Plegadis chihi - (Vieillot, 1817)
White-faced Ibis
Other Common Names: Caraúna-de-Cara-Branca, Maçarico-Preto
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Plegadis chihi (Vieillot, 1817) (TSN 174926)
French Common Names: ibis à face blanche
Spanish Common Names: Ibis Cara Blanca, Cuervillo de Cañada
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.103784
Element Code: ABNGE02020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Wading Birds
Image 10586

© Bruce A. Sorrie

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Pelecaniformes Threskiornithidae Plegadis
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Plegadis chihi
Taxonomic Comments: P. falcinellus and P. chihi are sometimes considered conspecific (AOU 1998). Oberholser (1974) used the name P. mexicana, but P. chihi is the name accepted by others (Banks and Browning 1995).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 09Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 20Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Secure due mainly to large range; locally fairly common; relatively small number of breeding areas; vulnerable to habitat alteration, disturbance during nesting, and pesticide contamination.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4B,N4N (19Mar1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N1N2B (16Feb2012)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (SHB), Arizona (SNRB,S2S3N), Arkansas (SNA), California (S3S4), Colorado (S2B), Idaho (S2B), Kansas (S2B), Louisiana (S4), Minnesota (SNRM), Mississippi (SNA), Missouri (SNA), Montana (S3B), Navajo Nation (S5M), Nebraska (S3), Nevada (S3B), New Mexico (S3B,S4N), North Dakota (SU), Oregon (S3B), South Dakota (S2B), Texas (S4B), Utah (S2S3B), Washington (SNA), Wyoming (S1B)
Canada Alberta (S1), Manitoba (S1B), Saskatchewan (S2N)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: BREEDING: locally from central California, eastern Oregon, southern Idaho (Taylor et al. 1989), Montana, southern North Dakota, and (formerly) southwestern Minnesota south into Mexico (to Colima, Zacatecas, state of Mexico, Veracruz), Texas, and southwestern Louisiana, southern Alabama, Florida (occasionally or formerly); also locally in South America in Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, southern Brazil, northern and central Chile, and northern and central Argentina (AOU 1983). The world's largest nesting aggregation occurs probably in the marshes around the Great Salt Lake, Utah (D. Paul, in Paton et al. 1992). NON-BREEDING: north to southern California, Baja California, southern Texas, and Louisiana, south through lowlands to Guatemala and El Salvador, and in generally in breeding range in South America (AOU 1983). In the U.S., the highest winter densities occur near San Diego in California and on the coast of Texas and western Louisiana (Root 1988). Wanders outside usual range; rare straggler to Hawaii.

Number of Occurrences: 81 - 300

Population Size: 10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: In the 1980s, the Great Basin/Rocky Mountains population was estimated at 25,000 (appears healthy); 24,000 on Gulf Coast. See Spendelow and Patton (1988) for information on abundance of PLEGADIS on Gulf Coast. Little available information for other populations.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Limited number of breeding locations; vulnerable to fluctuating water levels. Susceptible to breeding failure in areas of pesticide contamination. Breeders in Nevada are still being contaminated with DDE-DDT in Mexican wintering areas (Henny and Herron 1989).

Short-term Trend Comments: Populations in the south-central U.S. may be benefiting from crayfish aquaculture; bird population increases may be related to favorable foraging opportunities afforded by expanding crayfish aquaculture (Fleury and Sherry 1995).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) BREEDING: locally from central California, eastern Oregon, southern Idaho (Taylor et al. 1989), Montana, southern North Dakota, and (formerly) southwestern Minnesota south into Mexico (to Colima, Zacatecas, state of Mexico, Veracruz), Texas, and southwestern Louisiana, southern Alabama, Florida (occasionally or formerly); also locally in South America in Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, southern Brazil, northern and central Chile, and northern and central Argentina (AOU 1983). The world's largest nesting aggregation occurs probably in the marshes around the Great Salt Lake, Utah (D. Paul, in Paton et al. 1992). NON-BREEDING: north to southern California, Baja California, southern Texas, and Louisiana, south through lowlands to Guatemala and El Salvador, and in generally in breeding range in South America (AOU 1983). In the U.S., the highest winter densities occur near San Diego in California and on the coast of Texas and western Louisiana (Root 1988). Wanders outside usual range; rare straggler to Hawaii.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, ID, KS, LA, MN, MO, MS, MT, ND, NE, NM, NN, NV, OR, SD, TX, UT, WA, WY
Canada AB, MB, SK

