Physa gyrina - Say, 1821
Tadpole Physa
Synonym(s): Physella gyrina (Say, 1821)
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Physa gyrina (Say, 1821) (TSN 76678) ;Physella gyrina (Say, 1821) (TSN 76735)
French Common Names: physe commune
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.815075
Element Code: IMGASL9130
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Mollusks - Freshwater Snails
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mollusca Gastropoda Basommatophora Physidae Physa
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Wethington, A.R. and C. Lydeard. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of Physidae (Gastropoda: Basommatophora) based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 73(3): 241-257.
Concept Reference Code: A07WET01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Physa gyrina
Taxonomic Comments: Taylor (2003) lists this species as Physella [= Physa] gyrina. It is likely that Physella wrighti is the evolutionary source of the ancestral population from which Physella johnsoni and Physella gyrina were derived (Remigio et al., 2001). Dillon et al. (2004) found postmating reproductive isolation between P. acuta and P. gyrina. Possibly Physa wrighti, Physa aurea, and Physa gyrina (from Cooper Springs, Virginia, only) may be part of a single monophyletic species (Wetherton and Guralnick, 2004). Dillon and Wethington (2004) reported no postzygotic reproductive isolation between populations of P. gyrina, P. ancillaria, P. aurea, P. microstriata and P. utahensis collected at or near their type localites. The results of the Dillon and Wethington (2006) genetic survey of Michigan physid populations suggested that P. sayii and P. parkeri are synonyms of P. gyrina. Additional junior synonyms postulated by Dillon et al. (2006) include P. crocata, P. elliptica, P. inflata, P. hildrethiana, P. microstoma, P. lordi, and P. oleacea. A study of molecular phylogeny of the family Physidae conducted by Wethington and Lydeard (2007) resulted in proposed monophyly of the family and supported six major clades, each with a corresponding difference in penial morphology; with Physa gyrina falling within the type b group.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 01Aug2017
Global Status Last Changed: 14Sep1999
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: This species is distributed in temperate and sub-Arctic North America from southern Alaska and northwestern Canada (but not in the extreme north) east and southeast to central Labrador, western New England and the vicinity of New York City; south to central California, Nevada, Utah, and Colorado; to the central Great Plains in eastern Kandas and eastern Oklahoma; east to the southern Appalachian Mountains; and also southward at higher elevations in discontinuous areas on the Mogollon Plateau and White Maountains, Arizona; Jemez, San Juan, Sangre de Cristo, and Zuni Mountains, New Mexico (Taylor, 2003). This species has a wide distribution, presumed large population, occurrence in a number of protected areas, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, tolerance to habitat modification, lack of substantial immediate threats, and because it is not in decline or is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (14Sep1999)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (01Aug2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S5), Arizona (SNR), Arkansas (SNR), California (SNR), Colorado (S5), Connecticut (S4), Delaware (SNR), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S5), Hawaii (SNA), Idaho (S5), Illinois (SNR), Indiana (SNR), Iowa (SNR), Kansas (SNR), Kentucky (S5), Louisiana (SNR), Maine (SNR), Maryland (SNR), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (SNR), Missouri (SNR), Montana (SNR), Nebraska (SNR), Nevada (SNR), New Hampshire (SNR), New Jersey (SNR), New Mexico (SNR), New York (S5), North Carolina (S5), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (SNR), Oklahoma (S4?), Oregon (S5), Pennsylvania (S5), Rhode Island (SNR), South Carolina (SNR), South Dakota (SNR), Tennessee (S5), Texas (SNR), Utah (S5), Vermont (SNR), Virginia (S5), Washington (S4S5), Wisconsin (S5), Wyoming (S4)
Canada Alberta (S5), British Columbia (S5), Labrador (SU), Manitoba (S5), New Brunswick (SU), Newfoundland Island (SU), Northwest Territories (SNR), Nova Scotia (SU), Nunavut (SU), Ontario (S5), Prince Edward Island (SU), Quebec (SNR), Saskatchewan (S5), Yukon Territory (S4S5)

