Phenacobius mirabilis - (Girard, 1856)
Suckermouth Minnow
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Phenacobius mirabilis (Girard, 1856) (TSN 163502)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.104716
Element Code: AFCJB30030
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Minnows and Carps
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Phenacobius
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Phenacobius mirabilis
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 17Sep1996
Global Status Last Changed: 17Sep1996
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S1), Arkansas (S1?), Colorado (S2), Illinois (S5), Indiana (S4), Iowa (S4), Kansas (S5), Kentucky (S4S5), Louisiana (S1), Michigan (S4), Minnesota (S3), Mississippi (S1), Missouri (SNR), Nebraska (S4), New Mexico (S2), Ohio (S4), Oklahoma (S4), South Dakota (SH), Tennessee (S4), Texas (S4), Virginia (S1S2), West Virginia (S3), Wisconsin (S4), Wyoming (S2)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Mississippi River basin from Ohio and West Virginia to Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico, and from southeastern Minnesota to northern Alabama and southern Oklahoma; western Lake Erie drainage, Ohio; isolated populations in Gulf Coast drainages (Sabine Lake, Louisiana and Texas; Galveston Bay, Texas; Colorado River, Texas, and upper Pecos River, New Mexico; common throughout most of range, rare in Gulf drainages (Page and Burr 1991).

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of subpopulations and locations.

Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but relatively large.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Localized threats may exist, but on a range-wide scale no major threats are known.

Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable or slowly declining.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Mississippi River basin from Ohio and West Virginia to Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico, and from southeastern Minnesota to northern Alabama and southern Oklahoma; western Lake Erie drainage, Ohio; isolated populations in Gulf Coast drainages (Sabine Lake, Louisiana and Texas; Galveston Bay, Texas; Colorado River, Texas, and upper Pecos River, New Mexico; common throughout most of range, rare in Gulf drainages (Page and Burr 1991).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, CO, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MI, MN, MO, MS, NE, NM, OH, OK, SD, TN, TX, VA, WI, WV, WY

