Platanthera integra - (Nutt.) Gray ex Beck
Yellow Fringeless Orchid
Other Common Names: yellow fringeless orchid
Synonym(s): Habenaria integra (Nutt.) Spreng.
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Platanthera integra (Nutt.) Gray ex Beck (TSN 43428)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.150946
Element Code: PMORC1Y0C0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Orchid Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Orchidales Orchidaceae Platanthera
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Platanthera integra
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 16Jul2003
Global Status Last Changed: 16Jul2003
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Rare througout moderately wide range; threatened by elimination of habitat. The number of element occurrences is low despite recent surveys in plant's habitat.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3N4

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S2), Florida (S3), Georgia (S1), Louisiana (S3), Maryland (SNR), Mississippi (S3), New Jersey (S1), North Carolina (S2), South Carolina (S1), Tennessee (S1), Texas (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Southern Coastal Plain from Louisiana to Florida, north in the interior to Tennessee and in the coastal plain to North Carolina; disjunct in New Jersey Pine Barrens. Most sources also list it as present in eastern Texas, but this is apparently based on a misidentified specimen (Holmes 1983); it is not listed in the 1990 Texas checklist (Hatch et al. 1990). Not all suitable habitat in eastern Texas has been searched for this species.

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: Thirteen occurrences in Florida.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Highly threatened by land-use conversion, habitat fragmentation, succession, and forest management practices (Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project 2002). Other threats include alteration of hydrology, grazing, collection, fire suppression, conversion of habitat for silviculture.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Vulnerable to changes in drainage and natural fire cycles.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Southern Coastal Plain from Louisiana to Florida, north in the interior to Tennessee and in the coastal plain to North Carolina; disjunct in New Jersey Pine Barrens. Most sources also list it as present in eastern Texas, but this is apparently based on a misidentified specimen (Holmes 1983); it is not listed in the 1990 Texas checklist (Hatch et al. 1990). Not all suitable habitat in eastern Texas has been searched for this species.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, FL, GA, LA, MD, MS, NC, NJ, SC, TN, TX

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Baldwin (01003), Conecuh (01035)*, Escambia (01053), Mobile (01097)
FL Bay (12005), Calhoun (12013), Escambia (12033), Franklin (12037), Gulf (12045), Highlands (12055), Jackson (12063), Liberty (12077), Okaloosa (12091), Polk (12105), Santa Rosa (12113), Walton (12131)
GA Ben Hill (13017)*, Berrien (13019)*, Brooks (13027), Charlton (13049)*, Crisp (13081)*, Decatur (13087)*, Irwin (13155)*, Lee (13177)*, Thomas (13275), Tift (13277)*, Toombs (13279)*, Turner (13287), Ware (13299)*, Worth (13321)*
LA Beauregard (22011), Natchitoches (22069), St. Tammany (22103), Vernon (22115)
MS Clarke (28023), Forrest (28035), George (28039), Greene (28041), Hancock (28045), Harrison (28047), Jackson (28059), Jones (28067), Pearl River (28109), Perry (28111), Stone (28131), Wayne (28153)
NC Brunswick (37019), Carteret (37031), Columbus (37047), Craven (37049), Jones (37103)*, Onslow (37133)*, Pender (37141), Rowan (37159)*
NJ Atlantic (34001)*, Burlington (34005), Camden (34007)*, Cape May (34009)*
SC Berkeley (45015), Charleston (45019), Georgetown (45043), Jasper (45053)*, Williamsburg (45089)
TN Coffee (47031), Franklin (47051)*, Moore (47127)*, Van Buren (47175), Warren (47177)
TX Angelina (48005), Jasper (48241)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Cohansey-Maurice (02040206)+*, Mullica-Toms (02040301)+, Great Egg Harbor (02040302)+*
03 Lower Neuse (03020204)+, White Oak River (03020301)+, Lower Cape Fear (03030005)+, Northeast Cape Fear (03030007)+, Lower Yadkin (03040103)+*, Black (03040205)+, Waccamaw (03040206)+, Carolina Coastal-Sampit (03040207)+, Coastal Carolina (03040208)+, Santee (03050112)+*, Cooper (03050201)+, Bulls Bay (03050209)+, Lower Savannah (03060109)+*, Ohoopee (03070107)+*, St. Marys (03070204)+*, Kissimmee (03090101)+, Aucilla (03110103)+*, Alapaha (03110202)+, withlacoochee (03110203)+, Little (03110204)+*, Apalachee Bay-St. Marks (03120001)+*, Upper Ochlockonee (03120002)+, Middle Flint (03130006)+*, Kinchafoonee-Muckalee (03130007)+*, Lower Flint (03130008)+*, Apalachicola (03130011)+, Chipola (03130012)+, New (03130013)+, St. Andrew-St. Joseph Bays (03140101)+, Choctawhatchee Bay (03140102)+, Yellow (03140103)+, Blackwater (03140104)+, Pensacola Bay (03140105)+, Perdido (03140106)+, Perdido Bay (03140107)+, Sepulga (03140303)+*, Escambia (03140305)+, Mobile Bay (03160205)+, Chunky-Okatibbee (03170001)+, Lower Chickasawhay (03170003)+, Lower Leaf (03170005)+, Pascagoula (03170006)+, Black (03170007)+, Escatawpa (03170008)+, Mississippi Coastal (03170009)+, Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004)+, Bogue Chitto (03180005)+
05 Collins (05130107)+, Caney (05130108)+
06 Upper Elk (06030003)+, Upper Duck (06040002)+
08 Upper Calcasieu (08080203)+, Whisky Chitto (08080204)+, Liberty Bayou-Tchefuncta (08090201)+
11 Lower Red-Lake Iatt (11140207)+
12 Lower Sabine (12010005)+, Lower Neches (12020003)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Orchid with a single smooth, leafy stem, 3-8 dm tall, topped by a dense cylindrical cluster of yellow flowers.
Technical Description: Stems: slender, stiffly erect, terete, pale green, finely ribbed, at base in sheath ca. 4 mm thick, the nodes several, the internodes in lower 1/2 longest. Leaves: in a loose spiral, ascending or erect, the largest ones 1 or 2, the sheaths somewhat loose, overlapping to 2 dm long, the blades somewhat folded, narrowly elliptical or lance-linear, 5-20 cm long, narrowed gradually to the bluntly acute apex, the margins entire, the base narrowly cuneate, clasping; blades and sheaths gradually or abruptly reduced up the stem, the blades becoming lance-linear, sessile, clasping, and merging with inflorescence bracts. Inflorescence: Spike cylindrical or narrowly conical, 2-10 cm long, the flowers very many (-60) in a series of tight spirals, each bloom subtended by a narrowly lanceolate-subulate green bract, the lower bracts 1.0-1.5 cm long, gradually reduced up the spike. Flowers: perianth lobes a deep yellow orange, the floral tube including the inferior ovary, stipitate, lance-linear, ca. 8-9 mm long, the expanded base green, the ribs papillose, narrow, the narrowly tubular apex yellowish; dorsal sepal broadly elliptic or ovate, concave, rounded apically , ca. 4 mm long, arching upward and forward, the lateral sepals nearly round or very broadly ovate, blunt-tipped, oblique, ca. 5mm long; lateral petals elliptic, acute, ca. 4 mm long, their inner edges under the hooded dorsal sepal, the lip oblong-elliptic, very short-stalked, rounded, irregularly crenulate, projecting forward and downward, unlobed, the spur lineal-tubular, projecting backward and slightly downward, more or less parallel with perianth tube, 5-6 mm long; column short (ca. 1 mm), truncate oblique with lateral calluses opposite anther cells. Fruit: Capsule spreading, narrowly ellipsoidal, the narrow ribs papillate. (Kral 1983)
Diagnostic Characteristics: Distinguished from other yellow to orange species (P. ciliaris and P. cristata) by its unfringed lip.
Duration: PERENNIAL, Long-lived, DECIDUOUS
Reproduction Comments: Flowering occurs in the panhandle of Florida during August and September (Clewell 1985). Bumblebees have been recorded as pollinating this species; other pollinators recorded for Platanthera species include Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, and Diptera (mosquitoes) (Luer 1975). Tiny seeds are assumed wind-dispersed.
Ecology Comments: Kral (1983) states "throughout its range it is fire dependent, ... wherever fire is kept out it is overwhelmed by bog, pocosin, or shrub bay types or shaded out by invading pines and hardwoods."
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen, FORESTED WETLAND, HERBACEOUS WETLAND, SCRUB-SHRUB WETLAND
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Conifer, Forest/Woodland
Habitat Comments: Wet pine flatwoods, wet prairies, sunny seepage often on slopes, organic black sandy peat; depressions within pinelands. Marshes, swamps, acid bogs, low pine barrens.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Platanthera spp of eastern US coastal plain flatwoods-EOSPECS

Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: 3 plants constitute an element occurrence
Separation Barriers: Fire suppressed areas (including pine plantations) with thick shrub and needle duff layers are barriers to this species; severe alterations to the natural hydrology may also form barriers; also development or agricultural areas.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 1 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: N/A
Date: 18Sep2003
Author: Norden, A.H. and Chafin, L.G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 14Oct2002
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hardin, E.D.rev. D.L. White; rev. M.E. Stover TNC-HO (1995)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 25Jan1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): A. WILDMAN & M.E.STOVER, TNC-HO

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Clewell, A.F. 1985. Guide to vascular plants of the Florida panhandle. Florida State Univ. Press, Tallahassee, Florida. 605 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002a. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 26. Magnoliophyta: Liliidae: Liliales and Orchidales. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxvi + 723 pp.

  • Hatch, S.L., K.N. Gandhi, and L.E. Brown. 1990. Checklist of the vascular plants of Texas. Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, College Station. 158 pp.

  • Holmes, W. C. 1983. The distribution of Habenaria integra (Nutt.) Spring. (Orchidaceae) in Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist 28(4):451-456.

  • Kartesz, J. T. 1991. Synonym names from 1991 checklist, as extracted by Larry Morse, TNC, June 1991.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kral, R. 1983c. A report on some rare, threatened, or endangered forest-related vascular plants of the South. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service Technical Publication R8-TP2, Athens, GA. 1305 pp.

  • Luer, C.A. 1975. The native orchids of the United States and Canada excluding Florida. New York Botanical Garden. 361 pp.

  • Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project. 2002. A partnership between the U.S. Forest Service-Region 8, Natural Heritage Programs in the Southeast, NatureServe, and independent scientists to develop and review data on 1300+ regionally and locally rare species in the Southern Appalachian and Alabama region. Database (Access 97) provided to the U.S. Forest Service by NatureServe, Durham, North Carolina.

  • Wunderlin, R.P. 1982. Guide to the vascular plants of central Florida. Univ. Presses Florida, Gainesville. 472 pp.

  • Zettler, L.W., J.A. Sunley, and T.W. Delaney. 2000. Symbiotic Seed Germination of an orchid in decline (Platanthera integra) from the Green Swamp, North Carolina. Castanea 65(3):207-212.

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