Physaria didymocarpa var. lanata - A. Nels.
Double Twinpod
Synonym(s): Physaria didymocarpa ssp. lyrata (C. L. Hitchcock) O'Kane ;Physaria lanata (A. Nels.) Rydb.
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Physaria didymocarpa var. lanata A. Nels. (TSN 529647)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.132319
Element Code: PDBRA22075
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Mustard Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Capparales Brassicaceae Physaria
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Physaria didymocarpa var. lanata
Taxonomic Comments: Recognized as a distinct species in Dorn's 1992 "Vascular Plants of Wyoming".
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5T2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 28Jan2013
Global Status Last Changed: 30May1995
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: T2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Physaria didymocarpa var. lanata is a regional endemic occurring in Wyoming and Montana, with most of the distribution in Wyoming. It is known from a range of less than 100 sq. miles and is found at high elevations on open slopes with high exposure to wind and sun. Populations are typically small, fewer than 1,000 individuals, and scattered across the landscape. Threats include potential road creation, recreational use, cattle trampling, herbicide use and exotic plants.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Montana (S1), Wyoming (S2)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Regional endemic of north-central Wyoming and adjacent Montana, known from less than 100 sq. miles (Heidel and Handley 2004).

Area of Occupancy: 6-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Area of occupancy estimated at 26 4x4 sq km (NatureServe data 2013).

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: There are 18 occurrences in Wyoming (Handley and Heidel 2011) and 10 occurrences in Montana (NatureServe Element Occurrence data 2013).

Population Size Comments: The rangewide population estimate for this taxon is between 19,900 - 30,000+ individuals with the majority in Wyoming. There are only 5 occurrences in Wyoming that are known to have more than 1,000 individuals (Handley and Heidel 2011).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Few (4-12)
Viability/Integrity Comments: There are only a handful of occurrences with good or excellent viability, approximately 6 occurrences.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threats include potential road modifications, recreational use of surrounding habitat, mining and/or quarrying (Handley and Heidel 2011). Further, climate change could be another threat given that this variety grows at high elevations (3,540-10,160 ft.) with very little cover, typically less than 10% (Handley and Heidel 2011).

Other threats include livestock trampling, herbicide use, and secondary threats from habitat destabilization, including: vegetation competitions, and exotic species. Overall, threats are believed to be localized, however, given that this variety is known from mostly small populations (< 1,000) (Handley and Heidel 2011), localized threats could have significant impacts to the taxon (Heidel and Handley 2004).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Trends are not known, however, the habitat where it occurs are in stable conditions (Handley and Heidel 2011), so presumably the variety is stable.

Long-term Trend: Unknown

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: There is some evidence that this variety is dispersal limited (Heidel and Handley 2004).

Environmental Specificity: Narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements common.
Environmental Specificity Comments: Found in open, slopes within grasslands, shrublands and open woodlands on shallow, stony soils (Handley and Heidel 2011).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Regional endemic of north-central Wyoming and adjacent Montana, known from less than 100 sq. miles (Heidel and Handley 2004).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States MT, WY

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
MT Big Horn (30003), Rosebud (30087)
WY Big Horn (56003), Campbell (56005), Johnson (56019), Sheridan (56033)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
10 Big Horn Lake (10080010)+, Little Bighorn (10080016)+, Upper Tongue (10090101)+, Lower Tongue (10090102)+, Middle Fork Powder (10090201)+, Crazy Woman (10090205)+, Clear (10090206)+, Upper Belle Fourche (10120201)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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General Description: Woolly Twinpod is a perennial herb with numerous ascending stems that are ca. 1 dm long and arising from a basal rosette surmounting a branched crown and large taproot. The basal leaves are 15-40 mm long and are spoon-shaped with broad-toothed margins and long petioles. The alternate stem leaves are broadly lance-shaped with mostly entire margins. Foliage is covered with silvery, tangled, and spreading hairs. The yellow, stalked flowers are borne at the tops of the stems in a narrow inflorescence that elongates as the fruit matures. Each flower has 4 separate petals that are 9-12 mm long and 4 separate sepals. The ascending, inflated fruits are 1-2 cm long and at least as wide and are 2-lobed with the lobes more equally defined above and below. There are 4 ovules in each of the 2 chambers. The style is 7-9 mm long.
Diagnostic Characteristics: There are many similar-appearing PHYSARIA; a technical manual and hand lens or microscope will be required for positive identification. The long, tangled spreading hairs on the leaves, especially at the base, help separate this from other species.
Duration: PERENNIAL
Habitat Comments: Occurs on "steep limey banks, rock and sand road cuts (FNA 2010)."
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 28Jan2013
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Oliver, L.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 19Nov1994
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): JM

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Andersen, M.D. and B. Heidel. 2011. HUC-based species range maps. Prepared by Wyoming Natural Diversity Database for use in the pilot WISDOM application operational from inception to yet-to-be-determined date of update of tool.

