Pinus ponderosa - P.& C. Lawson
Ponderosa Pine
Other English Common Names: Blackjack, Bull Pine, Yellow Pine, western yellow pine
Other Common Names: ponderosa pine
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Pinus ponderosa P.& C. Lawson (TSN 183365)
French Common Names: pin ponderosa
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.137495
Element Code: PGPIN040S0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Conifers and relatives
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Coniferophyta Pinopsida Pinales Pinaceae Pinus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Pinus ponderosa
Taxonomic Comments: The taxonomy of the ponderosa pine complex is not completely resolved (Flora of North America 1993). FNA (vol. 2, 1993) includes Pinus arizonica (= P. ponderosa var. arizonica) as a variety of P. ponderosa. There are morphological and distributional overlaps, and disagreement regarding the geographical boundaries of varieties of ponderosa pine. Hybridization also occurs between all three varieties. (Howard 2003).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 16May2016
Global Status Last Changed: 11Oct1983
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Widely distributed in mountainous regions from British Columbia far into Mexico (including northern Sonora and Chihuahua) and from California to Nebraska, in many places forming great forests. Grows in rather open forests, but forms fairly dense stands on the higher slopes. Harvested for timber, particularly in northern Sonora and Chihuahua where it occurs between 6000 and 8000 ft alt. As a native, long-lived tree species, few populations may be showing some decline, especially from increased severity of fire events and overharvesting in some areas, however the species is still considered common and wide-ranging.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (05Feb2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Arizona (SNR), California (SNR), Colorado (SNR), Idaho (SNR), Montana (S5), Navajo Nation (S5), Nebraska (SNR), Nevada (SNR), New Mexico (SNR), North Dakota (SNR), Oklahoma (S1S2), Oregon (S5), South Dakota (SNR), Texas (SNR), Utah (SNR), Washington (SNR), Wyoming (S4)
Canada Alberta (SNA), British Columbia (S5)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Ponderosa pine is the most widely distributed pine species in North America, ranging north-south from southern British Columbia to central Mexico and east-west from central Nebraska to the west coast (Howard 2003).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium spp.) is a serious disease of ponderosa pine with infection rates up to 33% in some areas (Howard 2003). Dwarf mistletoe alters tree form, suppresses growth, and reduces volume and overall wood quality of its host (Epp & Tardif 2004). Mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ssp.) and bark beetles (Ips spp.) are also serious pests of ponderosa pine with regular infestations occurring over centuries of time. However, beetle epidemics combined with environmental conditions such as prolonged drought has resulted in increased pine mortality in many regions (Howard 2003). Older age classes of ponderosa pine are being lost from stands (Howard 2003), however this doesn't represent a loss in genetic diversity in tree species (Hamrick 2004).

Long-term Trend: Unknown
Long-term Trend Comments: Pinus ponderosa arid-forest communities are predicted to expand into areas currently occupied by other conifer and grassland communities (Joyce et al. 2001).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Pinus ponderosa is moderately shade tolerant and prefers open habitat. It requires canopy-opening disturbances such as fire, logging or tree-death to reduce the ground litter and competition from other plants for seedling growth.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Ponderosa pine is the most widely distributed pine species in North America, ranging north-south from southern British Columbia to central Mexico and east-west from central Nebraska to the west coast (Howard 2003).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AZ, CA, CO, ID, MT, ND, NE, NM, NN, NV, OK, OR, SD, TX, UT, WA, WY
Canada ABexotic, BC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
OK Cimarron (40025)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
11 Cimarron headwaters (11040001)+*, Upper Cimarron (11040002)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Tree, sometimes 225 ft tall.
Habitat Comments: Ponderosa pine occurs on a wide variety of soils, usually in open areas as it is intolerant of shade. Trees can grow in pure stands, especially at lower elevations where subject to frequent forest fires, or in mixed stands with Douglas-fir and western larch at higher elevations.
Economic Attributes
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Economically Important Genus: Y
Economic Uses: FIBER, Building materials/timber
Economic Comments: One of the most important timber trees of northern Sonora and Chihuahua (Record and Hess, 1943).
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 02Nov1995
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Jaster, T. (TNC-LASP); rev. M. Anions 2009
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 02Nov1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): JASTER, T. (TNC-LASP); rev. M. Anions 2009

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Epp, B. and J.C. Tardif. 2004. Effects of Lodgepole Pine Dwarf Mistletoe, Arceuthobium americanum, on Jack Pine, Pinus banksiana, growth in Manitoba. Canadian Field Naturalist 118(4):595-601.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee, ed. 1993. Flora of North America, vol. 2. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. 475 p.

  • Hamrick, J.L. 2004. Response of forest trees to global environmental changes. Forest Ecology and Management 197:323-335.

  • Howard, J. L. 2003. Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [20March 2009].

  • Joyce, L., J. Baer, S., McNulty, V. Dale, A. Hansen, L. Irland, R. Neilson, and K. Skog. 2001. Potential consequences of climate variability and change for the forests of the United States. pp. 489-521. IN: Climate change impacts in the United States. Report for the U.S. Global Change Research Program. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Little, E.L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agriculture Handbook No. 541. U.S. Forest Service, Washington, D.C. 375 pp.

  • Record, S.J. and Hess, R.W. 1943. Timbers of the New World. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

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