Luis (see Johnson and Herter 1989, Morrison and Ross 1989; see latter for details on other South American sites); West Indies; British Isles, Mediterranean region, southern China, and Hawaii (uncommon, irregular) south to southern Africa, Australia, New Zealand (AOU 1983). Nonbreeders frequently summer in winter range (AOU 1983).

Area of Occupancy: >12,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: With an estimate of from 1 to a few pairs per square kilometer during breeding season (Paulson, 1995) and a population size estimate of 350,000 pairs (700,000 individuals total) (Birdlife International, 2014), this species would be expected to occupy more than 20,000 square kilometers based on population size.

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Number of EOs is an estimate since this species has a circumpolar distribution and does not breed colonially. This combination requires a large number of EOs to attain a ppopulation size estimate of almost 700,000 birds (Birdlife International, 2014).

Population Size: 100,000 - 1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Morrison et al. (2001) estimated the global population at 498,000 individuals, and that in North America at about 200,000.individuals (150,000 for P. S. CYNOSURAE and 50,000 for P. S. SQUATAROLAE). Birdlife International (2014) estimated the global population at 692,000 according to WPE3 data.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very many (>125)
Viability/Integrity Comments: An estimate based on the total number of individuals estimated

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Breeding habitat seems secure becasue it is far beyond most human occupation and development at this time (Paulson, 1995), although this may change with climate change. Some nonbreeding habitats may be lost due to filling and dredging though.

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Morrison (1993/1994) categorized the Canadian population as "declining?" Birdlife International (2014) notes that the overall population trend is decreasing although some popoulations have unknown trends.

Long-term Trend: Decline of <50% to increase of <25%
Long-term Trend Comments: Within the U.S., there has been no historic changein abundance from 1974 or so through at least the mid-1990's (Paulsen, 1995). According to Birdlife International (20140, the species has had a stable population trends over the last 40 years in North American based on Breeding Bird Survey and / or Christmas Bird Counts. Birdlife International does trend the overall global population trend as decreasing though.

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Not intrinsically vulnerable
Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: This ranking should be re-visited as global climate change may allow for the exploitation of some habitat for this species that is currently not feasible.

Environmental Specificity: Broad. Generalist or community with all key requirements common.
Environmental Specificity Comments: None

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Minimal needs at this time

Protection Needs: Any concentration pints for this species during its migration should be protected from habitat degradation.

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) BREEDING: northern and western Alaska, northern Canada (north to Melville, Bathurst, and Devon islands, east to Southhampton and western Baffin islands, west to arctic shore); northern Eurasia (AOU 1983). NON-BREEDING: southwestern British Columbia south along Pacific coast to Chile; Atlantic coast from New Jersey south to northern Argentina; important wintering areas in South America are Suriname and north-central coast of Brazil between Belem and Sao Luis (see Johnson and Herter 1989, Morrison and Ross 1989; see latter for details on other South American sites); West Indies; British Isles, Mediterranean region, southern China, and Hawaii (uncommon, irregular) south to southern Africa, Australia, New Zealand (AOU 1983). Nonbreeders frequently summer in winter range (AOU 1983).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, HI, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NN, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, NU, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002; WILDSPACETM 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
ID Blaine (16013), Jefferson (16051), Nez Perce (16069)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
17 Beaver-Camas (17040214)+, Little Wood (17040221)+, Clearwater (17060306)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Breeding begins late May in southwest to late June in north (Harrison 1978). Both sexes usually incubate 4 eggs for 26-27 days. Nestlings precocial. Young tended by both parents; parent depart before fledging at about 23 days.
Ecology Comments: Usually seen alone or in small flocks. May form large flocks to loaf or sleep (Stiles and Skutch 1989). Nesting density in Nunavut varied from 0.3 to 1.0 pairs per square kilometer on Devon Island (Hussell and Page 1976), to 1.2 to 2.3 pairs per square kilometer on Jenny Lind Island (Parmelee et al. 1967).
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: In U.S. migrates along Atlantic and Pacific coasts and the Mississippi River valley; more common in spring along inland routes in Canada. Migrates northward to arctic breeding grounds from s. U.S. in April; most arrive in Beaufort Sea area in early June, adults depart northern breeding areas around mid-August, young remain until late August or early September. Migrates through Costa Rica August-October and March-May (Stiles and Skutch 1989).
Estuarine Habitat(s): Herbaceous wetland, Tidal flat/shore
Palustrine Habitat(s): Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Cropland/hedgerow, Grassland/herbaceous, Savanna, Tundra
Habitat Comments: BREEDING: Preferred nesting habitat is wet tundra adjacent to dry or stony ground; selects nest sites in light-colored moss and lichens (Johnson and Herter 1989). NON-BREEDING: mudflats, beaches, salinas, wet savanna, shores of ponds and lakes, wet meadows, flooded fields; sometimes mangroves or rocky shores (Stiles and Skutch 1989).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: In tidal sand and mud flats and in salt marshes feeds on: marine worms, insects, mollusks, crustaceans. In plowed fields, wet meadows and pastures searches for adult insects and larvae, earthworms, some seeds and berries (Terres 1980).
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Phenology Comments: Foraged principally during daylight in northeastern Venezuela (Robert et al. 1989).
Length: 29 centimeters
Weight: 220 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Biological Research Needs: Minimal research needs relative to improvement of conservation or management needs.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Shorebirds

