Platanthera flava - (L.) Lindl.
Southern Rein Orchid
Other English Common Names: Pale-green Orchid, Tubercled Orchid
Other Common Names: palegreen orchid
Synonym(s): Habenaria flava (L.) R. Br.
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Platanthera flava (L.) Lindl. (TSN 43414)
French Common Names: platanthère à gorge tuberculée
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.142099
Element Code: PMORC1Y080
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Orchid Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Orchidales Orchidaceae Platanthera
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Platanthera flava
Taxonomic Comments: According to the Ontario Conservation Data Centre (letter 8Mar94), Case and Catling each question distinctiveness of the two varieties of Platanthera flava. Kartesz (1999) recognizes var. flava and var. herbiola. P. flava var. flava has a southeasterly range (except for one accepted report in Nova Scotia) and is replaced in the north and northeast by var. herbiola. Varieties intergrade where they overlap in range.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4?
Global Status Last Reviewed: 04Feb2009
Global Status Last Changed: 04Feb2009
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Platanthera flava is widespread but patchy in some parts of its range. This species is threatened in many areas by habitat loss, especially in floodplain forests and wet prairies.
Nation: United States
National Status: NNR
Nation: Canada
National Status: N3 (14Dec2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S3), Arkansas (S1S2), Connecticut (SU), Delaware (S1), District of Columbia (SX), Florida (S3S4), Georgia (S3S4), Illinois (SNR), Indiana (SNR), Iowa (S2), Kansas (SU), Kentucky (S4?), Louisiana (S3?), Maine (S2), Maryland (S2), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (S3), Minnesota (S2), Mississippi (S4), Missouri (S2), New Hampshire (SNR), New Jersey (SNR), New York (SNR), North Carolina (S3), Ohio (S3), Oklahoma (S1), Pennsylvania (S4), Rhode Island (SNR), South Carolina (SNR), Tennessee (SNR), Texas (S2), Vermont (S2), Virginia (S3), West Virginia (S4), Wisconsin (SNR)
Canada New Brunswick (S1), Nova Scotia (S2), Ontario (S3), Quebec (S2)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Platanthera flava occurs from Nova Scotia and southern Quebec west to Minnesota and south to eastern Texas and Florida. P. flava var. flava occupies the southern part of this range, from the coastal plain of New Jersey and Maryland south to central Florida, west to southeastern Texas, western Arkansas, eastern Missouri, southern Illinois, southern Indiana, western Tennessee, and western Kentucky. P. flava var. herbiola occurs from the northern part of the species range south to Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, northern Kentucky, eastern Tennessee, and western North Carolina and Virginia.

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Very abundant in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Michigan, North Carolina, and West Virginia. P. flava var. herbiola is most common in New York.

Population Size Comments: Because P. flava is a colonial species, it may be difficult to determine numbers of genetic individuals.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: The primary threat to Platanthera flava is the destruction of wetland habitat through development, logging, drainage, beaver activity, and other hydrologic alterations. Also threatening to this species are over-collection of orchids, excessive grazing, and successional overgrowth of habitats by woody species.

