Plantago cordata - Lam.
Heartleaf Plantain
Other English Common Names: Heart-leaved Plantain
Other Common Names: heartleaf plantain
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Plantago cordata Lam. (TSN 32876)
French Common Names: plantain à feuilles cordées
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.155726
Element Code: PDPLN02090
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Plantain Family
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Plantaginales Plantaginaceae Plantago
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Concept Reference
Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Plantago cordata
Taxonomic Comments: Distinct species in a large genus.
Conservation Status

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 16Dec1994
Global Status Last Changed: 16Dec1994
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Population has declined drastically everywhere except MO, where it appears to be stable. Extremely sensitive to changes in water quality. Very narrow habitat preference, yet can be locally common. 1994: Additional sites located in New York and Georgia, in particular, showing that species has two other areas of stability. A number of sites in Missouri protected now, with additional populations being discovered; reranked G4 in discussion with Missouri HP 16Dec94.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4
Nation: Canada
National Status: N1 (04Oct2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S2), Arkansas (S2), District of Columbia (SH), Florida (SH), Georgia (S3), Illinois (S1), Indiana (S1), Iowa (SH), Kentucky (SX), Maryland (SH), Michigan (S1), Mississippi (S1), Missouri (S3S4), New York (S3), North Carolina (S1), Ohio (S1), South Carolina (SNR), Tennessee (S1), Virginia (SH), Wisconsin (S1)
Canada Ontario (S1)

Other Statuses

Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA) Schedule 1/Annexe 1 Status: E (05Jun2003)
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Endangered (25Nov2011)
Comments on COSEWIC: In Canada, only two populations of this semi-aquatic species are known both in undisturbed wet forest patches of the Carolinian zone of southwestern Ontario. The species has declined throughout its range, as a result of deterioration or loss of the clear, shallow streams and seepages in which it occurs. The small range and specific habitat requirements of this species make it vulnerable to declines in habitat quality. The main threats include timber harvesting, agricultural runoff, alteration to riparian habitats, and other activities that contribute to eutrophication or siltation of the aquatic habitat.
Designated Endangered in April 1985. Status re-examined and confirmed Endangered in April 1998, May 2000, and November 2011.

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Heartleaf plantain is characterized by a widespread geographical range within which it is highly localized. A high proportion of the populations are located along the Hudson River, but populations range from New York, south to Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama. It is disjunct inland to Ohio, southern Ontario, Wisconsin, and south through the Mississippi Valley.

Population Size Comments: Reportedly occurs by the hundreds at some sites. There are over 10,000 individuals at the extant Missouri sites.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: The major threat to P. cordata is habitat destruction from urbanization, clear-cutting of surrounding woods, cattle grazing and trampling, industrial, agricultural, and domestic water pollution, and altering stream flow through ditching, draining, or damming. The plant can also be used as food and as a medicinal herb.

Clear-cutting would change the hydrology of the woodland stream. Increased runoff would heighten the frequency and intensity of flooding and scouring of the stream bed. The siltation from the runoff would kill adult plants and prevent seedling establishment. The broad leaves are resistant to water flow. During a flood, leaves have been shredded and entire plants have been uprooted (Meagher, et al., 1978). Seedlings are especially vulnerable to uprooting during floods (Jones and Filbert, 1981).

The enrichment of streams from agricultural runoff can lead to eutrophication. Algal growth is stimulated and the resulting algal bloom can trap seeds and kill seedlings (Stromberg, et al., 1983). Algal blooms have also been blamed for the elimination of fish that prey on snails (Physa sp. and Triodopsis sp.) that are eating Plantago seedlings (Stromberg, et al., 1983).

Altered stream flow could change the dynamics of the stream beds. Yearly spring flooding causes the gravel bars to change shape or position in the streams. This physical instability of the gravel bars minimizes the potential for competition with the plantain. If the gravel bars become too stable (from controlled stream flow), other vegetation will become established and crowd out P. cordata (Orzell, pers. comm.).

