Platanthera leucophaea - (Nutt.) Lindl.
Eastern Prairie White-fringed Orchid
Other English Common Names: Prairie White Fringed Orchid
Other Common Names: prairie white fringed orchid
Synonym(s): Habenaria leucophaea (Nutt.) Gray
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Platanthera leucophaea (Nutt.) Lindl. (TSN 43431)
French Common Names: platanthère blanchâtre de l'Est
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.134537
Element Code: PMORC1Y0F0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Orchid Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Orchidales Orchidaceae Platanthera
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Platanthera leucophaea
Taxonomic Comments: The western prairie white-fringed orchid (Platanthera praeclara) is now distinguished from P. leucophaea. Platanthera leucophaea is primarily east of the Mississippi River and P. praeclara is essentially west of that river.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 28May2014
Global Status Last Changed: 31Oct2008
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Relatively wide ranging species but many sites are extirpated (some estimates as high as 70% reduction across range). Most of this species' wet prairie habitat has been destroyed due to drainage and conversion to agriculture, fire suppression, and intensive mowing. Because of the destruction of most of the natural grasslands east of the Mississippi River, large populations no longer occur anywhere in the United States. The mostly small, isolated populations that remain are not representative of populations supported by the once-vast prairie habitat. Because of fire suppression and changes in hydrology remaining sites require active management. As of 2010 with active management, 78% of populations are stable or increasing. However, 83% have severe to moderate management needs.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2N3
Nation: Canada
National Status: N2 (04Oct2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Illinois (S1), Indiana (S1), Iowa (S1), Maine (S1), Michigan (S1), Missouri (S1), New York (SH), Ohio (S2), Oklahoma (SH), Pennsylvania (SH), Virginia (SH), Wisconsin (S2)
Canada Ontario (S2)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LT: Listed threatened (28Sep1989)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R3 - North Central
Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA) Schedule 1/Annexe 1 Status: E (12Jan2005)
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Endangered (01May2003)
Comments on COSEWIC: This is a perennial species of scattered remnant wetland habitats and of mesic prairies that has undergone significant declines in population size and is at continued risk from further habitat change due to successional processes, land development, water table impacts and spread of invasive species.

Designated Special Concern in April 1986. Status re-examined and designated Endangered in May 2003.

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Primarily east of the Mississippi River in the Great Lakes Region: Ontario south to Missouri and Illinois and east to Pennsylvania and New York, also occurs in Maine. Historic in Oklahoma and New York and extirpated in Pennsylvania.

Number of Occurrences: 81 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Approximately 116 extant EOs in 9 states and 1 Canadian province (NatureServe Central Database 2014). Extirpated in PA. Historical records from OK and NY. Occurrences may be delimited differently in some states and when compared to the USFWS reports. In 2010, the five-year review says that 76 sites exist (USFWS 2010).

Population Size Comments: Populations range in size from one to several hundred individuals. Most populations have fewer than 100 plants.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Some (13-40)

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threats include drainage and ditching for crop production, commercial and residential development, grazing by cattle and deer, drought, and encroachment of woody vegetation in prairies due to fire suppression. Populations along the shores of the Great Lakes are threatened by high water levels and invasion of purple loosestrife other non-native species. Cutting hay in midsummer prevents populations from dispersing seed. Collection by orchid fanciers and wildflower gardeners is also a threat (USFWS 2010).

Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Short-term Trend Comments: A large portion of the potential habitat rangewide has been converted for agriculture (cropland and pasture) or the hydrology is altered significantly enough to alter the habitat. There are 87 Element Occurrences that are extirpated or historic. The five year recovery plan reports a decline of 70% based on historical records (USFWS 1999).

Long-term Trend: Decline of 50-70%

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Susceptible to changes in water table; has persisted under intensive grazing and mowing, though numbers have declined.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Primarily east of the Mississippi River in the Great Lakes Region: Ontario south to Missouri and Illinois and east to Pennsylvania and New York, also occurs in Maine. Historic in Oklahoma and New York and extirpated in Pennsylvania.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States IA, IL, IN, ME, MI, MO, NY, OH, OK, PA, VA, WI
Canada ON