Other Statuses

Implied Status under the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC):PS:DD
Comments on COSEWIC: Subspecies latchfordi is designated Data Deficient due to unresolved taxonomy.
IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: This species is distributed in temperatee and sub-Arctic North America from southern Alaska and northwestern Canada (but not in the extreme north) east and southeast to central Labrador, western New England and the vicinity of New York City; south to central California, Nevada, Utah, and Colorado; to the central Great Plains in eastern Kandas and eastern Oklahoma; east to the southern Appalachian Mountains; and also southward at higher elevations in discontinuous areas on the Mogollon Plateau and White Mountains, Arizona; Jemez, San Juan, Sangre de Cristo, and Zuni Mountains, New Mexico (Taylor, 2003). Burch (1989) lists several supposed synonyms including Physella gyrina gyrina from Canada, Quebec to Ontario south to Nebraska and east to New York; Physella gyrina gyrina morph elliptica and morph hildrethiana from Ontario south to Iowa and Missouri and east to New York; Physella gyrina alba from eastern Canada to Ontario and northeastern U.S.; Physella gyrina ampullacea from Manitoba west to British Columbia and south to California and east to Arizona and north to Minnesota; Physella gyrina athearni from Alberta; Physella gyrina aurea from New Jersey to Kansas and south to Arkansas and Florida; Physella gyrina aurea morph albofilata from Pennsylvania west to Kansas and south to Oklahoma and Alabama; Physella gyrina bayfieldensis from Northwest Territories south to Kansas; Physella gyrina cylindrica from Ontario and New York south to Virginia; Physella gyrina gouldi from Northwest Territories south to Wisconsin and Colorado; Physella gyrina hawni from Ohio west to Kansas and south to Texas and Alabama; Physella gyrina microstoma from Virginia to Missouri and south to Arkansas and Alabama; Physella gyrina sayi from Quebec to Northwest Territories south to Saskatchewan, the Dakotas and New York; Physella gyrina smithiana from Kansas to Texas, Wyoming and California. Its more southern range includes higher elevations, such as the discontinuous areas of the Mogollon Plateau and White Mountains, Arizona; it is also found in Jemez, San Juan, Sangre de Cristo, and Zuni Mountains in New Mexico (Taylor, 2003). It extends across the border into Mexico.