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Populations are declining, primarily due to habitat loss.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Susceptible to changes in habitat.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Platanthera flava occurs from Nova Scotia and southern Quebec west to Minnesota and south to eastern Texas and Florida. P. flava var. flava occupies the southern part of this range, from the coastal plain of New Jersey and Maryland south to central Florida, west to southeastern Texas, western Arkansas, eastern Missouri, southern Illinois, southern Indiana, western Tennessee, and western Kentucky. P. flava var. herbiola occurs from the northern part of the species range south to Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, northern Kentucky, eastern Tennessee, and western North Carolina and Virginia.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, CT, DCextirpated, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Canada NB, NS, ON, QC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Baldwin (01003), Calhoun (01015), Covington (01039), Limestone (01083)*
AR Arkansas (05001), Ashley (05003)*, Clay (05021), Columbia (05027), Conway (05029)*, Craighead (05031), Lafayette (05073), Madison (05087), Montgomery (05097), Pulaski (05119), Sevier (05133), St. Francis (05123), Union (05139)
CT Fairfield (09001), Litchfield (09005), Middlesex (09007), New Haven (09009), New London (09011), Tolland (09013), Windham (09015)
DE New Castle (10003), Sussex (10005)
GA Towns (13281)
IA Appanoose (19007), Black Hawk (19013), Bremer (19017), Buchanan (19019), Cedar (19031), Chickasaw (19037), Clinton (19045), Fayette (19065), Floyd (19067)*, Henry (19087)*, Iowa (19095), Jefferson (19101), Johnson (19103), Jones (19105), Linn (19113), Louisa (19115), Mahaska (19123), Mitchell (19131)*, Muscatine (19139), Van Buren (19177), Wapello (19179)
IL Cook (17031), Iroquois (17075), Johnson (17087), Lake (17097), Lee (17103), Mason (17125)*, Massac (17127)*, Perry (17145), Washington (17189)*, Will (17197)
IN Gibson (18051)*, Jackson (18071), Jasper (18073), Lake (18089), Monroe (18105), Posey (18129)*, Scott (18143)
MA Berkshire (25003), Bristol (25005), Dukes (25007)*, Essex (25009)*, Franklin (25011), Hampden (25013)*, Hampshire (25015), Middlesex (25017), Norfolk (25021), Plymouth (25023), Suffolk (25025), Worcester (25027)
MD Allegany (24001), Anne Arundel (24003), Baltimore County (24005), Caroline (24011), Charles (24017), Frederick (24021), Garrett (24023), Howard (24027)*, Montgomery (24031), Prince Georges (24033), Washington (24043), Wicomico (24045)*, Worcester (24047)
ME Androscoggin (23001), Aroostook (23003), Cumberland (23005)*, Franklin (23007)*, Hancock (23009), Kennebec (23011)*, Knox (23013), Lincoln (23015)*, Oxford (23017)*, Penobscot (23019), Piscataquis (23021)*, Sagadahoc (23023)*, Somerset (23025)*, Waldo (23027)*, York (23031)
MN Anoka (27003), Benton (27009), Carver (27019)*, Chisago (27025)*, Crow Wing (27035)*, Dakota (27037), Dodge (27039), Goodhue (27049)*, Hennepin (27053)*, Isanti (27059), Itasca (27061), Morrison (27097), Mower (27099), Ramsey (27123), Scott (27139)*, Sherburne (27141), Stearns (27145), Wabasha (27157)*, Washington (27163), Wright (27171)*
MO Adair (29001), Butler (29023), Carter (29035), Clark (29045), Dent (29065)*, Douglas (29067)*, Franklin (29071)*, Harrison (29081)*, Howell (29091), Jefferson (29099)*, Johnson (29101), Knox (29103), Linn (29115), Livingston (29117)*, Macon (29121), Monroe (29137)*, Morgan (29141), Oregon (29149), Ozark (29153)*, Perry (29157)*, Putnam (29171)*, Reynolds (29179)*, Ripley (29181), Schuyler (29197), Scott (29201), Shannon (29203)*, Shelby (29205), St. Charles (29183)*, St. Clair (29185), St. Francois (29187), St. Louis (29189)*, St. Louis (city) (29510)*, Stoddard (29207), Texas (29215)*, Wayne (29223)
NC Buncombe (37021)*, Burke (37023), Cherokee (37039), Clay (37043)*, Graham (37075)*, Haywood (37087), Macon (37113), Mitchell (37121), Swain (37173)*, Transylvania (37175), Watauga (37189)
NH Belknap (33001), Carroll (33003), Rockingham (33015), Strafford (33017)
