Phalaropus lobatus - (Linnaeus, 1758)
Red-necked Phalarope
Other Common Names: Falaropo-do-Norte
Synonym(s): Lobipes lobatus
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Phalaropus lobatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (TSN 176735)
French Common Names: phalarope à bec étroit
Spanish Common Names: Falaropo Cuello Rojo, Pollito de Mar Boreal
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.105225
Element Code: ABNNF20020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Shorebirds
Image 10749

© Dick Cannings

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Charadriiformes Scolopacidae Phalaropus
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Phalaropus lobatus
Taxonomic Comments: Often has been placed in the monotypic genus Lobipes (AOU 1983). Previously known as the northern phalarope. Combined allozyme, morphologic, and mtDNA data suggest that Wilson's phalarope evolved shortly after the phalarope lineage itself arose and that the phalaropes are monophyletic (Dittman and Zink 1991).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 09Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 15Mar2001
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Widespread holarctic breeder; better inventory needed, but may have undergone major declines in portions of its breeding range.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4N5B (15Mar2001)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N4N5B,N3N4N,N4N5M (08Dec2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNRM), Alaska (S4S5B), Arizona (S4S5M), Arkansas (SNA), California (SNRN), Colorado (SNA), Delaware (SNA), District of Columbia (S1N), Florida (SNRN), Georgia (SNRN), Idaho (S3M), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (SNA), Iowa (S1N), Kansas (SNA), Kentucky (SNA), Maine (S3S4N), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (S4N), Michigan (SNRN), Minnesota (SNRM), Missouri (SNA), Montana (SNA), Navajo Nation (S4M), Nebraska (SNRN), Nevada (S4M), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New Mexico (S4N), New York (SNRN), North Carolina (SNA), North Dakota (SNRM), Ohio (SNA), Oklahoma (S2N), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), Rhode Island (SNA), South Carolina (SNRN), South Dakota (SNA), Texas (SNA), Utah (S3N), Vermont (SNA), Virginia (SNA), Washington (S4N), Wisconsin (SNA), Wyoming (S3N)
Canada British Columbia (S3S4B), Labrador (S4B,S4M), Manitoba (S3S4B), New Brunswick (S3M), Northwest Territories (S3B), Nova Scotia (S2S3M), Nunavut (S3B,S3M), Ontario (S3S4B), Prince Edward Island (SNA), Quebec (S4B), Saskatchewan (S4B,S3M), Yukon Territory (S3B)

Other Statuses

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Special Concern (28Nov2014)
Comments on COSEWIC: Reason for Designation: This bird has declined over the last 40 years in an important staging area; however, overall population trends during the last three generations are unknown. The species faces potential threats on its breeding grounds including habitat degradation associated with climate change. It is also susceptible to pollutants and oil exposure on migration and during the winter. This is because birds gather in large numbers on the ocean, especially where currents concentrate pollutants.

Status History: Designated Special Concern in November 2014.

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: BREEDS: across low Arctic or Subarctic of the Northern Hemisphere, south to southern Alaska, northwestern British Columbia, northern parts of southern Canadian provinces, Labrador, northern British Isles, Scandinavia, and northern Asia. WINTERS: at sea, mainly south of equator (Godfrey 1966); abundant off coast of Peru, in Indian Ocean, and in South China Sea; accidental in Hawaii; winter range of birds seen in migration in southeastern Canada is not known (Duncan 1996).