Heart-leaf plantain was harvested for use as a medicinal herb by local Indians in Ontario. The roots, fresh or dried, can be used in a tea to heal various ailments (Tessene, 1969). According to Allen and Oldham (1985), P. cordata is no longer harvested due to a declining interest in medicinal herbs by the local people. Steyermark (1977) claims that P. cordata is the most tender of all the plantains when the young fleshy leaves and petioles are cooked as a vegetable. Allen and Oldham (1985) report invertebrate herbivory on the Ontario population. Many plants were found with holes in the leaves, or with leaves severed at the petiole. Stromberg, et al. (1981) commented on the palatability of the plants due to the number of damaged leaves in seedlings and adult plants.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Sensitive to sedimentation and changes in water quality. Problems with short-lived seeds and seed dispersal.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Global Range: Heartleaf plantain is characterized by a widespread geographical range within which it is highly localized. A high proportion of the populations are located along the Hudson River, but populations range from New York, south to Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama. It is disjunct inland to Ohio, southern Ontario, Wisconsin, and south through the Mississippi Valley.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, DC, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KYextirpated, MD, MI, MO, MS, NC, NY, OH, SC, TN, VA, WI
Canada ON

Range Map
No map available.

U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Bibb (01007)*, Cherokee (01019), Colbert (01033), Lowndes (01085), Wilcox (01131)
AR Baxter (05005), Lawrence (05075), Randolph (05121), Sharp (05135), Stone (05137)
GA Floyd (13115)
IA Scott (19163)*
IL Cook (17031), DuPage (17043), Fayette (17051), Jackson (17077), Johnson (17087), Kendall (17093)*, Pike (17149), Pope (17151), Saline (17165), Sangamon (17167), Tazewell (17179)
IN Knox (18083)*, Lake (18089)*, Porter (18127)*, Whitley (18183)
MD Montgomery (24031)*, Prince Georges (24033)*
MI Clinton (26037)*, Hillsdale (26059), Ionia (26067), Macomb (26099)*, Shiawassee (26155)*, St. Clair (26147), Tuscola (26157)
MO Adair (29001), Benton (29015), Boone (29019), Butler (29023), Callaway (29027), Carter (29035), Crawford (29055), Dent (29065), Franklin (29071), Howard (29089), Iron (29093), Jefferson (29099), Lincoln (29113), Macon (29121)*, Madison (29123), Maries (29125), Miller (29131), Monroe (29137), Montgomery (29139), Morgan (29141), Osage (29151)*, Randolph (29175), Reynolds (29179), Ripley (29181), Shannon (29203), St. Francois (29187), St. Louis (29189), St. Louis (city) (29510)*, Ste. Genevieve (29186), Texas (29215), Warren (29219), Washington (29221), Wayne (29223)
MS Monroe (28095)
NC Davidson (37057)
NY Albany (36001), Bronx (36005)*, Columbia (36021), Dutchess (36027), Erie (36029), Genesee (36037), Greene (36039), New York (36061)*, Rockland (36087)*, Ulster (36111)
OH Adams (39001), Hardin (39065), Mahoning (39099)
TN Franklin (47051), McNairy (47109)
VA Alexandria (City) (51510)*, Fairfax (51059)*, Smyth (51173)*
WI Kenosha (55059)*, Milwaukee (55079), Ozaukee (55089), Racine (55101)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Middle Hudson (02020006)+, Rondout (02020007)+*, Hudson-Wappinger (02020008)+, Lower Hudson (02030101)+*, Bronx (02030102)+*, Patuxent (02060006)+*, Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan (02070010)+*
03 Lower Yadkin (03040103)+, Upper Coosa (03150105)+, Middle Coosa (03150106)+, Upper Alabama (03150201)+, Cahaba (03150202)+*, Middle Alabama (03150203)+, Town (03160102)+
04 Little Calumet-Galien (04040001)+*, Pike-Root (04040002)+, Milwaukee (04040003)+, Maple (04050005)+, Birch-Willow (04080104)+*, Shiawassee (04080203)+*, Flint (04080204)+*, Cass (04080205)+, St. Clair (04090001)+, Clinton (04090003)+*, St. Joseph (04100003)+, Niagara (04120104)+, Oak Orchard-Twelvemile (04130001)+