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AR Craighead (05031), Crawford (05033), Pope (05115), Sebastian (05131)
CO Las Animas (08071)
LA Beauregard (22011), Calcasieu (22019)*, Cameron (22023), De Soto (22031), East Baton Rouge (22033)*, East Feliciana (22037)*, Sabine (22085), Vernon (22115)
MN Dodge (27039), Fillmore (27045), Freeborn (27047), Goodhue (27049), Houston (27055), Mower (27099), Olmsted (27109), Wabasha (27157), Winona (27169)
MS Alcorn (28003)*, Tishomingo (28141)
NE Adams (31001), Dixon (31051), Franklin (31061), Frontier (31063), Garden (31069), Johnson (31097), Pawnee (31133), Richardson (31147), Webster (31181)
NM Chaves (35005), Colfax (35007), De Baca (35011), Guadalupe (35019), Harding (35021), Mora (35033), San Miguel (35047)*, Union (35059)
SD Brookings (46011)*, Brule (46015)*, Buffalo (46017)*, Hamlin (46057)*, Lincoln (46083)*, Lyman (46085)*, Minnehaha (46099)*, Moody (46101)*, Tripp (46123)*, Yankton (46135)*
WY Goshen (56015), Johnson (56019), Platte (56031)*, Sheridan (56033)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
04 St. Joseph (04100003), St. Marys (04100004)*, Upper Maumee (04100005), Tiffin (04100006)*, Auglaize (04100007), Blanchard (04100008)*, Lower Maumee (04100009), Cedar-Portage (04100010), Sandusky (04100011)*
05 Upper Ohio-Wheeling (05030106), Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201), Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202), Muskingum (05040004), Licking (05040006), Upper Scioto (05060001), Lower Scioto (05060002), Paint (05060003), Upper Guyandotte (05070101), Lower Guyandotte (05070102), Tug (05070201), Upper Levisa (05070202), Lower Levisa (05070203), Big Sandy (05070204), Upper Great Miami (05080001), Lower Great Miami (05080002)*, Whitewater (05080003), Raccoon-Symmes (05090101), Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103), Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201), Little Miami (05090202)*, Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203), Licking (05100101), Lower Kentucky (05100205), Middle Green (05110003), Rough (05110004), Lower Green (05110005), Pond (05110006), Upper Wabash (05120101), Salamonie (05120102), Eel (05120104), Middle Wabash-Deer (05120105), Wildcat (05120107), Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108), Vermilion (05120109), Sugar (05120110), Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111), Embarras (05120112), Lower Wabash (05120113), Little Wabash (05120114), Skillet (05120115)*, Upper White (05120201), Lower White (05120202), Eel (05120203), Driftwood (05120204), Flatrock-Haw (05120205), Upper East Fork White (05120206), Muscatatuck (05120207), Lower East Fork White (05120208), Patoka (05120209), Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103), Red (05130206), Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Salt (05140102), Rolling Fork (05140103), Blue-Sinking (05140104), Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201), Highland-Pigeon (05140202), Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203)*, Saline (05140204), Tradewater (05140205), Lower Ohio (05140206)
06 Bear (06030006)+, Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001), Lower Duck (06040003), Kentucky Lake (06040005), Lower Tennessee (06040006)
07 Rush-Vermillion (07040001)+, Cannon (07040002)+, Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003)+, Zumbro (07040004)+, Trempealeau (07040005), La Crosse-Pine (07040006)+, Black (07040007), Root (07040008)+, Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Upper Iowa (07060002)+, Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003), Turkey (07060004), Apple-Plum (07060005), Maquoketa (07060006), Baraboo (07070004), Lower Wisconsin (07070005), Kickapoo (07070006), Copperas-Duck (07080101), Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102), Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103), Flint-Henderson (07080104), South Skunk (07080105), North Skunk (07080106), Skunk (07080107), Upper Cedar (07080201)+, Shell Rock (07080202)+, West Fork Cedar (07080204), Middle Cedar (07080205), Lower Cedar (07080206), Upper Iowa (07080207), Middle Iowa (07080208), Lower Iowa (07080209), Upper Rock (07090001), Crawfish (07090002)*, Pecatonica (07090003), Sugar (07090004), Lower Rock (07090005), Kishwaukee (07090006), Green (07090007), Upper Des Moines (07100002)*, East Fork Des Moines (07100003)*, Middle Des Moines (07100004), Boone (07100005), North Raccoon (07100006), South Raccoon (07100007), Lake Red Rock (07100008), Lower Des Moines (07100009), Bear-Wyaconda (07110001), North Fabius (07110002), South Fabius (07110003), The Sny (07110004), North Fork Salt (07110005), South Fork Salt (07110006), Salt (07110007), Cuivre (07110008), Peruque-Piasa (07110009), Kankakee (07120001), Iroquois (07120002), Chicago (07120003), Des Plaines (07120004), Upper Illinois (07120005), Upper Fox (07120006), Lower Fox (07120007), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001), Vermilion (07130002), Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003), Mackinaw (07130004), Spoon (07130005), Upper Sangamon (07130006)*, South Fork Sangamon (07130007), Lower Sangamon (07130008), Salt (07130009), La Moine (07130010), Lower Illinois (07130011), Macoupin (07130012), Cahokia-Joachim (07140101), Meramec (07140102), Bourbeuse (07140103), Big (07140104)*, Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105), Big Muddy (07140106)*, Whitewater (07140107)*, Cache (07140108)*, Upper Kaskaskia (07140201)*, Middle Kaskaskia (07140202)*, Shoal (07140203), Lower Kaskaskia (07140204)*
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100), Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201), Obion (08010202), South Fork Obion (08010203), Upper Hatchie (08010207)+, Horn Lake-Nonconnah (08010211), Upper St. Francis (08020202)*, Lower St. Francis (08020203)+, Little River Ditches (08020204), Bayou Sara-Thompson (08070201)+*, Amite (08070202)+*, Eastern Louisiana Coastal (08090203)*