  • Dorn, R. D. 2001. Vascular Plants of Wyoming, third edition. Mountain West Publishing, Cheyenne, WY.

  • Evert, E. F. 2010. Vascular Plants of the Greater Yellowstone Area: Annotated Catalog and Atlas. Park Ridge, IL.

  • Fertig, W. 1999. The status of rare plants in the Bighorn Landscape. Report prepared for The Nature Conservancy Wyoming Field Office by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, Wyoming.

  • Fertig, W. 2000. Rare vascular plant species in the Wyoming portion of the Utah-Wyoming Rocky Mountains Ecoregion. Prepared for the Wyoming Nature Conservancy by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY.

  • Fertig, W. 2000. State Species Abstract: Physaria didymocarpa ssp. lanata. Updated 2011. Wyoming Natural Diversity Database. Available on the internet at www.uwyo.edu/wyndd.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2010. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 7. Magnoliophyta: Salicaceae to Brassicaceae. Oxford University Press, New York. xxii + 797 pp.

  • Handley, J. and B. Heidel. 2011. Status of Physaria didymocarpa var. lanata (woolly twinpod), Big Horn Mountains, north-central Wyoming. Unpublished report prepared for the Bighorn National Forest by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY.

  • Handley, J., and B. Heidel. 2011a. State Species Abstract. Wyoming Natural Diversity Database. Physaria didymocarpa ssp. lanata. Woolly twinpod. Brassicaceae. Accessed online on 1/28/2013 at: http://www.uwyo.edu/wyndd/_files/docs/reports/speciesabstracts/physaria_didymocarpa_lanata.pdf.

  • Heidel, B. 1996. Noteworthy Collections - Montana. Madrono 43: 436-440.

  • Heidel, B. and J. Handley. 2004. Physaria didymocarpa (Hook.) Gray var. lanata A. Nels. (common twinpod): A Technical Conservation Assessment. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region. http://www.fs.fed.us/r2/projects/scp/assessments/Physariadidymocarpassplanata.pdf.

  • Heidel, B., and J. Handley. (2004a, October 19). Physaria didymocarpa (Hook.) Gray var. lanata A. Nels. (common twinpod): a technical conservation assessment. [Online]. USDS Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region. Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/r2/projects/scp/assessments/physariadidymocarpavarlanata.pdf.  [January 28, 2013].

  • Jensen, E. 2010. Survey of hairy twinpod (Physaria lanata) in Wyoming, summer 2010. Report prepared for Wyoming Natural Diversity Database.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Lichvar, R. W. 1982. Taxonomy of Physaria condensata. Unpublished report prepared for the Wyoming Bureau of Land Management by the Wyoming Natural Heritage Program, Cheyenne, WY.

  • Mulligan, G. A. 1967. Physaria didymocarpa, P. brassicoides, and P. floribunda (Cruciferae) and their close relatives. Canadian Journal of Botany 46:735-740.

  • Nelson, A. 1904. New plants from Wyoming, XV. Bulletin of Torrey Botanical Club 31: 239-247.

  • O'Kane, S. L. 2010. Physaria. Pages 616-665 in Flora of North America Editorial Committee, editor. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 7. Magnoliophyta: Salicaceae to Brassicaceae. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.

  • O'Kane, S.L., Jr. 2007. Physaria scrotiformis (Brassicaceae), a new high-elevation species from southwestern Colorado and new combinations in Physaria. Novon 17(3): 376-382.

  • Rollins, R. C. 1939. The cruciferous genus Physaria. Rhodora 41:391-414.

  • Rollins, R. C. 1993. The Cruciferae of Continental North America: Systematics of the Mustard Family from the Arctic to Panama. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.

  • Taylor, A. and R. Caners. 2002. Baseline survey for Astragalus barrii Barney (Barr's milkvetch) and Physaria didymocarpa var. lanata A. Nels. (Wooly Twinpod) in eastern Big Horn and southwestern Rosebud counties, Montana. Unpublished report to the Bureau of Land Management. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena.

  • Welp, L., W. Fertig, and G. Jones. 1998. Ecological evaluation of the potential Crazy Woman Creek Research Natural Area within the Bighorn National Forest, Johnson County, Wyoming. Unpublished report prepared for the Bighorn National Forest by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY.

  • Welp, L., W. Fertig, and G. Jones. 1998. Ecological evaluation of the potential Tongue River Research Natural Area within the Bighorn National Forest, Sheridan County, Wyoming. Unpublished report prepared for the Bighorn National Forest by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY.

  • Welp, L., W.F. Fertig, G.P. Jones, G.P. Beauvais, and S.M. Ogle. 2000. Fine filter analysis of the Bighorn, Medicine Bow, and Shoshone National Forests in Wyoming. Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY.

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