Pimephales promelas - Rafinesque, 1820
Fathead Minnow
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Pimephales promelas Rafinesque, 1820 (TSN 163517)
French Common Names: tête-de-boule
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.102599
Element Code: AFCJB32020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Minnows and Carps
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Pimephales
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Pimephales promelas
Taxonomic Comments: NOR chromosomal data support monophyly of the four extant species of Pimephales and suggest that the genus Pimephales belongs in a monophyletic assemblage with, among others, the cyprinid genera Cyprinella and Opsopoeodus (Li and Gold 1991); Coburn and Cavender (1992) also indicated that these three genera are phylogenetically closely related.
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 17Aug2015
Global Status Last Changed: 17Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Widespread in North America; inhabits a variety of aquatic habitats, and tolerant of high temperatures, turbidity, and low oxygen.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (17Aug2015)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (SNA), Arizona (SNA), Arkansas (S4), California (SNA), Colorado (S5), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (SNA), Georgia (SNA), Idaho (SNA), Illinois (S5), Indiana (S4), Iowa (S5), Kansas (S5), Kentucky (S4S5), Louisiana (S4), Maine (SU), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (SNA), Michigan (S5), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (SNA), Missouri (SNR), Montana (S4S5), Navajo Nation (SNA), Nebraska (S5), Nevada (SNA), New Hampshire (SNA), New Mexico (SNA), New York (S5), North Carolina (SNA), North Dakota (SNR), Oklahoma (S5), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (S4), South Dakota (S5), Tennessee (SNA), Texas (S5), Utah (SNA), Vermont (S4), Virginia (S4), Washington (SNA), West Virginia (S4), Wisconsin (S5), Wyoming (S5)
Canada Alberta (S5), British Columbia (SNA), Manitoba (S5), Northwest Territories (SU), Ontario (S5), Quebec (S5), Saskatchewan (S5)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Throughout much of North America, from Alberta and Northwest Territories to Quebec and New Brunswick, south to Alabama, Texas, northern Mexico (Chihuahua), and New Mexico; introduced in Colorado River drainage (Arizona and New Mexico), Mobile Bay drainage (Alabama), and elsewhere, through use as bait fish; most common in Great Plains, generally absent from mountains, absent on Atlantic Slope south of Delaware River; common over much of range (Page and Burr 1991).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of subpopulations and locations.

