Percina vigil - (Hay, 1882)
Saddleback Darter
Synonym(s): Percina ouachitae (Jordan and Gilbert, 1887)
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Percina vigil (Hay, 1882) (TSN 168503)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.105843
Element Code: AFCQC04180
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Perches and Darters
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Perciformes Percidae Percina
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Percina vigil
Taxonomic Comments: Formerly included in P. uranidea. Ioa vigil was regarded as a senior synonym of P. ouachitae by Suttkus (1985). The 1991 AFS checklist (Robins et al. 1991) followed Suttkus and changed the name of P. ouachitae to P. vigil. Page and Burr (1991) evidently followed Page (1983), who included I. vigil in P. shumardi, and continued to use the name P. ouachitae for the saddleback darter.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 24Sep1996
Global Status Last Changed: 24Sep1996
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S5), Arkansas (S4), Florida (S1), Indiana (SX), Kentucky (S4S5), Louisiana (S3), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (SNR), Tennessee (S4S5)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Gulf Slope from Escambia River drainage, Alabama and Florida, west to Mississippi River, Louisiana; Mississippi River basin from southwestern Indiana (formerly) and southeastern Missouri to Louisiana; mostly confined to Coastal Plain; apparently extirpated in Green River, Kentucky, and in Wabash River system, Indiana-Illinois; common but somewhat localized (Page and Burr 1991).

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of subpopulations and locations.

Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but relatively large.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Localized threats may exist, but on a range-wide scale no major threats are known.

Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable or slowly declining.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Gulf Slope from Escambia River drainage, Alabama and Florida, west to Mississippi River, Louisiana; Mississippi River basin from southwestern Indiana (formerly) and southeastern Missouri to Louisiana; mostly confined to Coastal Plain; apparently extirpated in Green River, Kentucky, and in Wabash River system, Indiana-Illinois; common but somewhat localized (Page and Burr 1991).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, FL, INextirpated, KY, LA, MO, MS, TN

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AR Ashley (05003), Bradley (05011), Calhoun (05013), Chicot (05017)*, Clark (05019), Clay (05021), Dallas (05039), Drew (05043)*, Grant (05053), Hot Spring (05059), Independence (05063), Lawrence (05075), Ouachita (05103), Randolph (05121), Saline (05125)
FL Escambia (12033), Santa Rosa (12113)
LA Catahoula (22025), East Baton Rouge (22033)*, East Feliciana (22037), Grant (22043), La Salle (22059), Livingston (22063)*, Ouachita (22073)*, Pointe Coupee (22077)*, St. Helena (22091), St. Tammany (22103), Tangipahoa (22105), Washington (22117), West Feliciana (22125)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Upper Conecuh (03140301), Sepulga (03140303), Lower Conecuh (03140304)+, Escambia (03140305)+, Lower Tallapoosa (03150110), Upper Alabama (03150201), Cahaba (03150202), Middle Alabama (03150203), Lower Alabama (03150204), Upper Tombigbee (03160101), Buttahatchee (03160103), Luxapallila (03160105), Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub (03160106), Sipsey (03160107), Lower Black Warrior (03160113), Middle Tombigbee-Chickasaw (03160201), Sucarnoochee (03160202), Lower Tambigbee (03160203), Chunky-Okatibbee (03170001), Upper Chickasawhay (03170002), Lower Chickasawhay (03170003), Upper Leaf (03170004), Lower Leaf (03170005), Pascagoula (03170006), Black (03170007), Upper Pearl (03180001), Middle Pearl-Strong (03180002), Middle Pearl-Silver (03180003), Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004)+, Bogue Chitto (03180005)+
05 Upper Green (05110001), Middle Green (05110003), Rough (05110004)*, Patoka (05120209)
06 Wheeler Lake (06030002), Pickwick Lake (06030005), Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001), Lower Duck (06040003), Buffalo (06040004), Kentucky Lake (06040005), Lower Tennessee (06040006)
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100), Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201), Upper Hatchie (08010207), Lower Hatchie (08010208), Lower St. Francis (08020203)*, Lower Mississippi-Greenville (08030100)+*, Upper Ouachita (08040102)+, Little Missouri (08040103)+, Lower Ouachita-Smackover (08040201)+, Lower Ouachita-Bayou De Loutre (08040202)+, Upper Saline (08040203)+, Lower Saline (08040204)+, Bayou D'arbonne (08040206)+, Lower Ouachita (08040207)+, Castor (08040302), Little (08040304)+, Lower Big Black (08060202), Bayou Pierre (08060203), Coles Creek (08060204), Homochitto (08060205), Buffalo (08060206), Lower Mississippi-Baton Rouge (08070100)+*, Bayou Sara-Thompson (08070201)+, Amite (08070202)+, Tickfaw (08070203)+*, Tangipahoa (08070205)+, Liberty Bayou-Tchefuncta (08090201)+
11 Middle White (11010004)+, Upper Black (11010007)+, Current (11010008)+, Lower Black (11010009)+, Spring (11010010)+, Eleven Point (11010011)+, Strawberry (11010012)+, Middle Red-Coushatta (11140202)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Apparently spawns in late winter (Kuehne and Barbour 1983). In Mississippi, spawned February-April at water temperatures of 12-22 C, produced multiple clutches, sexually mature within 1 year, maximum lifespan less than 3 years (Heins and Baker 1989).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, High gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool, Riffle
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Creeks and small to medium rivers in areas of moderate current over sand and gravel or gravel and rubble substrates, often at foot of chute or riffle or near snags or logjams; sometimes in very shallow water (Kuehne and Barbour 1983, Page and Burr 1991). Larvae may drift downstream from spawning areas to quiet backwaters (Heins and Baker 1989).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Some populations eat mainly crustaceans and immature insects, other populations feed heavily on snails (Page 1983).
Length: 6 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Darters

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. Though larvae of some species may drift with the current, Turner (2001) found no significant relationship between a larval transport index and gene flow among several different darter species.

Separation distances are arbitrary but reflect the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied generally represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 08Oct1993
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Bart, H. L., Jr., and L. M. Page. 1992. The influence of size and phylogeny on life history variation in North American percids. Pages 553-572 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Douglas, Neil H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's publ. div. Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Eschmeyer, William N. (editor). 1998. Catalog of fishes. Volumes 1-3. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California. 958 pp. Updates available online at: http://www.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • Heins, D. C., and J. A. Baker. 1989. Growth, population structure, and reproduction of the percid fish Percina vigil. Copeia 1989:727-736.

  • Kuehne, R. A., and R. W. Barbour. 1983. The American Darters. University Press of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. 177 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Lee, David, Carter R. Gilbert, Charles H. Hocult, Robert E. Jenkins, Don E. McAllister, and Jay R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. N. Carolina Biol. Survey Publ. 1980-12. 867 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M. 1983b. Identification of the percids, Boleosoma phlox Cope and Ioa vigil Hay. Copeia 1983: 1082-1083.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • ROSS, STEPHEN T. 1996. INLAND FISHES OF MISSISSIPPI. SELECTED SPECIES ACCOUNTS. COAUTHORED WITH W.M. BRENNEMAM, W.T. SLACK, M.T. O'CONNELL, AND T.L. PETERSON. ILLUSTRATED BY D.G. ROSS. DRAFT COPY.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

  • Suttkus, R. D. 1985. Identification of the percid, Ioa vigil Hay. Copeia 1985:225-227.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Douglas, N. H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Page, L. M. 1983a. Handbook of Darters. T. F. H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey. 271 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

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