Area of Occupancy: >12,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: It is rare in North Carolina (few in N border NW, E and NE coast) (Dillon et al., 2006). In Georgia, it is in a spring in DeKalb Co. (Dillon et al., 2006). In Alabama, it is common throughout (Mirarchi, 2004). In Florida, it is in the panhandle in systems that drain S from Georgia and Alabama (Thompson, 1999). In Kentucky: Cumberland (Branson and Batch, 1987), Kentucky (Branson and Batch, 1981), Tennessee (Branson and Batch, 1987) and Ohio drainage (Branson and Batch, 1983; 1987). Blair and Sickel (1986) list 8 of 44 sites in Land Between the Lakes in Kentucky and Tennessee. It was in Frog Bayou (Lower Arkansas) (Gordon, 1985), White (Gordon, 1982) and Bayou Bartholomew drainages (Minton et al., 2008), Arkansas. It is in several areas in Alaska (Baxter, 1987). Pyron et al. (2008) listed 8 of 123 current and 22 historical in Indiana with most historic in the north. Branson (1966) cites it from the Spring River drainage in Kansas and Missouri. In Missouri , Wu et al. (1997) (P. elliptica) list 1 from Schuyler Co. and N of the Missouri River, 1 from Stoddard Co.; and the Ozarks (as P. goodrichi) (Camden, Crawford, Dallas, Dent, Iron, Jefferson, Lincoln, Oregon, Ozark, Pulaski, Reynolds, St. Charles, Shannon, Stoddard, Warren, Wayne Cos.); Prairie regions N of the Mississippi River (as P. saffordii) (Audrain, Grundy, Linn, Macon, Mercer Cos.); Missouri Prairie Region (as P. salina) (Clay Co.); nominal gyrina widely distributed (Andrew, Barry, Bates, Carroll, Carter, Chariton, Christian, Clay, Dent, Gasconade, Grundy, Harrison, Hickory, Holt, Iron, Jefferson, Johnson, Lincoln, Livingston, McDonald, Marion, Moniteau, Nodaway, Oregon, Ozark, Perry, Pike, Polk, Pulaski, Putnam, Ray, Raynolds, Ripley, St. Clair, St. Louis, Saline, Schuyler, Stoddard, Taney, Warren, Washington, Wayne, Webster, Wright Cos.). In Pennsylvania, it is in the Delaware, Ohio, Potomac, and Susquehanna bains (Evans and Ray, 2010). The first Ohio record is Sterki (1902). Wu and Beetle (1995) list in Wyoming (as P. elliptica) in Yellowstone National Park and Washakie Co.; and (P. gouldi) in the west in Albany, Fremont, Sheridan, Sublette, Teton, and Uinta Cos.; as P. whitei across the plains in Carbon, Crook, Fremont, Hot Springs, Johnson, Laramie, Platte, Sheridan, Sublette, Weston, Yellowstone National Park; and nominally in Sheridan Co. Wu and Liu (2001) list it (P. elliptica) in Anderson Co. and considered Leonard's (1959) P. hawnii from Verdegris River a synonym. Wu and Liu (2001) list it (P. gouldi) from Anderson, Chautauqua, McPherson, Phillip, and Wabaunsee Cos.; P. whitei from Brown, Cheyenne, Clark, Linn, Nemaha, Pottawatomie, Riley, and Wabaunsee Cos.; (as P. saffordi) from Barton, Chase, and Marshall Cos., Kansas. Wu and Liu (2001) list nominal gyrina from Butler, Geary, and Morris Cos, S of the Kansas River. Freeman and Perkins (1992; 1997) list it in Nebraska on the Platte and Niobrara Rivers. Wu (2005) lists it in Nebraska (P. gouldi) mostly N of the Platte River in Brown, Burt, Cherry, Dodge, Lincoln, and Sheridan Cos.; and (P. saffordi) in N Blain, central Keya Paha, N Rock and E Richardson Cos.; (P. warreniana) in NW Arthur, Sheridan, and Sioux Cos.; (P. whitei) only in Cherry Co. Lysne and Pierce (2009) found it abundant in Crystal Creek-Spring Creek, Blaine Co., Idaho and Lysne and Clark (2009) found it in the Bruneau River (Snake River confluence upstream to Hot Creek). In Alberta, sources noted: East of Red Deer, Macleod and the Little Bow River; 9 lakes in Jasper National Park; approximately 8 lakes and creeks; sloughs near Wainwright; approximately 35 locations along the Saskatchewan and Mackenzie River systems; Wabamun Lake; beaver ponds near Sheep River; Hawrelak Park, Edmonton; Vermilion Lakes; 10 sites in Banff National Park; 2 at Lethbridge; 3 Vermilion Lakes and 2 other lakes (Lepitzki, 2001).