10 Upper Powder (10090202)+, Crazy Woman (10090205)+, Middle Powder (10090207)+, Fort Randall Reservoir (10140101)+, Crow (10140105)+*, Middle Niobrara (10150004), Keya Paha (10150006)+*, Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101)+*, Upper Big Sioux (10170202)+*, Lower Big Sioux (10170203)+, Rock (10170204)*, Glendo Reservoir (10180008)+*, Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff (10180009)+, Lower Laramie (10180011)+, Horse (10180012)+, Middle South Platte-Sterling (10190012)*, Lower Lodgepole (10190016), Middle Platte-Buffalo (10200101), Upper Elkhorn (10220001), Logan (10220004)+, Blackbird-Soldier (10230001)*, Maple (10230005)*, Boyer (10230007), West Nishnabotna (10240002), East Nishnabotna (10240003), Nishnabotna (10240004), Tarkio-Wolf (10240005), Little Nemaha (10240006), South Fork Big Nemaha (10240007), Big Nemaha (10240008)+, West Nodaway (10240009), Nodaway (10240010), Independence-Sugar (10240011), Platte (10240012), One Hundred and Two (10240013), Arikaree (10250001)*, Medicine (10250008)+, Lower Sappa (10250011), Prairie Dog (10250015), Middle Republican (10250016)+, Lower Republican (10250017), Smoky Hill Headwaters (10260001), Upper Smoky Hill (10260003), Ladder (10260004), Hackberry (10260005), Middle Smoky Hill (10260006), Big (10260007), Lower Smoky Hill (10260008), Upper Saline (10260009), Lower Saline (10260010), Upper North Fork Solomon (10260011), Lower North Fork Solomon (10260012), Upper South Fork Solomon (10260013), Lower South Fork Solomon (10260014), Solomon (10260015), Upper Kansas (10270101), Middle Kansas (10270102), Delaware (10270103), Lower Kansas (10270104), Middle Big Blue (10270202), Lower Big Blue (10270205), Upper Little Blue (10270206)+, Lower Little Blue (10270207), Upper Grand (10280101), Thompson (10280102), Lower Grand (10280103), Upper Chariton (10280201), Lower Chariton (10280202), Little Chariton (10280203), Upper Marais Des Cygnes (10290101), Lower Marais Des Cygnes (10290102), Little Osage (10290103), Marmaton (10290104), Harry S. Missouri (10290105), Sac (10290106), Pomme De Terre (10290107), South Grand (10290108), Lake of the Ozarks (10290109)*, Lower Osage (10290111), Lower Gasconade (10290203), Lower Missouri-Crooked (10300101), Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102), Lamine (10300103), Blackwater (10300104), Lower Missouri (10300200)
11 Upper Arkansas-Lake Meredith (11020005), Upper Arkansas-John Martin (11020009), Purgatoire (11020010)+, Middle Arkansas-Lake Mckinney (11030001), Arkansas-Dodge City (11030003), Coon-Pickerel (11030004), Buckner (11030006), Lower Walnut Creek (11030008), Rattlesnake (11030009), Gar-Peace (11030010), Cow (11030011), Little Arkansas (11030012), Middle Arkansas-Slate (11030013), North Fork Ninnescah (11030014), South Fork Ninnescah (11030015), Ninnescah (11030016), Upper Walnut River (11030017), Lower Walnut River (11030018), Cimarron headwaters (11040001)+, Upper Cimarron (11040002), Crooked (11040007), Upper Cimarron-Bluff (11040008), Lower Cimarron-Eagle Chief (11050001), Lower Cimarron-Skeleton (11050002), Lower Cimarron (11050003), Kaw Lake (11060001), Upper Salt Fork Arkansas (11060002), Medicine Lodge (11060003), Lower Salt Fork Arkansas (11060004), Chikaskia (11060005), Black Bear-Red Rock (11060006), Upper Verdigris (11070101), Fall (11070102), Middle Verdigris (11070103), Elk (11070104), Lower Verdigris (11070105), Caney (11070106), Neosho headwaters (11070201), Upper Cottonwood (11070202), Lower Cottonwood (11070203), Upper Neosho (11070204), Middle Neosho (11070205), Spring (11070207), Canadian headwaters (11080001)+, Cimarron (11080002)+, Upper Canadian (11080003)+, Upper Canadian-Ute Reservoir (11080006)*, Lower Canadian-Walnut (11090202), Little (11090203), Lower Canadian (11090204), Coldwater (11100103), Lower Beaver (11100201), Middle North Canadian (11100301), Polecat-Snake (11110101), Dirty-Greenleaf (11110102), Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104)+, Poteau (11110105)+, Dardanelle Reservoir (11110202)+, Lower Salt Fork Red (11120202), Middle North Fork Red (11120302), Lower North Fork Red (11120303), Farmers-Mud (11130201), Lake Texoma (11130210), Upper Washita (11130302), Middle Washita (11130303), Lower Washita (11130304), Muddy Boggy (11140103), Clear Boggy (11140104), Pecan-Waterhole (11140106)
12 Middle Sabine (12010002), Toledo Bend Reservoir (12010004)+, Lower Sabine (12010005)+, Lower West Fork Trinity (12030102), Upper Trinity (12030105), Lower Trinity-Tehuacana (12030201), Lower Colorado-Cummins (12090301)
13 Pecos headwaters (13060001)+, Upper Pecos (13060003)+, Upper Pecos-Long Arroyo (13060007)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Extended spawning season in spring and summer. Females may spawns two or more times. Sexually mature at age II (Becker 1983).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, CREEK, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Riffle
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Plains species tolerant of moderate turbidity; runs and riffles of creeks and small to medium (sometimes large) rivers with substrates ranging from sand and gravel to large boulders (Sublette et al. 1990, Page and Burr 1991). Spawns presumably over gravelly riffles.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Primarily a bottom feeder. Eats mainly aquatic dipteran larvae and caddisfly larvae; at times bottom ooze, detritus, and plant material make up a small part of the diet. Roots among gravel and rocks for food (Becker 1983).
Length: 6 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Small Cyprinids