Population Size: 10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but relatively large.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Localized threats may exist, but on a range-wide scale no major threats are known.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable or slowly declining.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: Throughout much of North America, from Alberta and Northwest Territories to Quebec and New Brunswick, south to Alabama, Texas, northern Mexico (Chihuahua), and New Mexico; introduced in Colorado River drainage (Arizona and New Mexico), Mobile Bay drainage (Alabama), and elsewhere, through use as bait fish; most common in Great Plains, generally absent from mountains, absent on Atlantic Slope south of Delaware River; common over much of range (Page and Burr 1991).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States ALexotic, AR, AZexotic, CAexotic, CO, CTexotic, DEexotic, GAexotic, IA, IDexotic, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MAexotic, MDexotic, ME, MI, MN, MO, MSexotic, MT, NCexotic, ND, NE, NHexotic, NMexotic, NNexotic, NVexotic, NY, OK, ORexotic, PA, SD, TN, TX, UTexotic, VA, VT, WAexotic, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, BCexotic, MB, NT, ON, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NE Cherry (31031), Logan (31113), Sheridan (31161)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Aroostook (01010004), West Branch Penobscot (01020001), East Branch Penobscot (01020002), Piscataquis (01020004), Lower Kennebec (01030003), Upper Androscoggin (01040001), St. Croix (01050001), Maine Coastal (01050002), Presumpscot (01060001), Saco (01060002)
02 Lake George (02010001), Otter (02010002), Winooski (02010003), Ausable (02010004), Lamoille (02010005), Great Chazy-Saranac (02010006), Missisquoi (02010007), Hudson-Hoosic (02020003), Mohawk (02020004), Schoharie (02020005), Middle Hudson (02020006), Rondout (02020007), Hudson-Wappinger (02020008), Upper Delaware (02040101), East Branch Delaware (02040102), Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead (02040104), Upper Susquehanna (02050101), Chenango (02050102), Owego-Wappasening (02050103), Tioga (02050104), Chemung (02050105)
03 Upper Broad (03050105), Middle Chattahoochee-Lake Harding (03130002)
04 Baptism-Brule (04010101), Beaver-Lester (04010102), St. Louis (04010201), Cloquet (04010202), Beartrap-Nemadji (04010301), Bad-Montreal (04010302), Manitowoc-Sheboygan (04030101), Door-Kewaunee (04030102), Duck-Pensaukee (04030103), Oconto (04030104), Peshtigo (04030105), Brule (04030106), Menominee (04030108), Escanaba (04030110), Fishdam-Sturgeon (04030112), Upper Fox (04030201), Wolf (04030202), Lake Winnebago (04030203), Lower Fox (04030204), Pike-Root (04040002), Milwaukee (04040003), Manistique (04060106), Ottawa-Stony (04100001), St. Joseph (04100003), St. Marys (04100004), Upper Maumee (04100005), Tiffin (04100006), Auglaize (04100007), Blanchard (04100008), Lower Maumee (04100009), Cedar-Portage (04100010), Sandusky (04100011), Huron-Vermilion (04100012)*, Black-Rocky (04110001), Cuyahoga (04110002), Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003), Grand (04110004), Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101), Cattaraugus (04120102), Buffalo-Eighteenmile (04120103), Niagara (04120104), Lake Erie (04120200), Oak Orchard-Twelvemile (04130001), Upper Genesee (04130002), Lower Genesee (04130003), Salmon-Sandy (04140102), Seneca (04140201), Oneida (04140202), Chaumont-Perch (04150102), Upper St. Lawrence (04150301), Oswegatchie (04150302), Grass (04150304), Raquette (04150305), St. Regis (04150306), English-Salmon (04150307)
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001), Conewango (05010002), Middle Allegheny-Tionesta (05010003), French (05010004), Conemaugh (05010007), Lower Allegheny (05010009), Upper Ohio (05030101), Shenango (05030102), Mahoning (05030103), Connoquenessing (05030105), Upper Ohio-Wheeling (05030106)*, Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201), Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202), Hocking (05030204), Tuscarawas (05040001), Walhonding (05040003), Muskingum (05040004), Wills (05040005), Licking (05040006), Upper Scioto (05060001), Lower Scioto (05060002), Paint (05060003)*, Big Sandy (05070204), Upper Great Miami (05080001), Lower Great Miami (05080002)*, Whitewater (05080003), Raccoon-Symmes (05090101), Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103), Little Sandy (05090104), Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201), Little Miami (05090202), Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203), Licking (05100101), South Fork Licking (05100102), North Fork Kentucky (05100201), Middle Fork Kentucky (05100202), South Fork Kentucky (05100203), Upper Kentucky (05100204), Lower Kentucky (05100205), Upper Green (05110001), Barren (05110002), Middle Green (05110003), Upper Wabash (05120101), Salamonie (05120102), Mississinewa (05120103), Eel (05120104), Tippecanoe (05120106), Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108), Vermilion (05120109), Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111)*, Embarras (05120112), Little Wabash (05120114)*, Upper White (05120201), Eel (05120203), Driftwood (05120204), Lower East Fork White (05120208), Upper Cumberland (05130101), Rockcastle (05130102), Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103), South Fork Cumberland (05130104), Upper Cumberland-Cordell Hull (05130106), Caney (05130108), Lower Cumberland-Old Hickory Lake (05130201), Lower Cumberland-Sycamore (05130202), Lower Cumberland (05130205), Red (05130206), Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Blue-Sinking (05140104), Highland-Pigeon (05140202)
06 South Fork Holston (06010102), Watauga (06010103), Holston (06010104), Upper French Broad (06010105), Lower French Broad (06010107), Nolichucky (06010108), Watts Bar Lake (06010201), Upper Clinch (06010205), Powell (06010206), Lower Clinch (06010207), Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001), Hiwassee (06020002), Upper Elk (06030003), Lower Elk (06030004), Pickwick Lake (06030005), Upper Duck (06040002), Lower Duck (06040003), Kentucky Lake (06040005), Lower Tennessee (06040006)
07 Mississippi Headwaters (07010101), Prairie-Willow (07010103), Elk-Nokasippi (07010104), Crow Wing (07010106), Platte-Spunk (07010201), Sauk (07010202), Clearwater-Elk (07010203), Twin Cities (07010206), Rum (07010207), Upper Minnesota (07020001), Pomme De Terre (07020002), Lac Qui Parle (07020003), Hawk-Yellow Medicine (07020004), Redwood (07020006), Middle Minnesota (07020007), Cottonwood (07020008), Blue Earth (07020009), Watonwan (07020010), Le Sueur (07020011), Lower Minnesota (07020012), Upper St. Croix (07030001), Namekagon (07030002), Kettle (07030003), Snake (07030004), Lower St. Croix (07030005), Rush-Vermillion (07040001), Cannon (07040002), Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003), Zumbro (07040004), Trempealeau (07040005), La Crosse-Pine (07040006), Black (07040007), Root (07040008), Upper Chippewa (07050001), Flambeau (07050002), South Fork Flambeau (07050003), Jump (07050004), Lower Chippewa (07050005), Eau Claire (07050006), Red Cedar (07050007), Coon-Yellow (07060001), Upper Iowa (07060002), Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003), Turkey (07060004), Apple-Plum (07060005), Maquoketa (07060006), Upper Wisconsin (07070001), Lake Dubay (07070002), Castle Rock (07070003), Baraboo (07070004), Lower Wisconsin (07070005), Kickapoo (07070006), Copperas-Duck (07080101), Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102), Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103), Flint-Henderson (07080104), South Skunk (07080105), North Skunk (07080106), Skunk (07080107), Upper Cedar (07080201), Shell Rock (07080202), Winnebago (07080203), West Fork Cedar (07080204), Middle Cedar (07080205), Lower Cedar (07080206), Upper Iowa (07080207), Middle Iowa (07080208), Lower Iowa (07080209), Upper Rock (07090001), Crawfish (07090002), Pecatonica (07090003), Sugar (07090004), Lower Rock (07090005), Kishwaukee (07090006), Green (07090007), Des Moines Headwaters (07100001), Upper Des Moines (07100002), East Fork Des Moines (07100003), Middle Des Moines (07100004), Boone (07100005), North Raccoon (07100006), South Raccoon (07100007), Lake Red Rock (07100008), Lower Des Moines (07100009), Bear-Wyaconda (07110001), North Fabius (07110002), South Fabius (07110003), The Sny (07110004), North Fork Salt (07110005), South Fork Salt (07110006), Salt (07110007), Cuivre (07110008), Peruque-Piasa (07110009)*, Kankakee (07120001), Iroquois (07120002), Chicago (07120003), Des Plaines (07120004), Upper Illinois (07120005), Upper Fox (07120006), Lower Fox (07120007), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001), Vermilion (07130002), Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003), Mackinaw (07130004), Spoon (07130005), Upper Sangamon (07130006)*, South Fork Sangamon (07130007), Lower Sangamon (07130008)*, Salt (07130009), La Moine (07130010), Lower Illinois (07130011), Macoupin (07130012), Cahokia-Joachim (07140101), Meramec (07140102), Bourbeuse (07140103), Big (07140104)*, Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105), Upper Kaskaskia (07140201), Middle Kaskaskia (07140202), Shoal (07140203), Lower Kaskaskia (07140204)*