Number of Occurrences: > 300

Population Size: >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Morrison et al. (2001) estimate the total population to be about 4 million, with about 2.5 million breeding in North America. In past decades, up to 3 million were estimated to use the lower Pasamaquoddy Bay, New Brunswick alone (Finch et al. 1978, Vickery 1978). Estimates for Alaska include a few millions migrating through Prince William Sound (Isleib and Kessel 1973). Estimates for other countries include greater than 200,000 pairs in Iceland, 9,500 pairs in Norway, and 50,000 pairs in Sweden (Cramp and Simmons 1983).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Cause of decline in Maine-New Brunswick is unknown but may involve a shift to a new staging area (Duncan 1996).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: A drastic decline in the number of migrants observed has occurred along the coast in the Maine-New Brunswick area; 1-2 million passed through in the 1970s and early 1980s, but only a few hundred occurred in the early 1990s; possibly the birds have simply shifted location (Duncan 1996), but alternate staging areas have not been located (Rubega et al. 2000). Anecdotal evidence suggests similar disappearance of spring migrants off coastal Japan (Rubega et al. 2000). Breeding males at La Perouse Bay, Hudson Bay declined by 93 per cent 1980 to 1983 (Reynolds 1987, Rubega et al. 2000). However, nesting densities near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska have increased over the past two decades (Troy 1996, Rubega et al. 2000). Morrison (1994) categorized the population trend in Canada as "stable?/decreasing?"

Long-term Trend: Decline of <50% to Relatively Stable
Long-term Trend Comments: See short-term trend discussion.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Better inventory needed to give more precise information on trends (Rubega et al. 2000).