05 Mahoning (05030103)+, Upper Scioto (05060001)+, Lower Scioto (05060002)+, Eel (05120104)+, Lower Wabash (05120113)+*, Lower White (05120202)+*, Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203)+, Saline (05140204)+
06 South Fork Holston (06010102)+*, Guntersville Lake (06030001)+, Pickwick Lake (06030005)+
07 Copperas-Duck (07080101)+*, Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103)+*, The Sny (07110004)+, North Fork Salt (07110005)+*, South Fork Salt (07110006)+, Cuivre (07110008)+, Des Plaines (07120004)+, Lower Fox (07120007)+*, Mackinaw (07130004)+, South Fork Sangamon (07130007)+, Cahokia-Joachim (07140101)+, Meramec (07140102)+, Big (07140104)+, Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105)+, Big Muddy (07140106)+, Whitewater (07140107)+, Middle Kaskaskia (07140202)+
08 Upper Hatchie (08010207)+, Upper St. Francis (08020202)+
10 Lower Chariton (10280202)+, Little Chariton (10280203)+*, Lake of the Ozarks (10290109)+, Lower Osage (10290111)+, Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102)+, Lower Missouri (10300200)+
11 Middle White (11010004)+, North Fork White (11010006)+, Upper Black (11010007)+, Current (11010008)+, Lower Black (11010009)+, Spring (11010010)+, Strawberry (11010012)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Technical Description: Plantago cordata is a perennial with one to several elongated roots. Plants glabrous, 10-50 cm high. Leaves fleshy, broadly oval to cordate-ovate, long-petioled, blades 10-30 cm long, entire or sometimes finely dentate. Scapes one to several, hollow when mature, 10-50 cm long; floral spike is loosely flowered, slender. Flowers perfect, sepals 4, free and distinct, petals 4, united at the base; stigma with two parallel rows of hairs extending the total length of the stigma. Capsules circumscissle, 2-4 seeded, round, ovoid, 4-6 mm long; seeds usually 2, ellipsoid, finely pitted (Bassett, 1967; Fernald, 1950).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Plantago cordata is sometimes confused with P. major. In addition to the aquatic habitat, the leaf venation in P. cordata is distinctive. In mature summer leaves of the heart-leaf plantain, the two leaf veins nearest the midrib do not diverge from it until an inch or more above the base of the blade. The veins in leaves of P. major are equidistant. P. cordata also has a thick horizontal rootstock and an earlier flowering period (Harper, 1944).
Ecology Comments:

Heart-leaf plantain is a semi-aquatic perennial occurring individually or in loose clusters in shallow streams and along floodplains.

The large, distinctive heart-shaped leaves are evident only in the summer. The plants produce morphologically distinct leaves that correspond to the seasons. Winter leaves are 1-3 cm wide and lanceolate to spatulate. Leaves in the spring and fall are intermediate in size between the small winter leaves and the large, broad (8-19 cm wide) summer leaves (Tessene, 1969). The leaf production sequence can be arrested by stress conditions, i.e. drought, high temperatures. Day length and temperatures determine leafing and flowering (Tessene, 1969).

P. cordata is a short day plant, with anthesis beginning around mid-April. Young inflorescences are initiated in the fall and overwinter under the protection of the overlapping petiole bases (Tessene, 1969). Multiple inflorescences are common, Tessene (1969) noted an average of six per plant. In the spring, the peduncles elongate and grow 15-30 cm in a week. The lowest flowers on the spikes open first. Four days after the stigmas have extended, the stamens will protrude. Flowering progresses acropetally and the rachis begins to extend. Under favorable conditions, the inflorescence grows to a length of 40-60 cm and bears 80-130 flowers (Tessene, 1969).

