Pinus monticola - Dougl. ex D. Don
Western White Pine
Other Common Names: western white pine
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don (TSN 183356)
French Common Names: pin argenté
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.136952
Element Code: PGPIN040M0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Conifers and relatives
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Coniferophyta Pinopsida Pinales Pinaceae Pinus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Pinus monticola
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 01Nov2011
Global Status Last Changed: 24Mar2009
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Although still considered a fairly common species in many areas of its range, populations of western white pine are affected by white pine blister rust, different species of bark beetles, and susceptible to pole blight from extreme weather conditions. Population declines have been noted since early in the century with a massive dieback in the Pacific region in 1935-1936 triggered by highly anomalous winter weather (Auclair et al 1990). Continuing threats of disease and extremes of climate are still affecting populations, however breeding programs have produced strains that are 65% resistant to white pine blister rust (Griffth 1992). Others consider populations will continue to decline as blister rust infection spreads and intensifies (Tomback 2001).
Nation: United States
National Status: N4N5
Nation: Canada
National Status: N4 (05Feb2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States California (SNR), Idaho (SNR), Montana (S3?), Nevada (SNR), Oregon (S5), Utah (SNR), Washington (SNR)
Canada Alberta (S1), British Columbia (S4)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Western white pine occurs only in western North America from British Columbia to California, eastwards to Utah and Montana.

Overall Threat Impact: High
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Although western white pine is a fire-adapted early seral species, trees are susceptible to fire which can damage the cambium layer. This usually results in the death of young trees and the creation of fire scars in older trees. Fire scars can provide an opening for disease, such as butt-rot fungi, to infect a tree. However, fire also removes the humus layer, preparing a favourable seedbed and eliminates competing plants. Large amounts of humus also can cause tree death from heating of the roots (Griffith 1992). White pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola), dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium spp.) and various species of bark beetles also are serious threats affecting populations. Pole blight, a xylem dysfunctional condition related to extreme climatic variation, results in massive cavitation, yellow foliage, crown dieback and the death of many trees. One critical factor with this specific condition was untimely soil frost and winter thaw-freeze cycles, whereas air pollution was determined not to relate to tree dieback for Pinus monticola (Auclair et al. 1990). Weather extremes with climate change may increase the occurrence of this condition in this species.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Pinus monticola is a long-lived (400+yrs) tree maturing at 7 years of age, however seed production can be limited by moisture stress and seed predation from cone beetles, cone moths, squirrels and deer mice. Good seed crops occur every 3 to 4 years and seeds can remain viable in ground duff for up to 4 years but successful germination decreases and seed mortality due from mould increases with time. Western white pine is considered as shade intolerant. (Griffith 1992)

Environmental Specificity: Broad. Generalist or community with all key requirements common.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Western white pine occurs only in western North America from British Columbia to California, eastwards to Utah and Montana.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA, ID, MT, NV, OR, UT, WA
Canada AB, BC

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History
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Habitat Comments: Western white pine occurs on a wide variety of sites from peat bogs to dry sandy soils and rocky ground, however it grows best in moist valleys or on slopes at near sea level to mid-elevations in mountains.
Economic Attributes
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Economically Important Genus: Y
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 24Mar2009
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: M. Anions

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Auclair A.N.D., H.C. Martin and S.L. Walker 1990. A case study of forest decline in western Canada and the adjacent United States. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 53(1-2).

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1993a. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Vol. 2. Pteridophytes and gymnosperms. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xvi + 475 pp.

  • Griffith, R.S. 1992. Pinus monticola. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: [4 February 2009]

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Little, E.L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agriculture Handbook No. 541. U.S. Forest Service, Washington, D.C. 375 pp.

  • Tomback, D.F. 2001a. Blister rust in white pine ecosystems: The imminent decline of western montane biodiversity. Phytopathology 91:S155

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