Distribution
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Global Range: BREEDS: across low Arctic or Subarctic of the Northern Hemisphere, south to southern Alaska, northwestern British Columbia, northern parts of southern Canadian provinces, Labrador, northern British Isles, Scandinavia, and northern Asia. WINTERS: at sea, mainly south of equator (Godfrey 1966); abundant off coast of Peru, in Indian Ocean, and in South China Sea; accidental in Hawaii; winter range of birds seen in migration in southeastern Canada is not known (Duncan 1996).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NN, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WY
Canada BC, LB, MB, NB, NS, NT, NU, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002; WILDSPACETM 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
ID Ada (16001), Bannock (16005), Bear Lake (16007), Bingham (16011), Blaine (16013), Bonner (16017), Bonneville (16019), Boundary (16021), Camas (16025), Canyon (16027), Cassia (16031), Custer (16037), Elmore (16039), Franklin (16041), Fremont (16043), Gooding (16047), Idaho (16049), Jefferson (16051), Latah (16057), Madison (16065), Minidoka (16067), Nez Perce (16069), Owyhee (16073), Power (16077), Shoshone (16079), Twin Falls (16083), Valley (16085)
WY Albany (56001), Campbell (56005), Carbon (56007), Converse (56009), Fremont (56013), Goshen (56015), Hot Springs (56017), Johnson (56019), Laramie (56021), Natrona (56025), Platte (56031), Sublette (56035), Sweetwater (56037), Teton (56039)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
10 Upper Wind (10080001)+, Muskrat (10080004)+, Lower Wind (10080005)+, Upper Powder (10090202)+, Crazy Woman (10090205)+, Clear (10090206)+, Little Powder (10090208)+, Upper Belle Fourche (10120201)+, Upper North Platte (10180002)+, Pathfinder-Seminoe Reservoirs (10180003)+*, Medicine Bow (10180004)+*, Sweetwater (10180006)+, Middle North Platte-Casper (10180007)+, Glendo Reservoir (10180008)+, Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff (10180009)+, Upper Laramie (10180010)+, Lower Laramie (10180011)+, Horse (10180012)+, Crow (10190009)+
14 Upper Green (14040101)+, Upper Green-Slate (14040103)+, Big Sandy (14040104)+, Bitter (14040105)+, Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir (14040106)+, Blacks Fork (14040107)+, Vermilion (14040109)+, Great Divide closed basin (14040200)+, Little Snake (14050003)+, Muddy (14050004)+
16 Bear Lake (16010201)+, Middle Bear (16010202)+
17 Lower Kootenai (17010104)+, Lower Clark Fork (17010213)+, Pend Oreille Lake (17010214)+, Priest (17010215)+, South Fork Coeur D'alene (17010302)+, Snake headwaters (17040101)+*, Gros Ventre (17040102)+*, Idaho Falls (17040201)+, Upper Henrys (17040202)+, Lower Henrys (17040203)+, Teton (17040204)+, Willow (17040205)+, American Falls (17040206)+, Blackfoot (17040207)+, Portneuf (17040208)+, Lake Walcott (17040209)+, Raft (17040210)+, Upper Snake-Rock (17040212)+, Beaver-Camas (17040214)+, Medicine Lodge (17040215)+, Big Wood (17040219)+, Camas (17040220)+, C. J. Idaho (17050101)+, Bruneau (17050102)+, Middle Snake-Succor (17050103)+, South Fork Boise (17050113)+, Lower Boise (17050114)+, North Fork Payette (17050123)+, Palouse (17060108)+, Upper Salmon (17060201)+, Lower Salmon (17060209)+, Clearwater (17060306)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Breeding begins late May to early June (Harrison 1978); early to mid-June in far north. Male usually incubates 4 eggs for 22 1/2 days (Terres 1980). Hatching occurs early to mid-July in far north. Young tended by male, can fly at less than 3 wk. Female leaves after male begins incubating eggs or shortly after hatching. Mating system monogamous, or serially polyandrous, sometimes simulataneously polyandrous. Nestlings precocial and downy. Nests in loose colonies.
Ecology Comments: Nonbreeding: gregarious, typically in small flocks.
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Migration is primarily across oceans and along coasts. Migrates northward along coasts of North America late March-May; arrives in Beaufort Sea region late May-early June. Migration in North America is mainly along both coasts and regularly but less commonly through western interior. Females leave breeding areas in late June or early July, followed by successful males in late July and juveniles August-early September (Hayman et al. 1986). Fall migration in western interior mid-July to mid-October; large concentrations at Great Salt Lake. Huge flocks occur in migration in Bay of Fundy. Canadian population migrates mainly southwest toward Pacific coast; migration towards Peruvian coast is pelagic south of California (Hayman et al. 1986).
Marine Habitat(s): Pelagic
Estuarine Habitat(s): Bay/sound, Herbaceous wetland, Lagoon
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Tundra
Habitat Comments: In winter: primarily pelagic, sometimes occurring in migration on ponds, lakes, open marshes, estuaries, and bays (AOU 1983), costal lagoons, salinas, sewage ponds. May occur along coast especially during stormy weather. Nests in grass-sedge borders of ponds and lakes (AOU 1983), often far from the sea; wet marshy areas of tundra and in taiga; low arctic and subarctic (coastal and low arctic tundra, northern boreal forest regions). Nest is a depression, lined and domed with grass. See also Rodrigues (1994).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Feeds on plankton, insects (larvae and adults), crustaceans, and mollusks; CALANUS copepods are the primary food in the Maine-New Brunswick area (see Duncan 1996). Feeds on water, often whirling around in circles (Terres 1980); also may pick food from emergent stones and vegetation. In fall migrations at Mono Lake, California, concentrates near shore, feeds on brine flies (Jehl 1986).
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Colonial Breeder: Y
Length: 20 centimeters
Weight: 35 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Biological Research Needs: Almost nothing known about individual use of the marine environment (Rubega et al. 2000).
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Shorebirds

Use Class: Breeding
Subtype(s): Feeding Area, Breeding Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding, or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Mapping Guidance: Breeding occurrences include nesting areas as well as foraging areas of nesting adults and broods. Because separations are based on nesting areas, the foraging areas of different occurrences may overlap if nesting birds are traveling to distant places to feed.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance pertains specifically to nesting areas, not to locations of dispersed foraging individuals. For example, nesting areas separated by a gap of more than 5 km are different occurrences, regardless of the foraging locations of individuals from those nesting areas.

The separation distance is an arbitrary value; it is impractical to attempt to delineate shorebird occurrences on the basis of dispersal patterns or metapopulation dynamics. Foraging ranges of some nesting shorebird species (see following) may suggest use of a larger separation distance, but this likely would result in occurrences that are too large and less effective for conservation planning.