Flowers are characteristic of those adapted to wind pollination--long, feathery stigmas, and anthers producing abundant pollen. Plants are self-compatible, but due to the protogynous flowers, some outcrossing does occur. The lower flowers have a higher probability of outcrossing. Some flowers higher on the stem may be pollinated by those lower on the same stem (Tessene, 1969). The presence of a hollow peduncle on the inflorescence is a diagnostic character for P. cordata in many taxonomic keys. Tessene (1969) points out that the peduncle is firm and fleshy until the capsules are ripe. At that time, the peduncle dries and becomes hollow. This character is unreliable unless the plant has formed mature fruits.

Fruits mature one to three weeks after anthesis. Each capsule usually produces two seeds. The mature spikes may fall over into the water or onto the stream bank, causing the capsules to dehisce (Alverson, 1981). The seed falls with its fleshy placenta still attached, which aids in buoyancy. Once a seed hits the water, the seed coat swells into a mucilaginous mass, which breaks the seed free of the placenta. The mucilaginous coat will cause the seed to adhere to any object it floats against. The seed will germinate in six to fourteen days even if it is still floating (Tessene, 1969). In contrast to Tessene's observations, Stromberg, et al. (1981) found that submerged seeds will germinate. Tessene (1969) cited a critical three-week period within which germination and establishment must take place. Stromberg, et al. (1981) observed germination and establishment occurring up to five weeks after dehiscence. Seeds kept under cool, moist conditions continued to germinate after one year, albeit at a lower percentage (Stearns, pers. comm.)

Stromberg, et al. (1981) found that the majority of seeds fell and germinated in close proximity to the parents. Dispersal was hampered by dense algal growth, the seeds germinated and died while caught in the algal filaments. Seedlings found on moist exposed clay banks were larger than any others at the site. Even for those that become established, seedling mortality is high. Many seedlings die from herbivory or are swept away in floods (Stromberg, et al., 1981; Jones and Filbert, 1981). Tessene (1969) noted that once a seedling is established, it will bloom the following year. According to Meagher, et al. (1978) plants may take two years or more to reach maturity.

Vegetative reproduction has been reported (Tessene, 1969; Primack, 1978; Stromberg, et al. 1982). Lateral buds on established rosettes may sporadically give rise to new rosettes. The new rosettes are attached to the parent rosette until the connected stem tissue rots or is severed. Tessene (1969) did not observe the production of inflorescences by the lateral rosettes while they were attached to the parent plants.

P. cordata has the lowest reproductive output of all plantain species (Primack, 1979). This low reproductive effort may be due to the allocation of resources into the broad leaves and fleshy thick roots that increase the probability for adult survival (Primack, 1979). The high seedling mortality rate and hence great dependence on the same mature individuals to reproduce each year places P. cordata in a precarious position. Adult plants can withstand stress for short periods or perhaps even one growing season. If the stress conditions (stream draining, increased pollution) persisted for several seasons, the adult population would not reproduce and would eventually die from the stress conditions or senescence (Tessene, 1969).

Habitat Comments: Heart-leaf plantain is found in gravelly or rocky beds of shallow, clear streams or springs and their adjacent floodplains in Illinois, Arkansas, Missouri, Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, Wisconsin, and Ohio (Schwegman, Orzell, Kurz, Kral, Weakley, Dobberpuhl, and Jones, pers. comm.). P. cordata also grows in a mud-bottomed woodland stream in Ohio (Parsons, pers. comm.); in freshwater tidal flats and covers, and along the banks of the Hudson River in New York (Clemants, pers. comm.); and in moist depressions in a deciduous woods in Ontario (Allen and Oldham, 1985).