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AZ Cochise (04003), Coconino (04005), La Paz (04012)
CA Colusa (06011), Fresno (06019)*, Imperial (06025), Kern (06029), Kings (06031)*, Los Angeles (06037), Modoc (06049), Riverside (06065), San Diego (06073), Siskiyou (06093), Yolo (06113)
CO Alamosa (08003), Eagle (08037)*, Garfield (08045)*, Grand (08049), Jackson (08057), Kiowa (08061), La Plata (08067), Mesa (08077), Park (08093), Rio Blanco (08103), Rio Grande (08105), Saguache (08109), Weld (08123)*
ID Ada (16001), Bannock (16005), Bear Lake (16007), Bingham (16011), Blaine (16013), Bonneville (16019), Camas (16025), Canyon (16027), Caribou (16029), Cassia (16031), Franklin (16041), Fremont (16043), Jefferson (16051), Nez Perce (16069), Owyhee (16073), Power (16077)
KS Barton (20009), Linn (20107), Meade (20119), Stafford (20185)
MS Hancock (28045)*
MT Beaverhead (30001), Carter (30011), Cascade (30013), Chouteau (30015), Phillips (30071), Roosevelt (30085), Teton (30099)
ND Sargent (38081)
NE Cherry (31031), Clay (31035), Fillmore (31059), Garden (31069), Sheridan (31161)
NM Lea (35025), Otero (35035), Quay (35037)*
NV Churchill (32001), Elko (32007), Humboldt (32013), Lyon (32019)*, Mineral (32021)*, Nye (32023), Pershing (32027), Washoe (32031), White Pine (32033)
OR Harney (41025), Lake (41037)
SD Aurora (46003), Brown (46013), Brule (46015), Codington (46029), Day (46037), Hyde (46069), Kingsbury (46077), Marshall (46091), Walworth (46129)
WY Albany (56001), Big Horn (56003), Campbell (56005), Carbon (56007), Converse (56009), Crook (56011), Fremont (56013), Goshen (56015), Johnson (56019), Lincoln (56023), Natrona (56025), Park (56029), Sublette (56035), Sweetwater (56037), Teton (56039), Uinta (56041)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Mississippi Coastal (03170009)+*, Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004)+*
09 Western Wild Rice (09020105)+
10 Red Rock (10020001)+, Upper Missouri-Dearborn (10030102)+, Teton (10030205)+, Beaver (10050014)+, Big Muddy (10060006)+, Upper Wind (10080001)+, Little Wind (10080002)+, Popo Agie (10080003)+, Greybull (10080009)+, Dry (10080011)+, North Fork Shoshone (10080012)+, Shoshone (10080014)+, Upper Powder (10090202)+, South Fork Powder (10090203)+, Middle Powder (10090207)+, Upper Little Missouri (10110201)+, Antelope (10120101)+, Lower Lake Oahe (10130105)+, Fort Randall Reservoir (10140101)+, Medicine Knoll (10140103)+, Upper Niobrara (10150003)+, Middle Niobrara (10150004)+, Upper James (10160003)+, Mud (10160005)+, South Big Sioux Coteau (10170103)+, Middle Big Sioux Coteau (10170201)+, Upper Big Sioux (10170202)+, North Platte Headwaters (10180001)+, Upper North Platte (10180002)+, Pathfinder-Seminoe Reservoirs (10180003)+, Medicine Bow (10180004)+, Sweetwater (10180006)+, Middle North Platte-Casper (10180007)+, Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff (10180009)+, Upper Laramie (10180010)+, Horse (10180012)+, South Platte Headwaters (10190001)+, Middle South Platte-Cherry Creek (10190003)+*, Upper Middle Loup (10210001)+, West Fork Big Blue (10270203)+, Upper Little Blue (10270206)+, Lower Marais Des Cygnes (10290102)+
11 Upper Arkansas-John Martin (11020009)+, Rattlesnake (11030009)+, Cow (11030011)+, Upper Cimarron-Bluff (11040008)+, Upper Canadian-Ute Reservoir (11080006)+*
12 Mustang Draw (12080004)+, Sulphur Springs Draw (12080006)+
13 Alamosa-Trinchera (13010002)+, San Luis (13010003)+, Saguache (13010004)+, Tularosa Valley (13050003)+
14 Colorado headwaters (14010001)+, Eagle (14010003)+*, Colorado headwaters-Plateau (14010005)+, Upper Green (14040101)+, New Fork (14040102)+, Upper Green-Slate (14040103)+, Big Sandy (14040104)+, Bitter (14040105)+, Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir (14040106)+, Blacks Fork (14040107)+, Muddy (14040108)+, Vermilion (14040109)+, Great Divide closed basin (14040200)+, Little Snake (14050003)+, Piceance-Yellow (14050006)+, Animas (14080104)+
15 Canyon Diablo (15020015)+, Imperial Reservoir (15030104)+, Willcox Playa (15050201)+