Population Size: >1,000,000 individuals

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Unknown

Overall Threat Impact: Low

Environmental Specificity: Broad. Generalist or community with all key requirements common.
Environmental Specificity Comments: In a study of physid distribution across habitat gradient as a response to predators, this species was found to be most successful in ponds of intermediate depth and high predator abundance (Turner and Montgomery, 2009).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) This species is distributed in temperatee and sub-Arctic North America from southern Alaska and northwestern Canada (but not in the extreme north) east and southeast to central Labrador, western New England and the vicinity of New York City; south to central California, Nevada, Utah, and Colorado; to the central Great Plains in eastern Kandas and eastern Oklahoma; east to the southern Appalachian Mountains; and also southward at higher elevations in discontinuous areas on the Mogollon Plateau and White Mountains, Arizona; Jemez, San Juan, Sangre de Cristo, and Zuni Mountains, New Mexico (Taylor, 2003). Burch (1989) lists several supposed synonyms including Physella gyrina gyrina from Canada, Quebec to Ontario south to Nebraska and east to New York; Physella gyrina gyrina morph elliptica and morph hildrethiana from Ontario south to Iowa and Missouri and east to New York; Physella gyrina alba from eastern Canada to Ontario and northeastern U.S.; Physella gyrina ampullacea from Manitoba west to British Columbia and south to California and east to Arizona and north to Minnesota; Physella gyrina athearni from Alberta; Physella gyrina aurea from New Jersey to Kansas and south to Arkansas and Florida; Physella gyrina aurea morph albofilata from Pennsylvania west to Kansas and south to Oklahoma and Alabama; Physella gyrina bayfieldensis from Northwest Territories south to Kansas; Physella gyrina cylindrica from Ontario and New York south to Virginia; Physella gyrina gouldi from Northwest Territories south to Wisconsin and Colorado; Physella gyrina hawni from Ohio west to Kansas and south to Texas and Alabama; Physella gyrina microstoma from Virginia to Missouri and south to Arkansas and Alabama; Physella gyrina sayi from Quebec to Northwest Territories south to Saskatchewan, the Dakotas and New York; Physella gyrina smithiana from Kansas to Texas, Wyoming and California. Its more southern range includes higher elevations, such as the discontinuous areas of the Mogollon Plateau and White Mountains, Arizona; it is also found in Jemez, San Juan, Sangre de Cristo, and Zuni Mountains in New Mexico (Taylor, 2003). It extends across the border into Mexico.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DE, FL, GA, HIexotic, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WY
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, NU, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CO Boulder (08013)*, Larimer (08069)*, Montrose (08085)*
ID Bear Lake (16007)*, Boise (16015), Bonner (16017), Caribou (16029)*, Elmore (16039), Gooding (16047), Lemhi (16059), Madison (16065), Owyhee (16073), Power (16077), Twin Falls (16083)*, Washington (16087)
UT Box Elder (49003), Garfield (49017)*, Juab (49023)*, Piute (49031)*, Tooele (49045)*, Utah (49049)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
10 St. Vrain (10190005)+*, Big Thompson (10190006)+*
14 Upper Dolores (14030002)+*, Lower Dolores (14030004)+*
16 Bear Lake (16010201)+*, Lower Bear-Malad (16010204)+, Utah Lake (16020201)+*, Southern Great Salt Lake Desert (16020306)+*, Curlew Valley (16020309)+, Upper Sevier (16030001)+*, East Fork Sevier (16030002)+*
17 Priest (17010215)+, Lower Henrys (17040203)+, Blackfoot (17040207)+*, Lake Walcott (17040209)+, Upper Snake-Rock (17040212)+, Salmon Falls (17040213)+*, C. J. Idaho (17050101)+, Bruneau (17050102)+, Middle Snake-Succor (17050103)+, Payette (17050122)+, Brownlee Reservoir (17050201)+, Middle Salmon-Panther (17060203)+, Middle Salmon-Chamberlain (17060207)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Lysne (2008) documented the incidence of monozygotic twins and triplets in the laboratory of a population from Idaho.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, MEDIUM RIVER, Pool, SPRING/SPRING BROOK
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): TEMPORARY POOL
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: This species lives in lakes, ponds, streams, ditches, and marshes (Taylor, 2003).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Freshwater Snails

