Platanthera clavellata - (Michx.) Luer
Small Green Woodland Orchid
Other English Common Names: Club-spur Orchid, Small Green Wood Orchid
Other Common Names: small green wood orchid
Synonym(s): Habenaria clavellata (Michx.) Spreng.
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Platanthera clavellata (Michx.) Luer (TSN 43423)
French Common Names: platanthère claviforme
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.156984
Element Code: PMORC1Y050
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Orchid Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Orchidales Orchidaceae Platanthera
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Platanthera clavellata
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 12Jan2016
Global Status Last Changed: 30Oct1995
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Platanthera clavellata is abundant over a broad geographic range. Although it is declining in some areas due to habitat destruction, this species colonizes disturbed areas in the northern part of its range. (Even weedy in some areas.)
Nation: United States
National Status: N5
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (12Jan2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNR), Arkansas (SU), Connecticut (SNR), Delaware (S5), District of Columbia (SNR), Florida (S1), Georgia (S5), Illinois (S1), Indiana (S3), Iowa (S1), Kentucky (S4), Louisiana (SNR), Maine (SNR), Maryland (SNR), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (S3), Mississippi (SNR), Missouri (S2), New Hampshire (SNR), New Jersey (S4), New York (S4), North Carolina (S4), North Dakota (SH), Ohio (S4), Oklahoma (S1S2), Pennsylvania (SNR), Rhode Island (S2), South Carolina (SNR), Tennessee (S4?), Texas (SNR), Vermont (SNR), Virginia (S5), West Virginia (S4), Wisconsin (SNR)
Canada New Brunswick (S4S5), Newfoundland Island (S5), Nova Scotia (S5), Ontario (S4), Prince Edward Island (S3), Quebec (S4S5)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Platanthera clavellata occurs from Newfoundland west to Ontario and Minnesota and south to Florida and Texas.

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Not tracked in much of the central part of its range because it is very common. Rare in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: The greatest threat to P. clavellata is the destruction of wetland habitat through drainage, channelization, logging, and gravel-mining. Also threatening to this species are deer browse, cattle grazing, herbicide runoff from nearby fields or powerline corridors, and invasion of habitats by exotic shrubs (e.g. Japanese honeysuckle and Smilax sp.).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Populations may be decreasing slightly in some areas because of habitat disturbance.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Susceptible to changes in wetland habitat. In the northern part of its range, however, P. clavellata thrives in the disturbed soils of ditches and abandoned quarries.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Platanthera clavellata occurs from Newfoundland west to Ontario and Minnesota and south to Florida and Texas.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV
Canada NB, NF, NS, ON, PE, QC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
FL Calhoun (12013)*, Gadsden (12039), Liberty (12077), Okaloosa (12091), Santa Rosa (12113), Wakulla (12129)
IA Fayette (19065)*, Linn (19113), Muscatine (19139)*
IL Cook (17031), Iroquois (17075), Lake (17097), Lee (17103)*, Pope (17151), Will (17197)
IN Lagrange (18087), Porter (18127), St. Joseph (18141), Steuben (18151)
MN Aitkin (27001), Anoka (27003), Carlton (27017)*, Carver (27019)*, Chisago (27025)*, Clearwater (27029), Cook (27031), Crow Wing (27035)*, Dakota (27037)*, Goodhue (27049)*, Hennepin (27053)*, Itasca (27061), Koochiching (27071)*, Lake (27075), Mille Lacs (27095)*, Ramsey (27123)*, Scott (27139)*, Sherburne (27141)*, St. Louis (27137), Washington (27163)*, Wright (27171)*
MO Barry (29009), Bollinger (29017), Butler (29023), Carter (29035), Dunklin (29069)*, Iron (29093), Madison (29123), Ripley (29181), St. Francois (29187), Stoddard (29207), Wayne (29223)
OH Ashtabula (39007), Athens (39009), Champaign (39021), Gallia (39053)*, Geauga (39055), Hocking (39073), Jackson (39079), Lucas (39095), Pike (39131), Portage (39133), Scioto (39145), Stark (39151), Summit (39153), Vinton (39163), Washington (39167), Wayne (39169)
OK Bryan (40013)*, Choctaw (40023), McCurtain (40089)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Apalachee Bay-St. Marks (03120001)+, Apalachicola (03130011)+, Blackwater (03140104)+
04 Baptism-Brule (04010101)+, Beaver-Lester (04010102)+, St. Louis (04010201)+, Cloquet (04010202)+, Beartrap-Nemadji (04010301)+*, Lake Superior (04020300)+*, Little Calumet-Galien (04040001)+, Pike-Root (04040002)+, St. Joseph (04050001)+, Ottawa-Stony (04100001)+, Lower Maumee (04100009)+, Cuyahoga (04110002)+, Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003)+, Grand (04110004)+
05 Mahoning (05030103)+, Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201)+, Hocking (05030204)+, Tuscarawas (05040001)+, Mohican (05040002)+, Lower Scioto (05060002)+, Upper Great Miami (05080001)+, Raccoon-Symmes (05090101)+, Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103)+*, Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201)+, Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203)+
07 Mississippi Headwaters (07010101)+*, Prairie-Willow (07010103)+, Elk-Nokasippi (07010104)+*, Crow (07010204)+*, South Fork Crow (07010205)+*, Twin Cities (07010206)+*, Rum (07010207)+*, Lower Minnesota (07020012)+*, Lower St. Croix (07030005)+, Zumbro (07040004)+*, Turkey (07060004)+*, Copperas-Duck (07080101)+*, Middle Cedar (07080205)+, Lower Cedar (07080206)+*, Green (07090007)+*, Kankakee (07120001)+, Iroquois (07120002)+, Chicago (07120003)+, Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105)+, Whitewater (07140107)+
08 Upper St. Francis (08020202)+, Lower St. Francis (08020203)+, Little River Ditches (08020204)+
09 Eastern Wild Rice (09020108)+, Rainy Headwaters (09030001)+, Vermilion (09030002)+, Rainy Lake (09030003)+*, Little Fork (09030005)+, Big Fork (09030006)+
11 Beaver Reservoir (11010001)+, Upper Black (11010007)+, Current (11010008)+, Bois D'arc-Island (11140101)+*, Muddy Boggy (11140103)+*, Clear Boggy (11140104)+*, Kiamichi (11140105)+, Pecan-Waterhole (11140106)+, Upper Little (11140107)+, Mountain Fork (11140108)+, Lower Little (11140109)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Small green wood orchid, Club-spur orchid; Orchidaceae. A small, herbaceous, perennial plant (monocot) with 3-15 yellow-green (or whitish-green in shade) flowers at the top of and angled from an erect stem.
Habitat Comments: The natural habitat of Platanthera clavellata includes the following: seepages, springs (usually wooded); shrub borders of acid bogs; swamp woods; creek floodplains; occasionally open fens; and in the northern or mountainous part of its range, seepage slopes or sunlit stream beds. This species may also thrive in disturbed sites, such as abandoned quarries, roadbanks, ditches, and sandy-acid mine tailings (Case pers. comm. 1995, Sheviak pers. comm. 1995).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 01Mar1995
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: K. Crowley, MRO

