Pinguicula ionantha - Godfrey
Violet-flowered Butterwort
Other English Common Names: Godfrey's Butterwort, Violet Butterwort
Other Common Names: violet butterwort
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Pinguicula ionantha Godfrey (TSN 34436)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.154869
Element Code: PDLNT01020
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Bladderwort Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Scrophulariales Lentibulariaceae Pinguicula
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Pinguicula ionantha
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 20Apr2018
Global Status Last Changed: 01Jan1983
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Pinguicula ionantha is endemic to the central Florida panhandle counties. It is known from about 90 occurrences with most sites having few individuals. The species' habitat is declining in extent and quality due to logging, drainage alteration, and lack of fire.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Florida (S2)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LT: Listed threatened (12Jul1993)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R4 - Southeast

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Pinguicula ionantha is restricted to the central panhandle region of Florida with known occurrences in Bay, Calhoun, Franklin, Gulf, Liberty, and Walton counties (Wunderlin and Hansen 2008; USFWS 2009).

Area of Occupancy: 26-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 81 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: There are 90 extant occurrences, excluding historical EOs (NatureServe Network Database as of April 2018).

Population Size Comments: At most sites, the population usually consists of a few individuals. There were 11,671 plants reported as of 2009 (USFWS 2009). At least 2 EOs surveyed within last 5 years have 3000->5000 plants. At least 7 EOs surveyed within last 5 years have 400->1000 plants (NatureServe Network database as of April 2018).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Some (13-40)

Overall Threat Impact: High
Overall Threat Impact Comments: This species is threatened by land conversion and by habitat degradation due to lack of fire, shading by planted pines, and encroachment of shrubs and saplings (e.g., Cyrilla racemiflora and Cliftonia monophylla) into grassy bog and savannah vegetation. Other threats include excessive ground disturbance, improved drainage, fertilization of pine plantations, road widening and new roads, off-road vehicles, and collecting (USFWS 2009; USFS 2014).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 30-50%
Short-term Trend Comments: Current survey information indicates a decline in the number of populations. Eighty-three EOs distributed throughout this species' range were documented between 1956 and 2009 with an estimated 7,920 to 25,577 plants for 49 of those EOs. Based on current survey information, 22 (26%) of these 83 EOs appear to be extirpated due to development and/or habitat modification. The estimated maximum counts of plants were also affected, with a 46% decrease in numbers; only 11,671 plants are now reported for the remaining 61 EOs (USFWS 2009).

Long-term Trend: Decline of >70%
Long-term Trend Comments: It is estimated that between 85 and 98% of herb bog/savanna habitats have been lost (Folkerts 1982 cited by Kesler et al. 2008).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: For this species, population growth is highly impacted by fire suppression. Lack of fire, resulting in increased woody understory growth, decreases species emergence (USFWS 2009). In addition, Zaya et al. (2017) found relatively low levels of genetic diversity associated with this species.

Environmental Specificity: Very narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements scarce.
Environmental Specificity Comments: The Natural habitat of this species is restricted to seepage slopes, depressions in wet prairies/flatwoods and transition zones between flatwoods/wet prairies and cypress stringers, all of which need to be maintained with prescribed fire.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: Pinguicula ionantha is restricted to the central panhandle region of Florida with known occurrences in Bay, Calhoun, Franklin, Gulf, Liberty, and Walton counties (Wunderlin and Hansen 2008; USFWS 2009).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FL

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
FL Bay (12005), Calhoun (12013), Franklin (12037), Gulf (12045), Liberty (12077)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Lower Ochlockonee (03120003)+, Apalachicola (03130011)+, Chipola (03130012)+, New (03130013)+, Apalachicola Bay (03130014)+, St. Andrew-St. Joseph Bays (03140101)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: A perennial herb with numerous, bright green leaves, up to 8 cm long. Flowers are solitary, up to 2 cm wide, with a violet-colored throat and violet to white lobes (Clewell 1985.)
Technical Description: "Rosettes to about 15 cm across. Leaves bright green, oblong, rounded at their tips, essentially flat when fully developed with just the edges rolled upward, the upper surface clothed with short glandular hairs. Scapes mostly 10-15 cm tall, rather sparsely short-glandular pubescent. Upper lip of the calyx with oblong, rounded lobes about 4 mm long, those of the lower ovate-triangular, obtuse, 3 mm long, all dark olive green and usually suffused with some purplish pigment. Expanded corollas mostly about 2 cm across, the lobes obovate, shallowly notched, longer than broad, pale violet to white. Throat of the corolla and the tube deeper violet than the limb and with darker violet veins. Spur 4-5 mm long, yellow to olive, linear-cylindric. Palate 4-6 mm long, exserted from the throat, conical or narrowly cylindric, the upper 2/3 yellow and clothed with yellow, slender, clublike hairs some of whose tips turn red as they age; lower 1/3 of the palate on the upper side violet like the throat and bearing few or no hairs, hairy to the base on the lower side. Ridge of the corolla tube within and below the palate with relatively distant hairs having short, stout stalks and spherical to broadly oblong, orange to orange-red tips. Walls of the tube with relatively few, white, club-like hairs. Filaments pale violet to white, anthers and pollen very pale yellow. Larger lobe of the stigma violet to pale violet. Capsule depressed-globose, about 5 mm in diameter. Seeds oblong-cylindric to obpyramidal, the alveolae with 1 or 2 cross lines." (Godfrey and Wooten, 1981)
Diagnostic Characteristics: Distinguished from other southeastern Pinguicula species by corolla lobes longer than broad, uniformly violet to white (no ring of white above the throat), deeper violet in the throat, corolla tube violet, with darker violet veins, and white trichomes on the inner side wall of the corolla tube (Godfrey and Wooten, 1981).
Duration: PERENNIAL
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest/Woodland, Savanna, Woodland - Conifer
Habitat Comments: This species occurs on open, acidic soils of seepage bogs on gentle slopes, deep quagmire bogs, ditches, and depressions in grassy pine flatwoods and grassy savannas, often occurring in shallow standing water. Pinguicula ionantha occurs in herb bog habitats embedded in longleaf pine savannas. Specifically, it is found between a lower elevation habitat dominated by pond cypress (Taxodium ascendens) overstory and a slightly higher elevation pine flatwoods dominated by an overstory of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) (USFWS 2009).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary
Help
Stewardship Overview: There is a need for a comprehensive population survey to better assess the current status of this species" (USFWS 2009).  Frequent prescribed burnings (less than a 3-year interval), are needed to maintain optimal Pinguicula ionantha populations (Kesler et al. 2008 cited by USFWS 2009). 
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Group Name: Pinguicula spp.-SE US coastal plain-EOSPECS

Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Five individuals.
Separation Barriers: Pine plantations, long-unburned pine stands with dense shrub layer, developed or agricultural areas.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 1 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: N/A
Date: 18Sep2003
Author: Chafin, L.G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
Justification: Use the Generic Guidelines for the Application of Occurrence Ranks (2008).
The Key for Ranking Species Occurrences Using the Generic Approach provides a step-wise process for implementing this method.

Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 20Apr2018
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hardin, E.D. rev. C. Russell; rev. D.L. White, rev. A. Tomaino (2014) rev. J. Annis (2018)
Management Information Edition Date: 24Nov2014
Management Information Edition Author: Tomaino, A.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 17Mar1992
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): RUSSELL, C.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Annis, J.M.,  J.E. O?Brien, J.M. Coons, and B. Molano-Flores. 2013. Seed Ecology of Federally Threatened Pinguicula ionantha (Godfrey?s Butterwort). Department of Biological Sciences, Poster. Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, IL. [http://www.eiu.edu/biology/posters/2013-02.pdf]

  • CLEWELL, ANDRE F. 1985. GUIDE TO THE VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE FLORIDA PANHANDLE. UNIV. PRESSES OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE, FL. 605 PP.

  • Clewell, A.F. 1985. Guide to vascular plants of the Florida panhandle. Florida State Univ. Press, Tallahassee, Florida. 605 pp.

  • Godfrey, R.K., and J.W. Wooten. 1981. Aquatic and wetland plants of southeastern United States: Dicotyledons. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens. 933 pp.

  • Hall, D.W. 1993. Illustrated plants of Florida and the Coastal Plain. Maupin House, Gainesville, Florida. 431 pp.

  • Hall, David W. 1993. Illustrated plants of Florida and the coastal plain. Maupin House, Gainesville, FL. pp. 431.

  • KRAL, R. 1983.A REPORT ON SOME RARE,THREATENED,OR ENDANGEREDFOREST-RELATED VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE SOUTH.VOL I ISOETACEAETHROUGH EUPHORBIACEAE;VOL II AQUIFOLIACEA THROUGH ASTERACEAE& GLOSSARY.USDA FOREST SERV,SE REG.,ATL,GA. TECH PUBL R8-TP2

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kephart, S.R. 2004. Inbreeding and reintroduction: progeny success in rare Silene populations of varied density. Conservation Genetics 5:49-61.

  • Kesler, H.C. 2006. Conservation of a Florida endemic carnivorous plant: Godfrey?s butterwort, Pinguicula ionantha. Thesis. Auburn University, Auburn AL. 85 pp.

  • Kesler, H.C., J.L. Trusty, S.M. Hermann, and C. Guyer. 2008. Demographic responses of Pinguicula ionantha to prescribed fire: a regression-design LTRE approach. Oecologia 156: 545-557.

  • Kral, R. 1983c. A report on some rare, threatened, or endangered forest-related vascular plants of the South. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service Technical Publication R8-TP2, Athens, GA. 1305 pp.

  • Robinson, A.F., Jr., ed. 1980b. Endangered and threatened species of the southeastern United States including Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. U.S. Forest Service General Rept. SA-GA 7.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1992. Proposed threatened status for the plant Pinguicula ionantha (Godfrey's butterwort). Federal Register 57(98): 21377-21381.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2009. Pinguicula ionantha, Godfrey?s butterwort, 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Southeast Region, Panama City Field Office, Panama City, Florida.

  • U.S. Forest Service (USFS). 2014. Threatened, Endangered, and Proposed (TEP) Plant Profile for Pinguicula ionantha, Godfrey?s butterwort. Online. Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/Rare_Plants/profiles/TEP/pinguicula_ionantha/index.shtml (accessed 2014).

  • WUNDERLIN, RICHARD P. 1982. GUIDE TO THE VASCULAR PLANTS OF CENTRAL FLORIDA. UNIV. PRESSES OF FLA., TAMPA, ST. PETERSBURG, FT. MEYERS, SARASOTA

  • Wunderlin, R. P., and B. F. Hansen. 2008. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. Online. Available: http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu. [S. M. Landry and K. N. Campbell (application development), Florida Center for Community Design and Research.] Institute for Systematic Botany, University of South Florida, Tampa.

  • Wunderlin, R.P. 1982. Guide to the vascular plants of central Florida. Univ. Presses Florida, Gainesville. 472 pp.

  • Zaya, D.N., B. Monano-Flores, M.A. Feist, J.A. Koontz, and J. Coons. 2017. Assessing genetic diversity for the USA endemic carnivorous plant Pinguicula ionantha R.K. Godfrey (Lentibulariaceae). Conservation Genetics 18:171-180.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2019.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2019 NatureServe, 2511 Richmond (Jefferson Davis) Highway, Suite 930, Arlington, VA 22202, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2019. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.