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100), Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201), Obion (08010202), South Fork Obion (08010203), North Fork Forked Deer (08010204)
09 Upper Souris (09010001), Willow (09010004), Bois De Sioux (09020101), Mustinka (09020102), Otter Tail (09020103), Elm-Marsh (09020107), Eastern Wild Rice (09020108), Middle Sheyenne (09020203), Sandhill-Wilson (09020301), Red Lakes (09020302), Red Lake (09020303), Thief (09020304), Snake (09020309), Lower Red (09020311), Two Rivers (09020312), Rainy Headwaters (09030001), Lake of the Woods (09030009)
10 Upper Missouri-Dearborn (10030102), Smith (10030103), Belt (10030105), Cut Bank (10030202), Marias (10030203), Willow (10030204), Bullwhacker-Dog (10040101), Arrow (10040102), Judith (10040103), Fort Peck Reservoir (10040104), Big Dry (10040105), Little Dry (10040106), Upper Musselshell (10040201), Middle Musselshell (10040202), Flatwillow (10040203), Box Elder (10040204), Lower Musselshell (10040205), Upper Milk (10050002), Wild Horse Lake (10050003), Middle Milk (10050004), Big Sandy (10050005), Sage (10050006), Lodge (10050007), Battle (10050008), Peoples (10050009), Cottonwood (10050010), Whitewater (10050011), Lower Milk (10050012), Frenchman (10050013), Beaver (10050014), Rock (10050015), Porcupine (10050016), Prarie Elk-Wolf (10060001), Redwater (10060002), Poplar (10060003), West Fork Poplar (10060004), Charlie-Little Muddy (10060005), Big Muddy (10060006), Upper Yellowstone-Lake Basin (10070004), Clarks Fork Yellowstone (10070006), Upper Yellowstone-Pompeys Pillar (10070007), Pryor (10070008), Little Wind (10080002), Popo Agie (10080003), Lower Wind (10080005), Badwater (10080006), Upper Bighorn (10080007), Nowood (10080008), Greybull (10080009), Big Horn Lake (10080010), Dry (10080011), Lower Bighorn (10080015), Little Bighorn (10080016), Upper Tongue (10090101), Lower Tongue (10090102), Middle Fork Powder (10090201), Upper Powder (10090202), South Fork Powder (10090203), Salt (10090204), Crazy Woman (10090205), Clear (10090206), Middle Powder (10090207), Little Powder (10090208), Lower Powder (10090209), Mizpah (10090210), Lower Yellowstone-Sunday (10100001), Big Porcupine (10100002), Rosebud (10100003), Lower Yellowstone (10100004), O'fallon (10100005), Upper Little Missouri (10110201), Boxelder (10110202), Beaver (10110204), Antelope (10120101), Upper Cheyenne (10120103), Lance (10120104), Lightning (10120105), Angostura Reservoir (10120106), Beaver (10120107), Hat (10120108), Middle Cheyenne-Spring (10120109), Rapid (10120110), Cherry (10120113), Upper Belle Fourche (10120201), Lower Belle Fourche (10120202), Redwater (10120203), Painted Woods-Square Butte (10130101), Upper Lake Oahe (10130102), Apple (10130103), Lower Lake Oahe (10130105), South Fork Grand (10130302), Grand (10130303), Lower Moreau (10130306), Fort Randall Reservoir (10140101), Bad (10140102), Crow (10140105), Upper White (10140201), Little White (10140203), Lower White (10140204), Ponca (10150001), Niobrara Headwaters (10150002), Upper Niobrara (10150003)+, Middle Niobrara (10150004), Snake (10150005), Keya Paha (10150006), Lower Niobrara (10150007), James Headwaters (10160001), Pipestem (10160002), Upper James (10160003), Elm (10160004), Middle James (10160006), North Big Sioux Coteau (10160010), Lower James (10160011), Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101), Vermillion (10170102), South Big Sioux Coteau (10170103), Middle Big Sioux Coteau (10170201), Upper Big Sioux (10170202), Lower Big Sioux (10170203), Rock (10170204), Upper North Platte (10180002), Pathfinder-Seminoe Reservoirs (10180003), Medicine Bow (10180004), Little Medicine Bow (10180005), Sweetwater (10180006), Middle North Platte-Casper (10180007), Glendo Reservoir (10180008), Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff (10180009), Upper Laramie (10180010), Lower Laramie (10180011), Horse (10180012), Pumpkin (10180013), Lower North Platte (10180014), Upper South Platte (10190002), Middle South Platte-Cherry Creek (10190003), Clear (10190004), St. Vrain (10190005), Big Thompson (10190006), Cache La Poudre (10190007), Lone Tree-Owl (10190008), Crow (10190009), Kiowa (10190010), Bijou (10190011), Middle South Platte-Sterling (10190012), Beaver (10190013), Pawnee (10190014), Upper Lodgepole (10190015), Lower Lodgepole (10190016), Sidney Draw (10190017), Lower South Platte (10190018), Middle Platte-Buffalo (10200101), Wood (10200102), Middle Platte-Prairie (10200103), Lower Platte-Shell (10200201), Lower Platte (10200202), Salt (10200203), Upper Middle Loup (10210001), Dismal (10210002), Lower Middle Loup (10210003), South Loup (10210004)+, Mud (10210005), Upper North Loup (10210006)+, Lower North Loup (10210007), Calamus (10210008), Loup (10210009), Cedar (10210010), Upper Elkhorn (10220001), North Fork Elkhorn (10220002), Lower Elkhorn (10220003), Logan (10220004), Blackbird-Soldier (10230001), Floyd (10230002), Little Sioux (10230003), Monona-Harrison Ditch (10230004), Maple (10230005), Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006), Boyer (10230007), Keg-Weeping Water (10240001), West Nishnabotna (10240002), East Nishnabotna (10240003), Nishnabotna (10240004), Tarkio-Wolf (10240005), Little Nemaha (10240006), South Fork Big Nemaha (10240007), Big Nemaha (10240008), West Nodaway (10240009), Nodaway (10240010), Independence-Sugar (10240011), Platte (10240012), One Hundred and Two (10240013), Arikaree (10250001), North Fork Republican (10250002), South Fork Republican (10250003), Upper Republican (10250004), Frenchman (10250005), Stinking Water (10250006), Red Willow (10250007), Medicine (10250008), Harlan County Reservoir (10250009), Upper Sappa (10250010), Lower Sappa (10250011), South Fork Beaver (10250012), Little Beaver (10250013), Beaver (10250014), Prairie Dog (10250015), Middle Republican (10250016), Lower Republican (10250017), Smoky Hill Headwaters (10260001), North Fork Smoky Hill (10260002), Upper Smoky Hill (10260003), Ladder (10260004), Hackberry (10260005), Middle Smoky Hill (10260006), Big (10260007), Lower Smoky Hill (10260008), Upper Saline (10260009), Lower Saline (10260010), Upper North Fork Solomon (10260011), Lower North Fork Solomon (10260012), Upper South Fork Solomon (10260013), Lower South Fork Solomon (10260014), Solomon (10260015), Upper Kansas (10270101), Middle Kansas (10270102), Delaware (10270103), Lower Kansas (10270104), Upper Big Blue (10270201), Middle Big Blue (10270202), West Fork Big Blue (10270203), Turkey (10270204), Lower Big Blue (10270205), Upper Little Blue (10270206), Lower Little Blue (10270207), Upper Grand (10280101), Thompson (10280102), Lower Grand (10280103), Upper Chariton (10280201), Lower Chariton (10280202), Little Chariton (10280203), Upper Marais Des Cygnes (10290101), Lower Marais Des Cygnes (10290102), Little Osage (10290103), Marmaton (10290104), Pomme De Terre (10290107), South Grand (10290108), Lake of the Ozarks (10290109), Lower Osage (10290111)*, Lower Gasconade (10290203), Lower Missouri-Crooked (10300101), Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102), Lamine (10300103), Blackwater (10300104), Lower Missouri (10300200)
11 Beaver Reservoir (11010001), James (11010002), Upper Arkansas (11020002), Fountain (11020003), Chico (11020004), Upper Arkansas-Lake Meredith (11020005), Huerfano (11020006), Apishapa (11020007), Horse (11020008), Upper Arkansas-John Martin (11020009), Purgatoire (11020010), Big Sandy (11020011), Rush (11020012), Two Butte (11020013), Middle Arkansas-Lake Mckinney (11030001), Whitewoman (11030002), Arkansas-Dodge City (11030003), Coon-Pickerel (11030004), Pawnee (11030005), Buckner (11030006), Upper Walnut Creek (11030007), Lower Walnut Creek (11030008), Rattlesnake (11030009), Gar-Peace (11030010), Cow (11030011), Little Arkansas (11030012), Middle Arkansas-Slate (11030013), North Fork Ninnescah (11030014), South Fork Ninnescah (11030015), Ninnescah (11030016), Upper Walnut River (11030017), Lower Walnut River (11030018), Cimarron headwaters (11040001), Upper Cimarron (11040002), North Fork Cimarron (11040003), Bear (11040005), Upper Cimarron-Liberal (11040006), Crooked (11040007), Upper Cimarron-Bluff (11040008), Lower Cimarron-Eagle Chief (11050001), Lower Cimarron-Skeleton (11050002), Lower Cimarron (11050003), Kaw Lake (11060001), Upper Salt Fork Arkansas (11060002), Medicine Lodge (11060003), Lower Salt Fork Arkansas (11060004), Chikaskia (11060005), Black Bear-Red Rock (11060006), Upper Verdigris (11070101), Fall (11070102), Middle Verdigris (11070103), Elk (11070104), Lower Verdigris (11070105), Caney (11070106), Bird (11070107), Neosho headwaters (11070201), Upper Cottonwood (11070202), Lower Cottonwood (11070203), Upper Neosho (11070204), Middle Neosho (11070205), Lake O' the Cherokees (11070206), Spring (11070207), Lower Neosho (11070209), Canadian headwaters (11080001), Cimarron (11080002), Upper Canadian (11080003), Mora (11080004), Conchas (11080005), Upper Canadian-Ute Reservoir (11080006), Ute (11080007), Middle Canadian-Trujillo (11090101), Punta De Agua (11090102)*, Rita Blanca (11090103), Lake Meredith (11090105), Lower Canadian-Deer (11090201), Lower Canadian-Walnut (11090202), Little (11090203), Lower Canadian (11090204), Upper Beaver (11100101), Middle Beaver (11100102), Lower Beaver (11100201), Lower Wolf (11100203), Middle North Canadian (11100301), Lower North Canadian (11100302), Deep Fork (11100303), Polecat-Snake (11110101), Dirty-Greenleaf (11110102), Illinois (11110103), Lower Salt Fork Red (11120202), Middle North Fork Red (11120302), Lower North Fork Red (11120303), Elm Fork Red (11120304), Groesbeck-Sandy (11130101), Blue-China (11130102), Farmers-Mud (11130201), Cache (11130202), West Cache (11130203), Wichita (11130206), Northern Beaver (11130208), Washita headwaters (11130301), Upper Washita (11130302), Middle Washita (11130303)
12 Upper West Fork Trinity (12030101), Yellow House Draw (12050001), Double Moutain Fork Brazos (12050004), Middle Brazos-Palo Pinto (12060201), Middle Brazos-Lake Whitney (12060202), North Bosque (12060204), Leon (12070201), Cowhouse (12070202), Lampasas (12070203), Colorado headwaters (12080002), Sulphur Springs Draw (12080006), Middle Colorado-Elm (12090101), Concho (12090105), Middle Colorado (12090106), Pecan Bayou (12090107), Brady (12090110), Buchanan-Lyndon B (12090201), Llano (12090204), Austin-Travis Lakes (12090205), Pedernales (12090206), Upper Guadalupe (12100201)
13 Alamosa-Trinchera (13010002), Upper Rio Grande (13020101), Rio Chama (13020102), Rio Grande-Santa Fe (13020201), Jemez (13020202), Rio Grande-Albuquerque (13020203), Elephant Butte Reservoir (13020211), Caballo (13030101), El Paso-Las Cruces (13030102), Pecos headwaters (13060001), Upper Pecos (13060003), Arroyo Del Macho (13060005), Upper Pecos-Long Arroyo (13060007), Rio Hondo (13060008), Rio Felix (13060009), Rio Penasco (13060010), Upper Pecos-Black (13060011)
14 Upper Colorado-Kane Springs (14030005), Lower Green-Diamond (14060001), Lower Green-Desolation Canyon (14060005), Lower Green (14060008), Upper Lake Powell (14070001), Muddy (14070002), Fremont (14070003), Lower Lake Powell (14070006), Upper San Juan (14080101), Middle San Juan (14080105), Lower San Juan-Four Corners (14080201), Lower San Juan (14080205)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: A small fish (minnow).
Reproduction Comments: Spawns in spring and summer. Eggs guarded by male, hatch in 4-6 days at 23-30 C. Sexually mature at age 0-III, at older age in north than in south. Most adults die after spawning.
Ecology Comments: Schooling species.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Lakes, ponds, headwaters, creeks, small rivers, ditches, reservoirs, residual pools of intermittent streams (where sometimes very abundant); usually in sluggish or still water with abundant floating and submerged vegetation; tolerant of high temperature, turbidity, low oxygen, and high salinity. Adapts well to pond culture. Eggs are laid on underside of object in quiet water in nest guarded by male. Larvae collected in shoreline drift in upper Colorado River (where introduced).
Adult Food Habits: Herbivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: Feeds opportunistically in soft bottom mud; eats algae and other plants, insects, small crustaceans, and other invertebrates (Becker 1983, Sublette et al. 1990).
Length: 10 centimeters
Economic Attributes
Help
Economic Comments: Popular bait fish; one of the 3 most widely cultured bait species (Sublette et al. 1990). A strain referred to as "rosy-red" minnow has been developed primarily for the pet trade (Page and Burr 1991). Has been used in carcinogenesis testing (Metcalfe 1989).
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Group Name: Small Cyprinids