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on some evidence of historical or current presence of single or multiple specimens, including live specimens or recently dead shells (i.e., soft tissue still attached without signs of external weathering or staining), at a given location with potentially recurring existence. Weathered shells constitute a historic occurrence. Evidence is derived from reliable published observation or collection data; unpublished, though documented (i.e. government or agency reports, web sites, etc.) observation or collection data; or museum specimen information.
Mapping Guidance: Unlike most freshwater mussels [possibly excepting Uniomerus tetralasmus (Say, 1831) (see Isley, 1914)], some freshwater pulmonates are able to survive in intermittent streams and ponds by settling into sediment on the bottom and aestivating in otherwise dry or frozen conditions. Some species (e.g. Stagnicola spp.) may form a sheet of mucus just within the aperture called an epiphragm that effectively seals the snail from harsh external conditions (Jokinen, 1978; Brown, 1991). For ephemeral or intermittent water species, it may be particularly difficult to define the limits of an occurrence. Movement out of the water for the purposes of aestivation is on the order of cm (Jokinen, 1978), not m or km, so this behavior should not affect separation distance between occurrences. Species that may be found in intermittent waters include: Aplexa elongata, Fossaria bulimoides, F. dalli, F. modicella, F. obrussa, F. parva, Gyraulus circumstriatus, G. crista, G. parvus, Laevapex fuscus, Physa vernalis, Physella gyrina, Planorbella campestris, Planorbula armigera, Stagnicola caperata, S. elodes, S. exilis.
Separation Barriers: Separation barriers are largely based on permanent hydrological discontinuity between water bodies, with distances of 30 meters or greater between maximum high water marks constituting a separation barrier. Additional barriers are chemical and/or physical and include any connecting water body (regardless of size) with one or more of the following on a permanent basis: no dissolved calcium content, acidity greater than pH 5, lack of dissolved oxygen, extremely high salinity such as that found in saline lakes and brine waters, or temperature greater than 45

An additional physical barrier, particularly for flowing water, is presence of upland habitat between water connections. High waterfalls and anthropogenic barriers to water flow such as dams are barriers as they limit movement in an upstream direction.

Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 2 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: Freshwater cave species (mostly prosobranchs) may occur near entrances to very deep in cave systems with specimens occurring on the undersides of small stones in riffle areas (Hershler et al., 1990). For cave species, separation distance cannot often be determined accurately due to varying degrees of accessibility to occupied cave habitat. In these instances, each cave where an observation or collection was recorded (see Minimum EO Criteria, above) constitutes an element occurrence regardless of separation distance. Multiple caves within a single hydrological cave system are each considered separately. Caves with multiple entrances and passages known to be connected, but with connecting passages too small or unsafe for human entry shall be treated as a single element occurrence when the non-negotiable portion of the cave is thought to be less than approximately 300 m linear length. Species known to occur in caves include: Amnicola cora, Antrobia spp., Antrobis spp., Antroselates spp., Dasyscias spp., Fontigens aldrichi, F. antroecetes, F. bottimeri, F. morrisoni, F. nickliniana, F. orolibas, F. prosperpina, F. tartarea, F. turritella, Holsingeria spp., Phreatodrobia spp., Stygopyrgus spp.
Separation Justification: Freshwater snails have adapted to most North American habitats including permanent standing, intermittent, and flowing waters. As a whole, pulmonates (previously Subclass Pulmonata) are better dispersers than prosobranchs (previously Subclass Prosobranchia). Pulmonates adapt better to changing temperature and oxygen concentration, resist desiccation better (use pulmonary respiration, store excreted nitrogen as urea, aestivate), and have faster crawling rates (including righting response and actual movement rate) than prosobranchs (Brown et al., 1998). Some species are more tolerant to adverse habitat conditions such as high pollution levels (e.g. Physella spp.), high altitude [e.g. Acroloxus coloradensis (Henderson, 1930)], underground cave pools and springs (e.g. Fontigens spp., Phreatodrobia spp.) and hot springs (e.g. Pyrgulopsis spp.).