16 Upper Bear (16010101)+, Central Bear (16010102)+, Bear Lake (16010201)+, Middle Bear (16010202)+, Upper Humboldt (16040101)+, Middle Humboldt (16040105)+, Rock (16040106)+, Lower Humboldt (16040108)+, Little Humboldt (16040109)+, Upper Quinn (16040201)+, Truckee (16050102)+, Carson Desert (16050203)+, Walker (16050303)+*, Walker Lake (16050304)+*, Long-Ruby Valleys (16060007)+, Spring-Steptoe Valleys (16060008)+, Hot Creek-Railroad Valleys (16060012)+
17 Snake headwaters (17040101)+, Gros Ventre (17040102)+, Greys-Hobock (17040103)+, Salt (17040105)+, Idaho Falls (17040201)+, Upper Henrys (17040202)+, Lower Henrys (17040203)+, Willow (17040205)+, American Falls (17040206)+, Blackfoot (17040207)+, Portneuf (17040208)+, Lake Walcott (17040209)+, Raft (17040210)+, Goose (17040211)+, Beaver-Camas (17040214)+, Camas (17040220)+, Little Wood (17040221)+, Bruneau (17050102)+, Middle Snake-Succor (17050103)+, Upper Owyhee (17050104)+, Middle Owyhee (17050107)+, Lower Boise (17050114)+, Middle Snake-Payette (17050115)+, Clearwater (17060306)+, Harney-Malheur Lakes (17120001)+, Silvies (17120002)+, Donner Und Blitzen (17120003)+, Silver (17120004)+, Summer Lake (17120005)+, Lake Abert (17120006)+, Warner Lakes (17120007)+
18 Sprague (18010202)+, Lost (18010204)+, Goose Lake (18020001)+*, Upper Pit (18020002)+, Sacramento-Stone Corral (18020104)+, Upper Cache (18020116)+, Middle Kern-Upper Tehachapi- (18030003)+*, Upper Poso (18030004)+, Upper Deer-Upper White (18030005)+, Upper Dry (18030009)+*, Tulare-Buena Vista Lakes (18030012)+, San Jacinto (18070202)+, Santa Ana (18070203)+*, San Luis Rey-Escondido (18070303)+, San Diego (18070304)+*, Honey-Eagle Lakes (18080003)+, Upper Amargosa (18090202)+, Antelope-Fremont Valleys (18090206)+, Whitewater River (18100201)+, Salton Sea (18100204)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A medium-sized wading bird (ibis).
General Description: A long-legged wader with a long slender decurved bill and chestnut plumage, glossed with green and purple (breeding adult); looks all-dark at a distance; immature and winter birds are dark with some lighter coloring or streaking on the head and neck; averages 58 cm long, 91 cm in wingspan (NGS 1983).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Breeding adult differs from glossy ibis in having a reddish bill, red eyes, all-red legs, and a white feathered border around the facial skin; border extends behind eye and under chin. Winter adult differs from glossy ibis in lacking the pale line from the eye to the bill. (NGS 1983).
Reproduction Comments: Clutch size usually is 3-4. Incubation lasts 21-22 days.
Ecology Comments: Gregarious; flocks of up to at least 290 have been observed, but generally they are much smaller.
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Resident in southern part of breeding range, migrates in northern areas. Northern populations winter from the southern U.S. south to northern Central America (Sibley and Monroe 1990).. In northern Utah, generally arrives in early April, most depart by late August, occasionally lingers into December (Paton et al. 1992).
Estuarine Habitat(s): Herbaceous wetland, Tidal flat/shore
Riverine Habitat(s): Low gradient
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian
Habitat Comments: Marshes, swamps, ponds and rivers, mostly in freshwater habitats (Tropical to Temperate zones) (AOU 1983). Nests in marshes; in low tree, on the ground in bulrushes or reeds, or on a floating mat. In the Central Valley of California, ibises preferentially selected foraging sites close to emergent vegetation (Safran et al. 2000).
Adult Food Habits: Carnivore, Invertivore, Piscivore
Immature Food Habits: Carnivore, Invertivore, Piscivore
Food Comments: Typically feeds in freshwater marshes on: crayfishes, frogs, fishes, insects, newts, earthworms, crustaceans, etc. (Terres 1980). In the Central Valley of California, preferentially selected foraging sites with significantly higher midge (Chironomidae) and significantly lower oligochaete biomass (Safran et al. 2000).
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Colonial Breeder: Y
Length: 58 centimeters
Weight: 697 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Colonial Wading Birds

