Phalaris minor - Retz.
Mediterranean Canary Grass
Other English Common Names: Littleseed Canary Grass, Littleseed Canarygrass
Other Common Names: littleseed canarygrass
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Phalaris minor Retz. (TSN 41337)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.145822
Element Code: PMPOA4R090
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Grass Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Cyperales Poaceae Phalaris
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Phalaris minor
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNR
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (14Oct2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alaska (SNA), Arizona (SNA), California (SNA), Colorado (SNA), Florida (SNA), Hawaii (SNA), Louisiana (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New Mexico (SNA), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA)
Canada New Brunswick (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AKexotic, AZexotic, CAexotic, COexotic, FLexotic, HIexotic, LAexotic, NJexotic, NMexotic, ORexotic, PAexotic
Canada NBexotic

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
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Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: Medium/Insignificant
Rounded I-Rank: Unknown
I-Rank Reasons Summary: Phalaris minor does not seem to be impacting native species or conservation areas to a great extent. It has been recorded in at least one national park, and in a mountain range in Arizona. It is known from a few northeastern states, a few in the southeast and from Louisiana to California and Oregon. It only appears to be scattered throughout its range, however, it is frequent in California, where it is a crop weed. It is mostly problematic in wheat cultivation. Recently, herbicide resistant plants have been found in California. Overall, this species does not seem to be impacting biodiversity to a great extent.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Medium/Insignificant
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: Low
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: Medium/Insignificant
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: Unknown
I-Rank Review Date: 17May2004
Evaluator: Oliver, L.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: This species is native to the Meditteranean region (Hitchcock 1951).

Download "An Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: Evaluating Non-Native Plants for their Impact on Biodiversity". (PDF, 1.03MB)
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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: This species is established as a non-native in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, South Carolina, Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, Texas, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, California, and Oregon (Kartesz 1999).

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes
Comments: Phalaris minor has been reported in some native species habitats in the United States, including Saguaro National Park, Arizona (Friends of the Saguaro National Park) and the Tuscon Mountains, Arizona (Rondeau et al. 1996).

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Medium/Insignificant

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: There was no mention of ecosystem alterations found in the literature. The assumption was made that any alterations made by this species are minor and reversable.

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: This species is an herbaceous plant and can only occupy one vegetative layer. It is also possible that it does not impact the vegetation structure much at all. Hitchcock 1951 indicates that this species is not all that common in the United States.

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:Unknown

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:Unknown

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:Unknown

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: Low

6. Current Range Size in Nation:Moderate significance
Comments: This species is an herbaceous plant and can only occury one vegetative layer. It is also possible that it does not impact the vegetative sturcture at all. Hitchcock 1951 indicates that this species is not common in part of its range in the United States. Peables and Keerney 1960 say that this species is only known in a few scattered locations in the United States.

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:Insignificant
Comments: Phalaris minor is a crop weed and does not seem to be present in abundance in the United States (Peables and Keerney 1960), except in California, where it is a weed of disturbed places and is a wheat pest (Schmierer et al. 2000). Whle the Peables and Keerney reference is not recent no information on the internet was found suggesting that this species is growing in abundance or range.

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:Low significance
Comments: This annual canarygrass only occurs in a few biogeographical regions in th United States.

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:Low significance
Comments: In Arizona this species is recorded fom disturbed places but also from steep rocky slopes and along washes in the Tuscon Mountains (Rondeau et al. 1996).

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: Medium/Insignificant

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: It does not appear that this species is growing in number or areas in the United States. Hitchcock 1951 and Peables and Keerney 1960 suggest that this species is not very abundant in the United States, however, it maybe in California. In California, it is not clear that this species is invading natural areas, but it is known to invade disturbed places and is a wheat crop weed (Schmierer et al. 2000). While the Hitchcock and Keerney references are decades old, no information on the web was found suggesting that this species is aggresively invading new areas or growing in number, exept possibly in California.

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Unknown

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:Unknown

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:Unknown

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:Unknown

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:Unknown

16. Reproductive Characteristics:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: This species is known to self pollinate (Matus and Hucl 1999).

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: Unknown

17. General Management Difficulty:Unknown
Comments: This species seems only to be managed as a crop weed. Recently, herbicide resistant plants have been found in Sacramento Valley, California (University of California). This may be significant to conservation land managers if this species ever requires management in those areas.

18. Minimum Time Commitment:Unknown

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:Unknown

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:Unknown

Other Considerations: Phalaris minor is a weed of cultivated crops and it along with 4 other Phalaris species are grown for commercial birdseed. These species are grown for birdseed primarily in Argentina, Morocco, and Australia (Matus and Hucl 1999).
Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Friends of Saguaro National Park. About Us: About Saguaro National Park, Exotics. Online. http://friendsofsaguaro.org/exotics.html. Accessed 3-12-2004.

  • Hitchcock, A.S. 1951. Manual of the grasses of the United States. 2nd edition revised by Agnes Chase. [Reprinted, 1971, in 2 vols., by Dover Publications, Incorporated, New York.]

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1996. Species distribution data at state and province level for vascular plant taxa of the United States, Canada, and Greenland (accepted records), from unpublished data files at the North Carolina Botanical Garden, December, 1996.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Kearney, T.H., and R.H. Peebles. 1960. Arizona flora (with supplement). Univ. California Press, Berkeley.

  • Matus, M. and P. Hucl. 1999. Isozyme variation within and among accessions of annual Phalaris species in North American germplasm collections. Crop Science 39: 1222-1228.

  • Rondeau, R., T.R. Van Devender, C.D. Bertelsen, P. Jenkins, R.K. Wilson, and M.A. Dimmitt. 1996. Annotated flora and vegetation of the Tucson Mountains, Pima County, Arizona. Desert Plants 12(2): 3-46.

  • Schmierer, J., J. Williams, L. Fought, and Matt Ehlhardt. 2000. Herbicide evaluations for control of Littleseed canarygrass (Phalaris minor Retz.) in wheat grown in the Sacramento Valley of California. University of California Cooperative Extension. Colusa County. Online. http://cecolusa.ucdavis.edu/Programs/Agronomy/Canarygrass.htm. Accessed 3-12-2004.

  • Weber, W. A. and R. C. Wittmann. 1992. Catalog of The Colorado Flora: A Biodiversity Baseline. University Press of Colorado, Niwot, CO.

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