Precise geographic distribution of many American freshwater snails is not known but presumably reflects past geological, geographic, and climatic change (Smith, 1989). Movements between isolated or inaccessible portions of water bodies is possible but dependent on outside, passive processes (e.g. rafting, periodic flooding, transport by vertebrates, introduction by humans). Long-distance dispersal is generally not considered when assigning separation distances as otherwise impracticably large separation distances would result.

Several factors contribute to limiting freshwater snail distribution but none apply across diverse habitats or taxa. Approximately 95% of all freshwater gastropods are restricted to waters with calcium concentrations greater than 3 mg/liter (Brown, 1991; for exceptions see Jokinen, 1983). Calcium uptake for shell construction requires energy expenditure (active transport) when calcium concentration is low, but is passive at higher concentrations (Greenaway, 1971). Typically, no known biotic or abiotic factors consistently limit the abundance or distribution of freshwater gastropods among sites (DeVries et al., 2003). At specific localities, limiting factors may include hardness, acidity, dissolved oxygen, salinity, high temperature, and food availability as associated with depth (Smith, 1989). Most species and the largest populations occur in hard, alkaline waters with normal range 20-180 ppm (Shoup, 1943; Harman, 1974). Snails are uncommon in habitats with surface acidity greater than pH 5 (see also Jokinen, 1983). Dissolved oxygen limits diversity so severely polluted waters (oxygen consumed by algae blooms) are often devoid of freshwater snails excepting pollution tolerant species. Because pulmonates can utilize atmospheric oxygen, they can exist under anaerobic conditions for longer time periods (Harman and Berg, 1971; Harman, 1974; McMahon, 1983). High salinity is limiting to freshwater gastropods and inland saline lakes generally lack an associated snail fauna. Most species (excepting hot springs species) are intolerant of temperatures greater than 45șC (McDonald, 1969; van der Schalie and Berry, 1973), a condition rarely occurring naturally. Lower temperatures are less limiting as snails have been found foraging in ice-covered waters (Harman and Berg, 1971; Harman, 1974). Most species live in the shallows, (depths less than 3 m) where food abundance is greatest. As a result, drastic water fluctuations (draw-downs) may cause declines in snail populations (Hunt and Jones, 1972).

Any contiguous, occupied stretch of suitable flowing water habitat 2 km long or greater is considered an element occurrence. Two km was chosen based upon the limited active movement capabilities of most benthic invertebrates and observed home range of freshwater snails (J. Cordeiro, personal observation) as well as the relatively short life span of most species (five years for most stream species and two years for most pond species).

Date: 18Oct2004
Author: Cordeiro, J.
Notes: Prosobranchs: Neritidae: Neritina; Viviparidae: Campeloma, Cipangopaludina, Lioplax, Tulotoma, Viviparus; Ampullariidae: Marisa, Pomacea; Pleuroceridae: Elimia, Goniobasis, Gyrotoma, Io, Juga, Leptoxis, Lithasia, Pleurocera; Thiaridae: Melanoides, Tarebia; Bithyniidae: Bithynia; Hydrobiidae: Amnicola, Antrobia, Antrorbis, Antroselates, Aphaostracon, Balconorbis, Birgella, Cincinnatia, Clappia, Cochliopa, Cochliopina, Colligyrus, Dasyscias, Eremopyrgus, Floridiscrobs, Fluminicola, Fontelicella, Fontigens, Gillia, Heleobops, Holsingeria, Hoyia, Hydrobia, Lepyrium, Littoridina, Littoridinops, Lyogyrus, Notogillia, Onobops, Paludina, Phreatoceras, Phreatodrobia, Potamopyrgus, Pristinicola, Probythinella, Pyrgophorus, Pyrgulopsis, Rhapinema, Somatogyrus, Spilochlamys, Spurwinkia, Stiobia, Stygopyrgus, Taylorconcha, Texadina, Texapyrgu, Tryonia; Assimineidae: Assiminea; Pomatiopsidae: Pomatiopsis, Heterostropha; Valvatidae: Valvata
MORE IN BCD EO SPECS NOTES TAB

Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 28Dec2011
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Cordeiro, J.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 28Dec2011
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Cordeiro, J.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Baxter, R. 1987. Mollusks of Alaska: a listing of all mollusks, freshwater, terrestrial, and marine reported from the State of Alaska, with locations of the species types, maximum sizes and marine depths inhabited. Shells and Sea Life, Bayside, California. 163 pp.