Use Class: Breeding
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Breeding Colony
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding , or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Small heron colonies (rookeries or heronries) are often ephemeral in nature; recommend tracking rookeries which maintain a minimum of 15 active nests over 2-3 years. Where concentrations of non-breeding individuals occur within the boundaries of a breeding occurrence (especially if augmented by migrants), consider creating a separate occurrence with Location Use Class 'Nonbreeding.'
Mapping Guidance: Map Foraging Areas in separate polygons from the breeding colony if they are separated from the colony by areas simply flown over on commuting routes.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Occurrences include breeding colonies and foraging areas, but the separation distance pertains to breediing colonies. Hence, difference occurrences may overlap. Unsuitable habitat: upland areas, except those known to be used regularly for foraging (e.g., meadows used by great egrets).

Separation distance is an arbitrary compromise between the high mobility of these birds and the need for occurrences of practical size for conservation planning. Occurrences do not necessarily represent discrete populations or metapopulations.

Colony fidelity low in some species (e.g. Roseate Spoonbill, Dumas 2000; Glossy Ibis, Davis and Kricher 2000).

Feeding areas associated with a breeding colony (i.e. different features of the same occurrence) may be a number of kilometers away from the colony: averaging 12 kilometers for Roseate Spoonbill (Dumas 2000); 7.3 kilometers for Glossy Ibis (Davis and Kricher 2000); 2.8 to more than 5 kilometers for Snowy Egrets (Smith 1995).

