Persea palustris - (Raf.) Sarg.
Red Bay
Other English Common Names: Swamp Bay
Other Common Names: swamp bay
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Persea palustris (Raf.) Sarg. (TSN 504254)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.146327
Element Code: PDLAU0B060
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Laurel Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Laurales Lauraceae Persea
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Persea palustris
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 21Mar1996
Global Status Last Changed: 07May1991
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Common in appropriate habitat in the coastal areas of NC, SC, GA, AL, MS, LA and all of FL. Currently, widespread tree mortality is occurring in coastal SC, GA and FL due to a fungal disease spread by a newly-established ambrosia beetle from Asia. First observed in 2003, this disease is spreading rapidly and it is unknown whether there are an abiotic or biotic factors that will prevent it from spreading throughout P. palustris' range. No effective treatment is known, although research is ongoing.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNR), Delaware (SH), Florida (SNR), Georgia (SNR), Louisiana (SNR), Maryland (S1), Mississippi (SNR), North Carolina (S5), South Carolina (SNR), Texas (SNR), Virginia (S5)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Most of SE United States.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Widespread mortality of Persea palustris is currently occurring in the coastal regions of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida due to a fungal disease spread by a newly-established ambrosia beetle from Asia. Tree mortality was first observed in Georgia and South Carolina in 2003; as of 2007, the disease has been confirmed in all of Georgia's coastal counties and is moving northward in South Carolina, southward in Florida, and inland. Natural spread is estimated to be 20 miles per year, but jumps of much greater distance can occur through transport of infested firewood, wood chips, logs, etc. It is apparently unknown at this time whether there are any abiotic or biotic limitations that will prevent the disease from spreading throughout the range of P. palustris; infestation appears to be most widespread in Georgia currently because the beetle is believed to have entered the U.S. at Savannah's Port Wentworth. No effective treatment for infected trees is known at this time, although research is ongoing. (Adapted from Johnson et al. 2007 and Bryant 2007).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Most of SE United States.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, DE, FL, GA, LA, MD, MS, NC, SC, TX, VA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
MD Somerset (24039), Worcester (24047)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Chincoteague (02040303)+, Pokomoke-Western Lower Delmarva (02080111)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Plant, small tree, laurel family
Habitat Comments: Swamps, especially pine barrens swamps.
Economic Attributes
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Economically Important Genus: Y
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 21Mar1996
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Broaddus, Lynn (1991), rev. by J. Logan (1996), rev. K. Gravuer (2008)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1997. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Vol. 3. Magnoliophyta: Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxiii + 590 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • LITTLE, E.L., JR. 1979. FOUR VARIETAL TRANSFERS OF UNITED STATES TREES. PHYTOLOGIA 42(3): 219-222.

  • STATLER, E. 1975. THE EVERGREEN MARITIME FOREST OF SOUTH CAROLINA'S BARRIER ISLANDS. AM. J. BOT. 61(5 SUPPL):65.

  • USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service, PLANTS Database [USDA PLANTS]. http://plants.usda.gov/. Accessed 2015.

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