Use Class: Breeding
Subtype(s): Feeding Area, Breeding Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding, or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Mapping Guidance: Breeding occurrences include nesting areas as well as foraging areas of nesting adults and broods. Because separations are based on nesting areas, the foraging areas of different occurrences may overlap if nesting birds are traveling to distant places to feed.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance pertains specifically to nesting areas, not to locations of dispersed foraging individuals. For example, nesting areas separated by a gap of more than 5 km are different occurrences, regardless of the foraging locations of individuals from those nesting areas.

The separation distance is an arbitrary value; it is impractical to attempt to delineate shorebird occurrences on the basis of dispersal patterns or metapopulation dynamics. Foraging ranges of some nesting shorebird species (see following) may suggest use of a larger separation distance, but this likely would result in occurrences that are too large and less effective for conservation planning.

Separation distance based on larger 'typical' breeding home ranges with diameters of 1.5 to 3 kilometers. Semipalmated Plovers have breeding home ranges up to 3 square kilometers, i.e. a diameter of just under 2 kilometers (Nol and Blanken 1999). Red-necked Phalaropes have a core home range of 1-3 hectares, but occasionally travel 1.5 kilometers to feed (Rubega et al. 2000). Stilt Sandpipers can forage up to 8 kilometers from nest (Jehl 1973). Mountain Plovers have an average home range of 56.6 hectares (Knopf 1996) but broods typically move 1-2 kilometers shortly after hatching (Knopf and Rupert 1996).

Territories: Common Snipe, 6.4-28.6 hectares (Mueller 1999); Long-billed Dowitcher, 100-300 meter diameter (Johnsgard 1981); golden-plovers, average 10-59 hectares (Johnson and Connors 1996); Long-billed Curlew, 6-20 hectares (Johnsgard 1981).

Nesting densities: Black-bellied Plover, 0.3-2.3 pairs per square kilometer (44 ha per pair at latter density; Hussell and Page 1976, Parmelee et al. 1967); Marbled Godwit, maximum density 1 pair/32 hectares (Stewart and Kantrud 1972).

Foraging distances: Greater and Lesser Yellowlegs, up to 13 kilometers from nest (Elphick and Tibbits 1998, Tibbits and Moskoff 1999).

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 1.5 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Based on a smaller 'typical' home ranges (see Separation Justification).
Date: 25Mar2004
Author: Hammerson, G., and S. Cannings

Use Class: Migratory stopover
Subtype(s): Roost, Foraging concentration area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of migrating flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds in appropriate habitat (minimum can be reduced in the case of rarer species). Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; set at 5 kilometers to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging or roosting birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.
Date: 15Apr2002
Author: Cannings, S.

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Roost, Winter Feeding Area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of wintering flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds in appropriate habitat. Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 20 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; set at 5 kilometers to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging or roosting birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.
Date: 25Mar2004
Author: S. Cannings
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 21Apr2014
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Jue, Dean K.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 15Feb1990
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): HAMMERSON, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • See SERO listing

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  • Terres, J. K. 1980. The Audubon Society encyclopedia of North American birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

  • Zook, J. L. 2002. Distribution maps of the birds of Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. Unpublished.

  • eBird. 2016. eBird: An online database of bird distribution and abundance [web application]. eBird, Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York. Available: http://www.ebird.org. Accessed in 2016.

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Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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