NJ Bergen (34003)*, Burlington (34005)*, Camden (34007)*, Cape May (34009), Essex (34013)*, Gloucester (34015)*, Hudson (34017)*, Mercer (34021)*, Middlesex (34023)*, Morris (34027)*, Passaic (34031)*, Salem (34033), Somerset (34035)*, Sussex (34037), Union (34039)*, Warren (34041)*
OH Adams (39001), Athens (39009)*, Columbiana (39029), Crawford (39033), Fulton (39051)*, Gallia (39053), Hardin (39065), Hocking (39073), Jackson (39079), Lawrence (39087)*, Lucas (39095), Mercer (39107), Portage (39133)*, Scioto (39145), Stark (39151)*, Summit (39153), Vinton (39163), Williams (39171), Wyandot (39175)*
OK Atoka (40005), Bryan (40013), Choctaw (40023), Le Flore (40079)*, McCurtain (40089), Muskogee (40101), Pushmataha (40127)
RI Kent (44003), Newport (44005), Providence (44007), Washington (44009)
TN Anderson (47001), Blount (47009)*, Campbell (47013), Carter (47019), Claiborne (47025), Coffee (47031), Grainger (47057), Johnson (47091), Roane (47145), Sevier (47155)*, Sullivan (47163)*, White (47185)
VT Addison (50001)*, Bennington (50003)*, Caledonia (50005)*, Chittenden (50007), Franklin (50011), Orange (50017), Orleans (50019), Windham (50025), Windsor (50027)
WI Ashland (55003), Brown (55009), Buffalo (55011)*, Burnett (55013)*, Columbia (55021), Dane (55025), Green (55045), Green Lake (55047), Iowa (55049), Iron (55051), Jackson (55053), Jefferson (55055)*, Juneau (55057), La Crosse (55063)*, Lafayette (55065), Lincoln (55069)*, Marathon (55073)*, Marinette (55075), Marquette (55077), Milwaukee (55079)*, Oconto (55083), Ozaukee (55089)*, Portage (55097), Richland (55103), Sauk (55111), Taylor (55119), Walworth (55127), Washburn (55129), Waukesha (55133)*, Waushara (55137), Wood (55141)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Aroostook (01010004)+, East Branch Penobscot (01020002)+, Mattawamkeag (01020003)+, Piscataquis (01020004)+*, Lower Penobscot (01020005)+, Lower Kennebec (01030003)+, Upper Androscoggin (01040001)+*, Lower Androscoggin (01040002)+*, Maine Coastal (01050002)+, St. George-Sheepscot (01050003)+, Presumpscot (01060001)+*, Saco (01060002)+, Piscataqua-Salmon Falls (01060003)+, Merrimack (01070002)+, Concord (01070005)+, Merrimack (01070006)+, Passumpsic (01080102)+*, Waits (01080103)+*, Upper Connecticut-Mascoma (01080104)+, White (01080105)+, West (01080107)+, Middle Connecticut (01080201)+, Deerfield (01080203)+, Lower Connecticut (01080205)+, Westfield (01080206)+, Farmington (01080207)+, Charles (01090001)+, Cape Cod (01090002)+, Blackstone (01090003)+, Narragansett (01090004)+, Pawcatuck-Wood (01090005)+, Shetucket (01100002)+, Thames (01100003)+*, Quinnipiac (01100004)+, Housatonic (01100005)+
02 Hudson-Hoosic (02020003)+*, Rondout (02020007)+*, Lower Hudson (02030101)+*, Hackensack-Passaic (02030103)+*, Sandy Hook-Staten Island (02030104)+*, Raritan (02030105)+*, Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead (02040104)+, Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105)+, Crosswicks-Neshaminy (02040201)+*, Lower Delaware (02040202)+*, Brandywine-Christina (02040205)+, Cohansey-Maurice (02040206)+, Chincoteague (02040303)+, Gunpowder-Patapsco (02060003)+, Choptank (02060005)+, Patuxent (02060006)+, North Branch Potomac (02070002)+*, Cacapon-Town (02070003)+, Conococheague-Opequon (02070004)+, Middle Potomac-Catoctin (02070008)+, Monocacy (02070009)+, Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan (02070010)+, Lower Potomac (02070011)+, Western Lower Delmarva (02080109)+, Eastern Lower Delmarva (02080110)+*, Pokomoke-Western Lower Delmarva (02080111)+
03 Upper Catawba (03050101)+, Yellow (03140103)+, Middle Coosa (03150106)+, Mobile - Tensaw (03160204)+
04 Bad-Montreal (04010302)+, Duck-Pensaukee (04030103)+, Peshtigo (04030105)+, Upper Fox (04030201)+, Wolf (04030202)+*, Lower Fox (04030204)+, Little Calumet-Galien (04040001)+, Pike-Root (04040002)+, Milwaukee (04040003)+*, Ottawa-Stony (04100001)+, St. Joseph (04100003)+, Lower Maumee (04100009)+, Sandusky (04100011)+, Cuyahoga (04110002)+, Lamoille River (04150405)+, Lake Champlain (04150408)+, St. Francois River (04150500)+