The stream beds at sites in Illinois are neutral to basic gravelly outwash, sandstone rubble, or sandy-bottomed (Schwegman, pers. comm.; Kurz and Bowles, 1981). In Arkansas, the plants are rooted in cherty gravel pockets that were scoured into the dolomite creek beds (Orzell, pers. comm.). In Missouri, the creek beds are filled with cherty dolomite gravel or sandstone rubble (Kurz, pers. comm.). In Alabama, plants are rooted in gravel bars or in cracks of the shale or slate stream beds (Kral, pers. comm.). In Georgia, the plants are found in gravel or rooted in the cracks of a limestone stream bed (Kral, pers. comm.; Godfrey, 1961). In North Carolina, P. cordata is found in gravel bars in slate-bottomed streams (Weakley, pers. comm.). In Wisconsin, the stream bed is limestone cobbles buried under silt (Kunowski 1983b). In Ohio, P. cordata is rooted in the cracks of a dolomite creek bed and on gravel bars (pers. observation).

The plants occurring in the depressions in the Ontario woodland are thought to be partially immersed in the spring. The soil is a clay-loam with a pH of 7.2 (Allen and Oldham, 1985). The ability of P. cordata to persist in the silt-laden water of the tidal flats as well as in clean spring-fed creeks raises questions about the water chemistry requirements of the plants.

Major tributaries enter the Hudson River near the Plantago site and the influx of clean water may flush impurities away from the plantains (Kiviat, pers. comm.). The plants are firmly rooted in gravel at the mouth of a creek entering the Hudson River. They are located at the upper level of the intertidal zone and are subject to a 3-4 foot tide range daily. Water is 20 ppm salt with a pH of 6-8. The plants grow along a woods edge in half sun.

Plant communities and associated plants species are diverse and cannot be generalized. Tessene (1969) describes communities and lists associates for sites that he studied; Alverson (1981) lists associates in Wisconsin; Kurz and Bowles (1981) list associates for Illinois; for associates in Ontario, see Allen and Oldham (1985); in Arkansas Orzell (pers. comm.) has found Carex torta, Rudbeckia fulgida, Oxypolis rigidior, and Rhynchospora capillacea growing near P. cordata.

Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Management Summary
Stewardship Overview: A top stewardship priority is the protection and maintenance of the watershed. Research into seedling establishment and transplanting may broaden management options. Populations should be monitored to assess stability, note recruitment, document longevity of individuals, and to note the yearly reproductive output of individual plants. New populations should be searched for in areas with suitable habitat.
Restoration Potential:

Due to the specific habitat requirements of clean water and a silt-free gravelly or rocky creek bed, recovery of a degraded site is not probable. Restoring a depleted site may be feasible.

Transplanting experiments by Stromberg et al. (1981) showed that larger plants had a better chance for survival than smaller plants or seedlings. Meagher et al. (1978) found that transplanted adults would flower and fruit, but no seedlings were observed. Parsons (pers. comm.) has transplanted P. cordata into a controlled habitat (native wildflower garden), and has found seedlings.

Results from transplanting greenhouse-grown P. cordata into sites with no previous populations showed a first-year survival rate that ranged from 25% to 100% (Kunowski, 1983a). Follow-up on the majority of the transplant sites has been casual since 1983 (Stearns, pers. comm.) therefore, no information is available on long-term survival or reproductive success (seedling establishment). In one transplant attempt, twenty-eight plants have survived for four years. The plants flowered and set seed the first season after transplanting into a spring-fed, calcareous, gravel-bottomed stream. The plants have grown in size, but no seedlings have been found (Larsen, pers. comm.).

Preserve Selection & Design Considerations: Maintaining high water quality is essential for the survival of P. cordata. The watershed upstream from the population must be secured. If it is not feasible to secure the entire downstream watershed, obtain an area extending at least one quarter mile downstream from the present population. Securing a section of the downstream watershed will ensure maintenance of favorable habitat for potential seedling establishment. Ideally, the entire watershed should be protected. Obtain a large buffer of woods on either side of the stream to prevent clear-cutting and to provide shade.
Management Requirements: Due to the aquatic habitat of the Heart-leaf plantain, the most crucial management need is to control those factors that would adversely affect the water quality and water level fluctuations.