Separation distance based on larger 'typical' breeding home ranges with diameters of 1.5 to 3 kilometers. Semipalmated Plovers have breeding home ranges up to 3 square kilometers, i.e. a diameter of just under 2 kilometers (Nol and Blanken 1999). Red-necked Phalaropes have a core home range of 1-3 hectares, but occasionally travel 1.5 kilometers to feed (Rubega et al. 2000). Stilt Sandpipers can forage up to 8 kilometers from nest (Jehl 1973). Mountain Plovers have an average home range of 56.6 hectares (Knopf 1996) but broods typically move 1-2 kilometers shortly after hatching (Knopf and Rupert 1996).

Territories: Common Snipe, 6.4-28.6 hectares (Mueller 1999); Long-billed Dowitcher, 100-300 meter diameter (Johnsgard 1981); golden-plovers, average 10-59 hectares (Johnson and Connors 1996); Long-billed Curlew, 6-20 hectares (Johnsgard 1981).

Nesting densities: Black-bellied Plover, 0.3-2.3 pairs per square kilometer (44 ha per pair at latter density; Hussell and Page 1976, Parmelee et al. 1967); Marbled Godwit, maximum density 1 pair/32 hectares (Stewart and Kantrud 1972).

Foraging distances: Greater and Lesser Yellowlegs, up to 13 kilometers from nest (Elphick and Tibbits 1998, Tibbits and Moskoff 1999).

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 1.5 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Based on a smaller 'typical' home ranges (see Separation Justification).
Date: 25Mar2004
Author: Hammerson, G., and S. Cannings

Use Class: Migratory stopover
Subtype(s): Roost, Foraging concentration area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of migrating flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds in appropriate habitat (minimum can be reduced in the case of rarer species). Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; set at 5 kilometers to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging or roosting birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.
Date: 15Apr2002
Author: Cannings, S.

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Roost, Winter Feeding Area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of recurring presence of wintering flocks (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds in appropriate habitat. Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 20 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; set at 5 kilometers to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of foraging or roosting birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.
Date: 25Mar2004
Author: S. Cannings
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 15Mar2001
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G., and S. Cannings
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 04May1994
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Rubega, M. A., D. Schamel, and D. M. Tracy. 2000. Red-necked Phalarope (Phalaropus lobatus). No. 538 IN A. Poole and F. Gill, editors, The birds of North America. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA. 28pp.

  • Rubega, Margaret A., Douglas Schamel and Diane M. Tracy. 2000. Red-necked Phalarope. The Birds of North America. Vol. 14, No. 538: American Orinithologists' Union. The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

  • See SERO listing

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  • Yukon Bird Club. 1995. Yukon Warbler: Newsletter of the Yukon Bird Club - Summer 1995. 8pp.

  • Yukon Bird Club. 1995. Yukon Warbler: Newsletter of the Yukon Bird Club - Winter 1995. 20pp.

  • Yukon Bird Club. 1997. Yukon Warbler: Newsletter of the Yukon Bird Club - Winter 1997. 36pp.

  • Yukon Bird Club. 2000. Yukon Warbler: Newsletter of the Yukon Bird Club - Winter 2000. 32pp.

  • Yukon Bird Club. 2002. Yukon Warbler: Newsletter of the Yukon Bird Club - Fall 2002. 16pp.

  • Yukon Bird Club. 2002. Yukon Warbler: Newsletter of the Yukon Bird Club - Spring 2002. 16pp.

  • Yukon Bird Club. 2004. Yukon Warbler: Newsletter of the Yukon Bird Club - Spring 2004. 32pp.

  • Yukon Bird Club. 2008. Yukon Warbler: Newsletter of the Yukon Bird Club - Spring/Summer 2008. 12pp.

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  • eBird. 2016. eBird: An online database of bird distribution and abundance [web application]. eBird, Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York. Available: http://www.ebird.org. Accessed in 2016.

  • van Gils, J. and P. Wiersma. 1996. Family Scolopacidae (sandpipers, snipes and phalaropes). Pages 489-533 in J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal (Eds.) Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 3. Lynx Editions, Barcelona, Spain.

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