  • Blair, L. and J.B. Sickel. 1986. A survey of freshwater gastropods in selected habitats of Land Between the Lakes, Kentucky and Tennessee. Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science, 47(1/2): 6-12.

  • Branson, B.A. 1966a. A partial biological survey of the Spring River drainage in Kansas, Oklahoma and Missouri. Part I, collecting sites, basic limnological data, and mollusks. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 69(3/4): 242-293.

  • Branson, B.A. and D.L. Batch. 1981. Distributional records for gastropods and sphaeriid clams of the Kentucky and Licking Rivers and Tygarts Creek drainages, Kentucky. Brimleyana, 7: 137-144.

  • Branson, B.A. and D.L. Batch. 1983. Gastropod and Sphaeriacean clam records for streams west of the Kentucky River drainage, Kentucky. Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science, 44(1-2): 8-12.

  • Branson, B.A., D.L. Batch, and S.M. Call. 1987. Distribution of aquatic snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in Kentucky with notes on fingernail clams (Mollusca: Sphaeriidae: Corbiculidae). Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science, 48(3-4): 62-70.

  • Burch, J.B. 1989. North American Freshwater Snails. Malacological Publications: Hamburg, Michigan. 365 pp.

  • Clarke, A.H. 1981. The Freshwater Molluscs of Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museums of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. 446 pp.

  • Dillon, R.T., Jr. and A.R. Wethington. 2004. No-choice mating experiments among six nominal taxa of the subgenus Physella (Basommatophora: Physidae). Heldia, 6: 69-78.

  • Dillon, R.T., Jr. and A.R. Wethington. 2006. The Michigan Physidae revisited: A population genetic study. Malacologia, 48: 133-142.

  • Dillon, R.T., Jr., B.T. Watson, and T.W. Stewart. 2006a. The freshwater gastropods of North Carolina. Created 26 August 2003 by Rob Dillon, College of Charleston, Charleston, South Carolina. Available online: http://www.cofc.edu/~fwgna/FWGNC/index.html. Last updated September 2007.

  • Dillon, R.T., Jr., C.E. Earnhardt, and T.P. Smith. 2004. Reproductive isolation between Physa acuta and Physa gyrina in joint culture. American Malacological Bulletin, 19(1/2): 63-68.

  • Dillon, R.T., Jr., W.K. Reeves, and T.W. Stewart. 2006b [2007]. The freshwater gastropods of Georgia. Created 26 August 2003. Last updated September 2007. Available online: http://www.cofc.edu/~fwgna/FWGGA/index.html.

  • Evans, R.R. and S.J. Ray. 2010. Distribution and environmental influences on freshwater gastropods from lotic systems and springs in Pennsylvania, USA, with conservation recommendations. American Malacological Bulletin 28:135-150.

  • Freeman, P.W. and K. Perkins. 1992. Survey of mollusks of the Platte River: Final Report. Report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Grand Island, Nebraska, March 1992. 28 pp. + app.

  • Freeman, P.W. and K. Perkins. 1997. Survey of mollusks of the Niobrara River. Final Report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Grand Island, Nebraska, September 1997. 22 pp.

  • General Status, Environment Canada. 2015. Manitoba Mollusk species list and subnational ranks proposed by an expert.

  • Godin, B, and D. Davidge. 2013. Benthic Information System for the Yukon (BISY). Environment Canada, Whitehorse, Yukon. unpublished database.

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