Peromyscus polionotus phasma - Bangs, 1898
Anastasia Beach Deermouse
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Peromyscus polionotus phasma Bangs, 1898 (TSN 202368)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.105259
Element Code: AMAFF03066
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Mammals - Rodents
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Mammalia Rodentia Cricetidae Peromyscus
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Hall, E. R. 1981a. The Mammals of North America, second edition. Vols. I & II. John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York. 1181 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B81HAL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Peromyscus polionotus phasma
Taxonomic Comments: One of eight subspecies, collectively known as "beach mice," occurring along the Florida and Alabama coasts.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5T1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 03Apr1998
Global Status Last Changed: 08Nov1996
Rounded Global Status: T1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Small, reduced range in northeastern Florida; habitat destruction; small size of populations renders it vulnerable to tropical storms, exotic predators, and other perturbations.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1 (05Sep1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Florida (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (12May1989)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R4 - Southeast

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: <100-250 square km (less than about 40-100 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Historic range: mouth of St. Johns River at Jacksonville (Duval County) to southern end of Anastasia Island (St. Johns County), Florida. Formerly occupied two adjacent barrier islands on Florida's east coast but currently restricted to the northernmost and southernmost ends of Anastasia Island (Frank and Humphrey 1992). In the early 1990s, a second population was being established within the historic range at Guana River State Park on an adjacent island several kilometers to the north (Frank 1992); as of early 1995, the reintroduction was going well (Tardona 1995).

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5
Number of Occurrences Comments: Five known occurrences, all in St. Johns County, some of which may not support long-term viable populations.

Population Size: 1 - 1000 individuals
Population Size Comments: No population estimates available; however, animals are captured in low numbers during trapping surveys.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: The exotic house mouse (MUS MUSCULUS) apparently does not pose a problem, but beach mouse populations may be regulated by predation by house cats (Frank and Humphrey 1992, Frank 1992), populations of which are introduced/augmented through development. Development has degraded and fragmented much of the remaining habitat (Frank and Humphrey 1992). Vulnerable to extinction that could be caused by severe hurricanes (Frank 1992).

Short-term Trend Comments: USFWS (1990) categorized the status as "improving."

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Monitor extant populations; survey for additional EOs.

Protection Needs: Complete protection of existing EOs as well as currently unoccupied habitat within former range.

Distribution
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Global Range: (<100-250 square km (less than about 40-100 square miles)) Historic range: mouth of St. Johns River at Jacksonville (Duval County) to southern end of Anastasia Island (St. Johns County), Florida. Formerly occupied two adjacent barrier islands on Florida's east coast but currently restricted to the northernmost and southernmost ends of Anastasia Island (Frank and Humphrey 1992). In the early 1990s, a second population was being established within the historic range at Guana River State Park on an adjacent island several kilometers to the north (Frank 1992); as of early 1995, the reintroduction was going well (Tardona 1995).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single state or province

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FL

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
FL St. Johns (12109)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Daytona - St. Augustine (03080201)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Anastasia beach mouse.
Reproduction Comments: May breed all year. Much breeding activity occurs November-January. Produces 2 or more litters per year. Gestation averages 23-24 days (nonlactating) or 28-29 days (lactating). Litter size averages 3-4 (USFWS 1988). Young are weaned in about 18 days. Minimum age at conception is 5 weeks. Apparently monogamous mating system (Kirkland and Layne 1989).
Ecology Comments: Density in high quality habitat 2-90/ha (mean around 30/ha) (Frank 1992).
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Grassland/herbaceous, Sand/dune, Shrubland/chaparral
Special Habitat Factors: Burrowing in or using soil
Habitat Comments: Beach dune and coastal strand habitats. Occurs in a narrow strip of sand dunes along the eastern side of Anastasia Island (Frank and Humphrey 1992). Favors beaches with grass/shrub cover. Sleeps and gives birth in underground burrows; entrances are in clumps of grass or beneath sheltering vegetation (Matthews and Moseley 1990).
Adult Food Habits: Granivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Granivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats fruits and seeds of dune plants, especially sea oats and sea rocket; feeds on invertebrates when seeds scarce (Matthews and Moseley 1990).
Adult Phenology: Crepuscular, Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Crepuscular, Nocturnal
Phenology Comments: Primarily nocturnal.
Length: 22 centimeters
Weight: 33 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Management Requirements: Protect habitat with elevated boardwalks. Eliminate cats and introduced rodents (Mus and Rattus) if necessary.
Management Research Needs: Investigate ecology. Determine effects of hurricanes, cats, Mus, Rattus. Develop management techniques (such as relocation).
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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Justification: Use the Generic Element Occurrence Rank Specifications (2008).
Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 17Feb2011
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Palis, J. G., and G. Hammerson
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 24Aug1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Frank, P. A. 1992. Conservation and ecology of the Anastasia Island beach mouse. Endangered Species Update 9(12):9.

  • Frank, P. A., and S. R. Humphrey 1992. Of mice and men: ecology and conservation of the Anatasia Island beach mouse (PEROMYSCUS POLIONOTUS PHASMA). Abstract, 6th Annual Meeting of the Society for Conservation Biology, p. 60.

  • Hall, E. R. 1981a. The Mammals of North America, second edition. Vols. I & II. John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York. 1181 pp.

  • Kirkland, G. L., Jr., and J. N. Layne. 1989. Advances in the study of PEROMYSCUS (Rodentia). Texas Tech Univ. Press, Lubbock.

  • Matthews, J.R. and C.J. Moseley (eds.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species of North America. Volume 1. Plants, Mammals. xxiii + pp 1-560 + 33 pp. appendix + 6 pp. glossary + 16 pp. index. Volume 2. Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians, Fishes, Mussels, Crustaceans, Snails, Insects, and Arachnids. xiii + pp. 561-1180. Beacham Publications, Inc., Washington, D.C.

  • Tardona, D. R. 1995. Anastasia Island's endangered mouse. Endangered Species Bull. 20(4):8.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1990. Endangered and threatened species recovery program: report to Congress. 406 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 5 July 1988. Proposed endangered status for the Anastasia Island beach mouse and threatened status for the southeastern beach mouse. Federal Register 53:25185-25190.

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