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat. For some species (e.g., slender chub), an impoundment may constitute a barrier. For others (e.g., flame chub) a stream larger than 4th order may be a barrier.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for cyprinids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large cyprinids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 17Sep1996
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Cannings, S. G., and G. Hammerson
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 14Sep1993
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Aquin, P. 1999. Évaluation de la situation des groupes taxonomiques des poissons du Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune. 9 pages.

  • Atton, F.M. and J.J. Merkowsky. 1983. Atlas of Saskatchewan Fish. Saskatchewan Department of Parks and Renewable Resources, Fisheries Branch Technical Report 83-2. 281pp.

  • Coburn, M. M., and T. M. Cavender. 1992. Interrelationships of North American cyprinid fishes. Pages 328-373 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Fisheries Branch. 1991. Fish Species Distributions in Saskatchewan. Report 91-7. Saskatchewan Parks and Renewable Resources, Fisheries Branch. Regina. 102pp.

  • Isaak, D. 1961. The ecological life history of the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque). Dissertation Abstracts 22(6):2113-2114.

  • Legendre, V. et J.F. Bergeron. 1977. Liste des poissons d' eau douce du Québec. MLCP, Service Aménage. Expl. Faune. Rap. dact. 6

  • Li, Y., and J. R. Gold. 1991. Cytogenetic studies in North American minnows (Cyprinidae): XXII. Chromosomal nucleolar organizer regions in the genus Pimephales. Canadian Journal of Zoology 69:2826-2830.

  • Li, Y., and J. R. Gold. 1991. Cytogenetic studies in North American minnows (Cyprinidae): XXII. Chromosomal nucleolar organizer regions in the genus PIMEPHALES. Can. J. Zool. 69:2826-2830.

  • Markus, H.C. 1934. Life history of the blackhead minnow, Pimephales promelas. Copeia 1934(3):116-122.

  • Metcalfe, C. D. 1989. Tests for predicting carcinogenicity in fish. Reviews in Aquatic Sciences 1(1):111-129.

  • Moyle, P. B. 2002. Inland fishes of California. Revised and expanded. University of California Press, Berkeley. xv + 502 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Saskatchewan Environment and Resource Management. 1996. The Fisheries Regulations being Chapter F-16.1 Reg 1 (effective 9 May 1995) as ammended by Saskatchewan Regulations 13/96.

  • Scott, W. B., and E. J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184. 966 pp.

  • Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman. 1979. Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada. Bull. 84. 966pp.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Baxter, G. T., and J. R. Simon. 1970. Wyoming fishes. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne, Wyoming, 168 pp.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Holton, G. D., and H. E. Johnson. 1996. A field guide to Montana fishes. 2nd edition. Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Montana State Parks and wildlife Interpretive Association, Helena, Montana. 104 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Menhinick, E. F. 1991. The freshwater fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. 227 pp.

  • Miller, W. H., H. M. Tyus, and C. A. Carlson. 1982. Fishes of the upper Colorado system: present and future. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. 131 pp.

  • Owen, J. B., D. S. Elsen and G. W. Russell. 1981. Distribution of fishes in North and South Dakota basins affected by the Garrison Diversion Unit. University of North Dakota Press, Grand Forks, North Dakota. 211 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1983. Fishes of New York (maps and printout of a draft section on scarce fishes of New York). Unpublished draft.

  • Smith, C. L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, New York, xi + 522 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

  • Sublette, J. E., M. D Hatch, and M. Sublette. 1990. The fishes of New Mexico. University New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 393 pp.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of November 2016.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2017 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.