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat. For some species (e.g., slender chub), an impoundment may constitute a barrier. For others (e.g., flame chub) a stream larger than 4th order may be a barrier.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for cyprinids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large cyprinids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 14Sep1993
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries. 2005. Conserving Alabama's wildlife: a comprehensive strategy. Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries. Montgomery, Alabama. 303 pages. [Available online at http://www.dcnr.state.al.us/research-mgmt/cwcs/outline.cfm ]

  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • Anderson, Allison A., C. Hubbs, K. O. Winemiller, and R. J. Edwards. 1995. Texas freshwater fish assemblages following three decades of environmental change. The Southwest Naturalist 40(3):314-321.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. Univ. Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1052 pp.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. The fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisconsin. 1052 pp.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 736 pages.

  • CROSS, F.B., AND J.T. COLLINS. 1975. FISHES IN KANSAS. UNIV. KANS. MUS.NAT.HIST., PUB.ED.SERIES NO.3.

  • CROSS, F.B.1967.HANDBOOK OF FISHES IN KANSAS. E. RAYMOND HALL.UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, LAWRENCE, KANSAS.

  • Cancalosi, J. J. 1981. Fishes of the Republican River Basin in Colorado. M.S. Thesis. Colorado State University.

  • Douglas, Neil H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's publ. div. Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Eddy, S., and J. C. Underhill. 1974. Northern fishes, with special reference to the Upper Mississippi Valley. Third edition. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 414 pp.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • Hatch, J. T., G. L. Phillips, and K. P. Schmidt, editors. In preparation. The fishes of Minnesota.

  • Keith, W. E. 1987. Rediscovery of the Suckermouth Minnow, Phenacobius mirabilis (Girard), in Arkansas. Proceedings of the Arkansas Academy of Science 41: 110.

  • Lyons, J., P. C. Hanson, E. A. White.  2006.  A photo-based computer system for identifying Wisconsin fishes.  Fisheries  31(6):269-275.

  • MORIARTY, LOREN J. AND KIRK O. WINEMILLER. 1997. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIATION IN FISH ASSEMBLAGE STRUCTURE IN VILLAGE CREEK, HARDIN COUNTY, TEXAS. TEXAS J. SCI. 49(3)SUPPL.: 85-110.

  • Mettee, M.F., P. E. O'Neil, and J.M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Inc., Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pages.

  • Miller, R. J. and H. W. Robison. 1973. The Fishes of Oklahoma. Oklahoma State University Press. Stillwater, Oklahoma. 246pp.

  • Mirarchi, R. E., J. T. Garner, M. F. Mettee, and P.E. O'Neil, editors. 2004. Alabama wildlife. Volume 2. Imperiled aquatic mollusks and fishes. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 255 pages

  • Mirarchi, R.E., M.A. Bailey, J.T. Garner, T.M. Haggerty, T.L. Best, M.F. Mettee, and P. O'Neil, editors. 2004. Alabama Wildlife. Volume 4. Conservation and management recommendations for imperiled wildlife. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 221 pages.

  • Mirarchi, R.E., editor. 2004. Alabama Wildlife. Volume 1. A checklist of vertebrates and selected invertebrates: aquatic mollusks, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 209 pages.

  • NatureServe.  2013.  NatureServe Explorer:  an online encyclopedia of life [web application].  Version 7.1.  NatureServe, Arlington Virginia.  <http://www.natureserve.org/explorer>.  Accessed 20 May 2013.  

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Sixth edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 29. 386 pages.

  • PFLIEGER,W.L.1975. THE FISHES OF MISSOURI. SULLIVAN, MARK. MISSOURI DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Propst, D. L. 1982. Warmwater fishes of the Platte River Basin, Colorado; distribution, ecology, and community dynamics. Ph.D. dissertation. Colorado State University. 283pp.

  • ROSS, STEPHEN T. 1996. INLAND FISHES OF MISSISSIPPI. SELECTED SPECIES ACCOUNTS. COAUTHORED WITH W.M. BRENNEMAM, W.T. SLACK, M.T. O'CONNELL, AND T.L. PETERSON. ILLUSTRATED BY D.G. ROSS. DRAFT COPY.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Schmidt, K. P. 2000. Stream survey results for the Gravel Chub (Erimystax x-punctatus), Slender Madtom (Noturus exilis), and Bluntnose Darter (Etheostoma chlorosomum) in southeastern Minnesota. Final report submitted to the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 14 pp + figures.

  • Schmidt, K. P., and N. Proulx. 2009. Status and critical habitat of rare fish species in the Mississippi River from the Coon Rapids Dam to the Iowa border. Final report submitted to the State Wildlife Grants Program, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 29 pp.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

  • Woodling, J. 1985. Colorado's Little Fish: A Guide to the Minnows and Other Lesser Known Fishes in the State of Colorado. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Denver.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Baxter, G. T., and J. R. Simon. 1970. Wyoming fishes. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne, Wyoming, 168 pp.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Douglas, N. H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

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