Platanthera holochila - (Hbd.) Kraenzlin
Hawai`i Bog Orchid
Synonym(s): Habenaria holochila Hbd.
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Platanthera holochila (Hbd.) Kraenzlin (TSN 196422)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.158488
Element Code: PMORC1Y0R0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Orchid Family
Image 117512

© H. Oppenheimer

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Orchidales Orchidaceae Platanthera
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Platanthera holochila
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 10Aug2014
Global Status Last Changed: 23Jun1989
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Endemic to the Hawaiian islands of Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, and Maui. This species is very rare, even though there is much available habitat for it. It is currently known from 5-6 occurrences with a total of fewer than 46 plants. Some of the occurrences are in rather pristine undisturbed areas. Others are threatened by feral pigs and alien plants.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Hawaii (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (10Oct1996)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R1 - Pacific

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Hawaiian endemic occurring on Kaua?i, Moloka?i, Maui islands. Extirpated from O?ahu
.

Area of Occupancy: 6-25 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: Five to six extant EOs (between 1982 and 1997) and 12 historical occurrences. The species is extinct on the island of O?ahu and Haleakala National Park on Maui (Loope and Medeiros 1994). One site on Kaua?i has not been documented since Hurricane Iniki (USFWS 1999; Zettler et al. 2011a).

Population Size Comments: The entire population had less than 46 individual plants but potentially as low as 28 individuals ( Kaua?i (1 plant), Maui (7-20 plants) and Moloka?i (20-25 plants) Zettler et al. 2011a).  Hurricane Iniki devastated populations of the orchid on the island of Kaua?i in 1992 and another site on Kaua?i has only one plant remaining (USFWS 1999; Zettler et al. 2011a).

Overall Threat Impact: Very high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Habitat desctruction (Such destruction can result from the grazing behavior of domestic and feral ungulates, including cattle and pigs, or by human activity), competition and displacement by invasive and non-native plant species, and catastrophic events (hurricanes)  (USFWS 1999).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 50-70%
Short-term Trend Comments: Twelv sites are historical, extirpated by hurricanes or others causes.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Fragility unknown.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Hawaiian endemic occurring on Kaua?i, Moloka?i, Maui islands. Extirpated from O?ahu
.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States HI

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
HI Honolulu (15003)*, Kauai (15007), Maui (15009)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
20 Maui (20020000)+, Molokai (20050000)+, Oahu (20060000)+*, Kauai (20070000)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A deciduous herb. Stems arise from subterranean tubers and are 1.5-6 dm long. Flowers are greenish yellow, and borne on open spikes.
Ecology Comments: The orchid associates with native mycorrhizal fungi (Zettler et al 2011b).
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Hardwood, Forest/Woodland, Shrubland/chaparral
Habitat Comments: Moist and wet habitats. In wet habitats: in the forest understory or in montane bogs. In moist habitats: shrublands and forests on ridgetops and sides of ridges. On East Maui, the species has been found in subalpine shrubland on an old lava flow. 
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 10Aug2014
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: L. Kashinsky (1997), rev. A. Treher (2014)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Kartesz, J. T. 1991. Synonym names from 1991 checklist, as extracted by Larry Morse, TNC, June 1991.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kores, P. 1979. A review of the literature on Hawaiian orchids. Newslett. Hawaiian Bot. Soc. 18(3/5):34-55.

  • Luer, C.A. 1975. The native orchids of the United States and Canada excluding Florida. New York Botanical Garden. 361 pp.

  • MacCaughey, V. 1916. The orchids of Hawaii. Pl. World 19:350-355.

  • Wagner, W.L., D.R. Herbst, and S.H. Sohmer. 1990. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Univ. Hawaii Press and Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1853 pp.

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