05 Youghiogheny (05020006)+, Upper Ohio (05030101)+, Tuscarawas (05040001)+, Upper New (05050001)+, Upper Scioto (05060001)+, Lower Scioto (05060002)+, Raccoon-Symmes (05090101)+, Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103)+*, Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201)+, Upper Wabash (05120101)+, Lower Wabash (05120113)+*, Lower White (05120202)+, Muscatatuck (05120207)+, Upper Cumberland (05130101)+, Caney (05130108)+, Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203)+, Lower Ohio (05140206)+*
06 South Fork Holston (06010102)+*, Watauga (06010103)+, Holston (06010104)+, Upper French Broad (06010105)+, Pigeon (06010106)+, Lower French Broad (06010107)+*, Nolichucky (06010108)+, Watts Bar Lake (06010201)+*, Upper Little Tennessee (06010202)+, Upper Clinch (06010205)+, Powell (06010206)+, Lower Clinch (06010207)+, Hiwassee (06020002)+, Wheeler Lake (06030002)+*, Upper Duck (06040002)+
07 Prairie-Willow (07010103)+, Elk-Nokasippi (07010104)+, Platte-Spunk (07010201)+, Clearwater-Elk (07010203)+, Crow (07010204)+*, South Fork Crow (07010205)+*, Twin Cities (07010206)+, Rum (07010207)+, Lower Minnesota (07020012)+*, Upper St. Croix (07030001)+, Lower St. Croix (07030005)+, Rush-Vermillion (07040001)+*, Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003)+*, Zumbro (07040004)+, La Crosse-Pine (07040006)+*, Black (07040007)+, Jump (07050004)+, Upper Iowa (07060002)+, Turkey (07060004)+, Lake Dubay (07070002)+*, Castle Rock (07070003)+, Baraboo (07070004)+, Lower Wisconsin (07070005)+, Copperas-Duck (07080101)+*, Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102)+, Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103)+, Skunk (07080107)+, Upper Cedar (07080201)+, Lower Cedar (07080206)+, Middle Iowa (07080208)+, Lower Iowa (07080209)+, Upper Rock (07090001)+*, Crawfish (07090002)+*, Pecatonica (07090003)+, Sugar (07090004)+, Green (07090007)+, Lower Des Moines (07100009)+, Bear-Wyaconda (07110001)+, South Fabius (07110003)+, The Sny (07110004)+, North Fork Salt (07110005)+*, Peruque-Piasa (07110009)+*, Kankakee (07120001)+, Iroquois (07120002)+, Chicago (07120003)+, Des Plaines (07120004)+, Upper Fox (07120006)+, Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003)+*, Cahokia-Joachim (07140101)+*, Meramec (07140102)+*, Big (07140104)+, Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105)+*, Big Muddy (07140106)+, Lower Kaskaskia (07140204)+*
08 New Madrid-St. Johns (08020201)+, Upper St. Francis (08020202)+*, Lower St. Francis (08020203)+, Little River Ditches (08020204)+, L'anguille (08020205)+, Bayou Meto (08020402)+, Ouachita Headwaters (08040101)+, Lower Ouachita-Bayou De Loutre (08040202)+, Bayou Bartholomew (08040205)+*
10 Upper Grand (10280101)+*, Thompson (10280102)+*, Lower Grand (10280103)+, Upper Chariton (10280201)+, Little Chariton (10280203)+, Harry S. Missouri (10290105)+, Lake of the Ozarks (10290109)+, Big Piney (10290202)+*, Blackwater (10300104)+, Lower Missouri (10300200)+*
11 Beaver Reservoir (11010001)+, North Fork White (11010006)+*, Upper Black (11010007)+, Current (11010008)+, Spring (11010010)+, Eleven Point (11010011)+, Polecat-Snake (11110101)+, Dirty-Greenleaf (11110102)+, Lake Conway-Point Remove (11110203)+, Cadron (11110205)+*, Bois D'arc-Island (11140101)+, Blue (11140102)+, Muddy Boggy (11140103)+, Clear Boggy (11140104)+, Kiamichi (11140105)+, Pecan-Waterhole (11140106)+, Upper Little (11140107)+, Mountain Fork (11140108)+*, Lower Little (11140109)+, Loggy Bayou (11140203)+
IP IP-04 (IP-04)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: Rein-orchid, tubercled-orchid; Orchidaceae. A perennial herbaceous plant (monocot) with 10-40 yellow or yellow-green flowers along an erect stem.
Habitat Comments: Platanthera flava var. flava occurs on sandy silt alluvium and rotting logs in bottomland (floodplain) forest, wet thickets, or hydric hammock communities; it also occurs in wet-mesic prairies and wet meadows. P. flava var. herbiola occupies similar habitats but occurs most frequently in alder thickets along streams.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 15Feb1995
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: K. Crowley