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Bowles, Marlin L., William J. Hess, and Marcella M. DeMauro. 1985. An Assessment of the Monitoring Program for Special Floristic Elements at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore; Phase II Threatened and Special Concern Species. To Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002a. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 26. Magnoliophyta: Liliidae: Liliales and Orchidales. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxvi + 723 pp.

  • GODFREY, R.K. & J. WOOTEN. 1979. AQUATIC & WETLAND PLANTS OF SOUTHEASTERN U.S., MONOCOTYLEDONS. UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA PRESS, ATHENS. 712 PP.

  • Gates, F.C. 1912. The vegetation of the beach area in northeastern Illinois and southeastern Wisconsin. Bull. Ill. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 9:255-372.

  • Kartesz, J. T. 1991. Synonym names from 1991 checklist, as extracted by Larry Morse, TNC, June 1991.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • LUER, CARLYLE A. 1972. THE NATIVE ORCHIDS OF FLORIDA. THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN.

  • Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 2003. Field guide to the native plant communities of Minnesota: the Laurentian mixed forest province. Ecological Land Classification Program, Minnesota County Biological Survey, and Natural Heritage and Nongame Research Program. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul, Minnesota. 352 pp.

  • Niemann, D. 1986. The distribution of orchids in Iowa. Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science 93(1):24-34.

  • Schwegman, J.E. and R.H. Mohlenbrock. 1966. Botanical field studies in the southern tip of Illinois. Trans. Ill. State Acad. Sci. 59:369-372.

  • Sheviak, C. J. 2002. Platanthera. Pages 551-571 in Flora of North America Editorial Committee, editors. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Volume 26. Oxford University Press, New York, New York.

  • Sheviak, C.J. 1974. An introduction to the ecology of the Illinois Orchidaceae. Illinois State Museum Scientific Papers XIV. Ill. State Mus., Springfield, IL. 89pp.

  • Smith, W. R. 1993. Orchids of Minnesota. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 172 pp.

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