Annual flooding and scouring exposes areas along stream banks making them suitable for seedling establishment. The unstable gravel bars shift with each change in water velocity, ensuring the plantains of minimal competition for available space. In addition, moving water is essential for long-distance seed dispersal. The watershed should be maintained so that there are no restrictions to the stream's flow.

Protection of the woodlands bordering the steams will prevent clear-cutting and the potential hazard of siltation from increased runoff. The buildup of silt at one site has enabled Phalaris arundinacea and Carex spp. to stabilize a bar upstream from a population of P. cordata in Wisconsin. The increasingly stable bar is expanding towards the plantains and the Phalaris may eventually choke them out. However, the presence of the bar is prolonging the existence of P. cordata by trapping the silt upstream from the plants. Alverson (1981) has suggested building silt traps or settling ponds upstream from the plantains. Algae should be removed from the stream to prevent seeds from becoming entangled, and dying.

Monitoring Requirements:

Management objectives for P. cordata should include: maintaining the population in a secured location; maintaining high water quality; and insuring unimpeded stream flow. Biological monitoring should be used to track management objectives.

Downstream migration should be monitored. If the entire watershed has not been secured, the population could conceivably migrate beyond the preserve boundaries. Monitoring water quality and stream flow in tandem with population censusing may provide some useful correlations on the quality of the habitat and the stability of the population. Seedling recruitment should be monitored if the population begins to decline.

Because of the unstable environment of the shifting gravel bars, population size appears to fluctuate (Meagher et al., 1978). Workers should be aware of the local instability of a small sub-population sample (Sutter, pers. comm.). The most common procedure is a yearly census of the total population, counting flowering and non-flowering plants as well as seedlings. See programs section for more detailed work. When monitoring water quality, look for increased nutrient loading, algal blooms, turbidity, and levels of dissolved oxygen.

Monitoring Programs: Schwegman (pers. comm.) is mapping and marking individuals in Illinois with the bi-coordinate system. To determine reproductive vigor, he is measuring maximum leaf width and number of inflorescences on each plant. Contact: John Schwegman, Director of Botany Program, Illinois Dept. Conservation, Springfield.

Bowles (pers. comm.), is continuing a monitoring program in Wisconsin that was initiated by Alverson in 1979, and expanded by Stromberg et al. from 1981-1983. Contact: Marlin Bowles, Morton Arboretum, Lisle, Illinois. In North Carolina, Sutter (pers. comm.), is monitoring populations previously studied by Antonovics, Meagher, and Primack. Contact: Rob Sutter, Endangered Species Botanist, N. C. Department of Agriculture, Plant Conservation Program. In New York, Clemants (pers. comm.) has volunteers checking the status of populations. Contact Steve Clemants, Botanist for the New York Natural Heritage Program. In Ohio, the Ohio Field Office of TNC has just erected a fence to keep cows from grazing and watering among the plantains. Contact: Director of Science and Stewardship, Ohio Field Office, TNC, Columbus.

Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Population/Occurrence Viability
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 10Sep1986
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Ormes, M.; rev. by S. Gottlieb (1986), rev. L. Morse (1994); J. Bender (1986)
Management Information Edition Date: 01Apr1986
Management Information Edition Author: J. BENDER
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 01Apr1986
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): BENDER, J.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

  • Allen, G. M. and M. J. Oldham. 1985. Plantago cordata Lam. (Heart-leaved plantain) still survives in Canada. The Plant Press 3:94-97.

  • Allen, G.M. and M.J. Oldham. 1984. PLANTAGO CORDATA on the Ipperwash Military Reserve: a report to the COSEWIC plant sub-committee. Unpublished report, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Chatham. 7 pp.