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IA Cedar (19031)*, Decatur (19053), Iowa (19095)*, Jackson (19097), Johnson (19103), Jones (19105), Linn (19113)*, Muscatine (19139)*
IL Cook (17031), DuPage (17043), Grundy (17063), Hancock (17067)*, Henry (17073), Iroquois (17075), Kane (17089), Lake (17097), Lee (17103), Mchenry (17111), Will (17197)
IN Elkhart (18039)*, La Porte (18091)*, Lagrange (18087)*, Lake (18089)*, Marshall (18099)*, Noble (18113)*, St. Joseph (18141)*, Starke (18149)*, Steuben (18151)*, White (18181)
ME Aroostook (23003)
MI Barry (26015), Bay (26017), Calhoun (26025)*, Cass (26027), Cheboygan (26031)*, Clinton (26037)*, Eaton (26045)*, Genesee (26049)*, Gratiot (26057)*, Huron (26063), Livingston (26093), Monroe (26115), Oakland (26125)*, Saginaw (26145), St. Clair (26147), St. Joseph (26149), Tuscola (26157), Washtenaw (26161), Wayne (26163)
MO Carter (29035)*, Grundy (29079), Ralls (29173)*
NY Erie (36029)*, Genesee (36037)*, Niagara (36063)*, Orleans (36073)*, Oswego (36075)*, Wayne (36117)*
OH Clark (39023), Holmes (39075), Lucas (39095), Ottawa (39123), Sandusky (39143), Wayne (39169)
PA Crawford (42039)*
VA Augusta (51015)*
WI Dane (55025), Green Lake (55047), Jefferson (55055), Kenosha (55059), Milwaukee (55079)*, Ozaukee (55089), Racine (55101)*, Rock (55105), Walworth (55127), Waukesha (55133), Winnebago (55139)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Mattawamkeag (01020003)+
02 South Fork Shenandoah (02070005)+*
04 Upper Fox (04030201)+, Wolf (04030202)+, Little Calumet-Galien (04040001)+*, Pike-Root (04040002)+, Milwaukee (04040003)+, St. Joseph (04050001)+, Kalamazoo (04050003)+, Upper Grand (04050004)+*, Thornapple (04050007)+*, Boardman-Charlevoix (04060105)+*, Pigeon-Wiscoggin (04080103)+, Pine (04080202)+*, Flint (04080204)+*, Saginaw (04080206)+, Lake St. Clair (04090002)+, Detroit (04090004)+, Huron (04090005)+, Ottawa-Stony (04100001)+, St. Joseph (04100003)+*, Cedar-Portage (04100010)+, Sandusky (04100011)+, Niagara (04120104)+*, Oak Orchard-Twelvemile (04130001)+*, Irondequoit-Ninemile (04140101)+*, Salmon-Sandy (04140102)+*, Seneca (04140201)+*
05 French (05010004)+*, Walhonding (05040003)+, Upper Great Miami (05080001)+, Tippecanoe (05120106)+
07 Maquoketa (07060006)+, Copperas-Duck (07080101)+*, Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103)+, Flint-Henderson (07080104)+*, Lower Cedar (07080206)+*, Middle Iowa (07080208)+, Lower Iowa (07080209)+*, Upper Rock (07090001)+, Crawfish (07090002)+, Pecatonica (07090003)+, Sugar (07090004)+, Lower Rock (07090005)+, Kishwaukee (07090006)+, Green (07090007)+, Bear-Wyaconda (07110001)+*, Salt (07110007)+*, Kankakee (07120001)+*, Iroquois (07120002)+, Chicago (07120003)+, Des Plaines (07120004)+, Upper Illinois (07120005)+, Upper Fox (07120006)+, Lower Fox (07120007)+
10 Thompson (10280102)+
11 Upper Black (11010007)+*, Current (11010008)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A stout orchid (2-12 dm tall) that bears a long narrow cluster of up to 40 large white flowers, the petals coarsely fringed. The plants emerge from a winter-dormant, underground tuber in May and flowering usually begins by early July. The flowers become noticeably fragrant after sunset, an adaptation to attract their pollinators, the night-flying hawkmoths.
Ecology Comments: Dependent upon mycorrhizal fungus for germination and longterm success of plants. Seventy-five fungal associates have been inoculated from protocorms, seedlings and mature plants. Most (88%) belong in the genus Ceratorhiza (Zettler & Piskin 2011) supporting the hypothesis that Ceratorhiza may be an ubiquitous associate of P. leucophaea. Although the number of species associated with the species is higher than shown in previous work (Zettler et al. 2005), Zettler & Piskin (2011) notes that it shouldn't be assumed that specific strains of Ceratorhiza are equally widespread.
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen, HERBACEOUS WETLAND
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Old field
Habitat Comments: Mesic to wet prairies and wet sedge meadows. Peripheral habitat includes sedge-sphagnum bog mats around neutral pH kettle lakes, and fallow agricultural fields. Wet ditches and railroad rights-of-way also serve as refugia. This species' winter-dormant tubers are adapted to dormant-season prairie fires; such fires and high precipitation levels appear to promote flowering.
Economic Attributes
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Economic Comments: There is evidence of illegal removal of plants in Michigan and Illinois (USFWS 2010).
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 28May2014
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: S. Gottlieb (1992), EO specs and rank specs by Mike Penskar (1995), rev. L. Morse (1995), rev. Maybury/Penskar (1996), rev. Treher (2014)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
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