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Bouchard, A., D. Barabé, M. Dumais et S. Hay 1983. Les plantes vasculaires rares du Québec. Syllogeus no 48. Musées nationaux du Canada. Ottawa. 75 p.

  • Bruce-Grey Plant Committee (Owen Sound Field Naturalists). [1997]. A Guide to the Orchids of Bruce and Grey Counties, Ontario. Stan Brown Printers Limited, Owen Sound, Ontario. 105 pp.

  • Case, F.W., Jr. 1987. Orchids of the Western Great Lakes Region. Revised Edition. Bulletin 48, Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan. 251 pp.

  • Doyon, D. et R. Cayouette. 1978. Liste annotée des plantes du comté de Lévis, Québec: Ptéridophytes et Spermatophytes, Service de recherche en défense des cultures, Agriculture Québec, Mémoire no 2 191

  • Kartesz, J. T. 1991. Synonym names from 1991 checklist, as extracted by Larry Morse, TNC, June 1991.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Ostlie, W.R. 1990. Element Stewardship Abstract for: Platanthera flava var. flava (Pale green orchid). Nature Conservancy. 8 pp.

  • PALMER, E.H. 1936. A BOTANIST IN NANJEMOY SWAMP. BULL NAT HIST SOC MD 6(5):29-30.

  • Reddoch, J.M. and A.H. Reddoch. 1997. The orchids in the Ottawa District: floristics, phytogeography, population studies and historical review. Canadian Field-Naturalist 111(1):1-185.

  • SNYDER, B.S. 1986. RARE NEW JERSEY PLANT SPECIES REDISCOVERED. BARTONIA (52):44-48.

  • Spooner, D. M., A. W. Cusick, B. Andreas, and D. Anderson. 1983. Notes on Ohio vascular plants previously considered for listing as federally endangered or threatened species. Castanea 48(4):250-258.

  • Whiting, R.E. and P.M. Catling. 1986. Orchids of Ontario: An Illustrated Guide. The CanaColl Foundation, Ottawa, Ontario. xii + 169 pp.

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