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 3 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: A low mean foraging range size for this group.
Date: 28Oct2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Roost, Foraging area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of flocks of non-breeding birds (including historical), including non-breeding birds within the breeding season and breeding individuals outside the breeding season; and potential recurring presence at a given location. Normally only areas where concentrations greater than 10 birds occur regularly for at least 20 days per year would be deemed occurrences. Be cautious about creating occurrences for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance arbitrary, set at 10 kilometers to define occurrences of manageable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.
Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 3 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Based on foraging ranges from breeding rookeries.
Date: 19Apr2002
Author: Cannings, S.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 02May1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Alabama Ornithological Society. 2006. Field checklist of Alabama birds. Alabama Ornithological Society, Dauphin Island, Alabama. [Available online at http://www.aosbirds.org/documents/AOSChecklist_april2006.pdf ]

  • Amat, J. A., F. D. Rilla. 1994. Foraging Behavior of White-faced Ibises (Plegadis chihi) in Relation to Habitat, Group Size, and Sex. Colonial Waterbirds 17:42-49.

  • American Ornithologists Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American Birds. 7th edition. American Ornithologists Union, Washington, D.C. 829 pages.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1983. Check-list of North American Birds, 6th edition. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 877 pp.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.

  • Andersen, M.D. 2011. Maxent-based species distribution models. Prepared by Wyoming Natural Diversity Database for use in the pilot WISDOM application operational from inception to yet-to-be-determined date of update of tool.

  • Andersen, M.D. and B. Heidel. 2011. HUC-based species range maps. Prepared by Wyoming Natural Diversity Database for use in the pilot WISDOM application operational from inception to yet-to-be-determined date of update of tool.

  • BEAUVAIS, G.P. 1999. VERTEBRATES OF CONSERVATION CONCERN ON THE PITCHFORK RANCH. Unpublished report for the Pitchfork Ranch by WYNDD-University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY.

  • Banks, R. C., and M. R. Browning. 1995. Comments on the status of revived old names for some North American birds. Auk 112:633-648.

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  • Bildstein, K. L. 1983. Age-related Differences in the Flocing and Foraging Behavior of White Ibises in a South Carolina Salt Marsh. Colonial Waterbirds 6:45-53.

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  • Blanco, G., E. R. Rodriquez. 1998. Human Activity may Benefit White-faced Ibises Overwintering in Baja California Sur, Mexico. Colonial Waterbirds 17:42-49.

  • Bray, M. P. and D. A. Klebenow. 1988. Feeding Ecology of White-faced Ibises in a Great Basin Valley, USA. Colonial Watervirds 11:24-31.

  • Canadian Wildlife Service. 1995. Last Mountain Lake and Stalwart National Wildlife Areas: Bird Checklist - Fourth Edition. Environment Canada. Ottawa, ON.

  • Capen, D. E. 1977. Eggshell Thickness Variability in the White-Faced Ibis. The Wilson Bulletin 89:98-106.

  • DUCEY, JIM. 1984. CATTLE EGRETS AND WHITE-FACED IBISES NESTING AT VALENTINE REFUGE. NEBRASKA BIRD REPORT. V.52(4) PP.76.

  • Dark-Smiley, D. and D.A. Keinath. 2003. Species assessment for White-Faced Ibis (Plegadis chihi) in Wyoming. Report prepared for USDI Wyoming Bureau of Land Management by Wyoming Natural Diversity Database-University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming.

  • Dorn, Jane L. and R.D. Dorn. 1990. Wyoming Birds. Mountain West Publishing, Cheyenne.

  • Dumas, J. V. 2000. Roseate Spoonbill (AJAIA AJAJA). No. 490 IN A. Poole and F. Gill, editors, The birds of North America. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA. 32pp.

  • Earnest, S. L., L. Neel, G. L. Ivey, and T. Zimmerman. 1998. Status of the White-faced Ibis: Breeding Colony Dynamics of the Great Basin Population, 1985-1997. colonial Waterbirds 21:391-402.

  • Finch, D.M. 1992. Threatened, endangered, and vulnerable species of terrestrial vertebrates in the Rocky Mountain Region. General Technical Report RM-215. USDA, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ft. Collins CO. 38 p.