  • Allen, G.M. and M.J. Oldham. 1985. PLANTAGO CORDATA Lam. (Heart-leaved Plantain) still survives in Canada. Plant Press 3(3):94-97..

  • Alverson, W. S. 1981. Status report of Plantago cordata Lam. in Wisconsin. Department of Natural Resources, Madison, Wisconsin.

  • Ambrose, J. and J.V. Jalava. 2007. Recovery Strategy for the Heart-leaved Plantain (Plantago cordata Lam.) in Canada. In Species at Risk Act Recovery Strategy Series. Environment Canada. Ottawa xx+XX pp. [DRAFT]

  • Argus, G.W., K.M. Pryer, D.J. White and C.J. Keddy (eds.). 1982-1987. Atlas of the Rare Vascular Plants of Ontario.. Botany Division, National Museum of National Sciences, Ottawa.


  • Bassett, I.J. 1967. Tawonomy of Plantago L. in North America: Sections Holopsyllium Pilger, Palaeopsyllium Pilger, and Lamprosantha Decne. Can. J. Bot. 45:565-577.

  • Bassett, I.J. 1973. The plantains of Canada. Monograph 7, Research Branch, Canada Department of Agriculture, Ottawa. 47 pp.

  • Bender, J. 1986. Element Stewardship Abstract for PLANTAGO CORDATA, Heart-leaved Plantain. The Nature Conservancy, Midwest Regional Office, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 9 pp.

  • Bowles, M. and S. Apfelbaum. 1988. Factors affecting survival and deline (sic) of the Heart-leaved Plantain (PLANTAGO CORDATA Lam.) in gravel-bed stream habitat. Abstract. 15th Annual Natural Areas Conference, Ecosystem Management, Rare Species and Significant Habitats, Syracuse, New York. 1 pp.

  • Bowles, M.L. and S.I. Apfelbaum. 1987. The Population Status, Ecology, and Management Needs of the Heart-leaved Plantain (Plantago cordata Lam.) at Mackinaw River Recreation Area, Tazewell County, Illinois. Unpublished report prepared for the Illinois Endangered Species Protection Board. 33 pp.

  • Bowles, M.L. and S.I. Apfelbaum. 1989. Effects of land use and stochastic events on the Heart-leaved Plantain (Plantago cordata Lam.) in an Illinois stream system. Natural Areas Journal 9(2):90-101.

  • Bowles, M.L. and S.I. Apfelbaum. 1989. Effects of land use and stochastic events on the heart-leaved plaintain (PLANTAGO CORDATA Lam.) in an Illinois stream system. Nat. Areas J. 9:90-101.

  • Brownell, V. 1985. Status report on the Heart-leaved Plantain, Plantago cordata. Cosewic report.

  • Brownell, V.R. 1983. Status report on heart-leaved Plantain (PLANTAGO CORDATA) in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), Ottawa, Ontario. 41 pp.

  • Brownell, V.R. 1984. Conservation Recommendations for Heart-leaved Plantain (PLANTAGO CORDATA Lamark), an Endangered Species in Canada. Unpublished report, Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), Ottawa, Ontario. 5 pp.

  • Brownell, V.R. 1997. Update Status Report on Heart-leaved Plantain (Plantago cordata Lam.) in Canada. Plants Subcommittee, Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), Ottawa, Ontario. 6 pp.

  • Brownell, V.R. 1998. Update COSEWIC status report on the heart-leaved plantain Plantago cordata in Canada, in COSEWIC assessment and status report on the heart-leaved plantain Plantago cordata in Canada. Committee on the Status on Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. 14 pp.

  • Clute, W.N. 1942. PLANTAGO CORDATA in Indiana. Amer. Bot. 48:95.

  • Cowles, H.C. 1901. The physiographic ecology of Chicago and vicinity: A study of the origin, development, and classification of plant societies. Bot. Gaz. 31:73-108, 145-182.

  • Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. Corrected printing (1970). D. Van Nostrand Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. D. Van Nostrand, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Gleason, Henry A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

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