  • Findholt, S.L. 1984. Status and distribution of herons, egrets, ibises, and related species in Wyoming. Colonial Waterbirds 7: 55-62.

  • Findholt, S.L. 1988. Current status and distribution of the Ciconiiformes nesting in Wyoming. Great Basin Natural. 48(2): 290-299.

  • Fleury, B. E., and T. W. Sherry. 1995. Long-term population trends of colonial wading birds in the southern United States: the impact of crayfish aquaculture on Louisiana populations. Auk 112:613-632.

  • Frederick P. C., K. Bildstein, B. Fleury, and J. Ogedens. 1996. Conservation of Large, Nomadic Populations of White Ibises (Eudocimus albus) in the United States. Conservation Biology 10:203-216.

  • Frederick, P. 1987. Responses of Male White Ibises to their Mate's Extra-pair Copulations. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 21:223-228.

  • Frederick, P. C., and J. C. Ogden. 1997. Philopartry and Nomadism: Contrasting Long-term Movement Behavior and Population Dynamics of White Ibises and Wood Storks. Colonial Waterbirds 20:316-323.

  • Goossen, J. P., D. M. Ealey, H. Judge, and D. C. Duncan. 1995. Distribution and breeding Status of the White-faced Ibis, Plegadis chihi, in Canada. Canadian Field Naturalist 109:391-402.

  • Guicking, D., S. Mickstein, P. H. Becker, and R. Schlatter. 2001. Nest site selection by Brown-hood Gull (Larus maculipennis), Trudeau's Tern (Sterna trudeaui) and White-faced Ibis (Plegadis chivi) in a southern Chilean tule marsh. Ornitologia Neotropical 12:285-296.

  • Hancock, J. A., J. A. Kushlan, and M. P. Kahl. 1992. Storks, ibises and spoonbills of the world. Academic Press, San Diego, California. iv + 336 text pages.

  • Henny, C. J. 1997. DDE Still High in White-faced Ibis eggs from Carson Lake, Nevada. Colonial Waterbireds 20:478-484.

  • Henny, C. J., and G. B. Herron. 1989. DDE, selenium, mercury, and white-faced ibis reproduction at Carson Lake, Nevada. J. Wildl. Manage. 53:1032-1045.

  • Howell, S. N. G., and S. Webb. 1995. A guide to the birds of Mexico and northern Central America. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

  • Imhof, T. A. 1976. Alabama birds. Second edition. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa. 445 pages.

  • Imhof, T. A. 1976. Alabama birds. Second edition. Univ. Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa. 445 pp.

  • Ivey, G. L., M. A. Stern., and C. G. Christopher. 1988. An Increasing White-faced Ibis Population in Oregon. Western Birds 19:105-108.

  • King, K. A., D. L. Meeker, and D. M. Swineford. 1980. White-faced Ibis Populations and Pollutants in Texas, 1969-1976. Southwestern Naturalist 25:225-240.

  • Kushlan, J. A. Population Energitcs of the American White Ibis. 1977. Auk 94:114-122.

  • Laubhan, M. K., and J. H. Gammonley. 2000. Density and Foraging Habitat Selection of Waterbirds Breeding in the San Luis Valley of Colorado. Journal of Wildlife Management 64:808-819.

  • Mirarchi, R.E., editor. 2004. Alabama Wildlife. Volume 1. A checklist of vertebrates and selected invertebrates: aquatic mollusks, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 209 pages.

  • Oakleaf, B, B. Luce, S. Ritter and A. Cerovski, eds. 1992. Wyoming bird and mammal atlas. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Game Division, Biological Services; Cheyenne, WY. 170 p. + 1994 addendum.

  • Oakleaf, B. 1976. The White-faced Ibis of Nevada. Audubon Imprint, Volume 1, Number 5, November 1976.

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