Percina shumardi - (Girard, 1859)
River Darter
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Percina shumardi (Girard, 1859) (TSN 168497)
French Common Names: dard de rivière
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.101870
Element Code: AFCQC04270
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Perches and Darters
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Perciformes Percidae Percina
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Percina shumardi
Taxonomic Comments: Includes IOA VIGIL Hay, according to Page (1983). IOA VIGIL was regarded as a senior synonym of P. OUACHITAE by Suttkus (1985). The 1991 AFS checklist (Robins et al. 1991) followed Suttkus and changed the name of P. OUACHITAE to P. VIGIL. Page and Burr (1991) evidently disagreed with Suttkus and continued to use the name P. OUACHITAE for the saddleback darter.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 17Aug2015
Global Status Last Changed: 25Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Widely distributed from the Hudson Bay basin in southern Canada through the Mississippi River basin to the Gulf of Mexico drainages of the southeastern U.S.; uncommon; may have declined greatly from historic times, but still present in many river systems; likely under-sampled because difficult to capture; has survived in many rivers despite widespread pollution, impoundments, etc.; thought to be stable at present; trends toward improved river water quality in some areas may help; not many new impoundments are being created on major rivers.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Sep1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (22Dec2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S3), Arkansas (S4), Georgia (S1), Illinois (S2S3), Indiana (S3), Iowa (S3), Kansas (S1S2), Kentucky (S4), Louisiana (S4), Michigan (S1), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (S4), Missouri (S3), North Dakota (SU), Ohio (S1), Oklahoma (S2), Pennsylvania (S1), Tennessee (S4), Texas (S4), West Virginia (S1), Wisconsin (S5)
Canada Manitoba (S5), Ontario (S3)

Other Statuses

Implied Status under the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC):E,NAR
IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Hudson Bay basin, Ontario, Manitoba, and North Dakota, and south in Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins to Louisiana; Gulf drainages from Mobile Bay, Alabama, to Neches River, Texas; isolated population in San Antonio Bay drainage, Texas; locally common, the most common darter in very large rivers, including the Mississippi (Page and Burr 1991). Distribution is spotty both among and within river systems. Kuehne and Barbour (1983:52) described the range as follows: "The river darter is present in the lower Mississippi River, and common in the upper Mississippi. It is the most common darter in the Mississippi River channel. It ranges northward into the Hudson Bay drainage of central Manitoba as far as Lake Sipiwesk, then east into western portions of Ontario. It is irregularly distributed in the Ohio River basin (lower), and in somewhat turbid reaches of major tributaries as far east as western Pennsylvania. Populations exist far up in the Tennessee River system. From the lower Mississippi River basin these darters have reached westward into the lower White River, the Arkansas River basin of northeastern Oklahoma and southeastern Kansas, and also the Ouachita-Red basins in Arkansas and Louisiana. Along the Gulf Coast, the river darter is found eastward to the Mobile basin in Alabama and westward to the lower Guadalupe River in Texas."

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Ten states in range provided numbers of EOs or other confirmed records; these totaled over 200 occurrences. At least three other states with apparently secure populations did not provide estimates. Total number of occurrences likely is least 250.

Population Size: 2500 - 10,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Population estimates not available. Rarely abundant (Dalton 1990), but likely under-sampled due to difficulty of capture with standard techniques.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Destruction of habitat seems to be the biggest threat. Impoundments, channelization, and dredging have led to extirpation and declines in some rivers due to loss of shallow water and riffle habitat (Kuehne and Barbour 1983, Lowe-McConnell 1990). Pollution may be a threat, but this species is more tolerant of turbidity than are some darters. Not clear to what extent threats are ongoing, as efforts to improve water quality are ongoing in parts of range, and dam construction has tapered off.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Always has been rare in Canada; present records indicate populations to be stable (Dalton 1990). Populations in Louisiana (Shively 1993, pers. comm.), Iowa (Howell 1993, pers. comm.), Ohio (Rice 1993, pers. comm.), and Texas (Price 1993, pers. comm.) are believed to be stable. Probably occurred frequently in the pre-impounded Ohio River (Kuehne and Barbour 1983); found singly or in small numbers in Ohio in 1925-1950; none were collected in Ohio in 1955-1980 (Trautman 1981).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Keep abundance and distribution information up to date.

Protection Needs: Promote and engage in efforts to preserve or restore riverine habitat to high water quality, natural flow, and native fish communities.

Distribution
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Global Range: Hudson Bay basin, Ontario, Manitoba, and North Dakota, and south in Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins to Louisiana; Gulf drainages from Mobile Bay, Alabama, to Neches River, Texas; isolated population in San Antonio Bay drainage, Texas; locally common, the most common darter in very large rivers, including the Mississippi (Page and Burr 1991). Distribution is spotty both among and within river systems. Kuehne and Barbour (1983:52) described the range as follows: "The river darter is present in the lower Mississippi River, and common in the upper Mississippi. It is the most common darter in the Mississippi River channel. It ranges northward into the Hudson Bay drainage of central Manitoba as far as Lake Sipiwesk, then east into western portions of Ontario. It is irregularly distributed in the Ohio River basin (lower), and in somewhat turbid reaches of major tributaries as far east as western Pennsylvania. Populations exist far up in the Tennessee River system. From the lower Mississippi River basin these darters have reached westward into the lower White River, the Arkansas River basin of northeastern Oklahoma and southeastern Kansas, and also the Ouachita-Red basins in Arkansas and Louisiana. Along the Gulf Coast, the river darter is found eastward to the Mobile basin in Alabama and westward to the lower Guadalupe River in Texas."

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MI, MN, MO, MS, ND, OH, OK, PA, TN, TX, WI, WV
Canada MB, ON

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Limestone (01083), Winston (01133)
GA Murray (13213)*, Whitfield (13313)*
KS Cherokee (20021), Labette (20099), Neosho (20133)
MI Huron (26063)*, Iosco (26069)*, Macomb (26099), Monroe (26115)*, Saginaw (26145)*, Tuscola (26157)*, Wayne (26163)*
MO Butler (29023), Cape Girardeau (29031), Cooper (29053), Dunklin (29069), Franklin (29071), Howard (29089), Jefferson (29099), Lewis (29111), Lincoln (29113), Marion (29127), Mississippi (29133), New Madrid (29143), Osage (29151), Pemiscot (29155), Perry (29157), Pike (29163), Ralls (29173), Scott (29201), St. Charles (29183), St. Louis (29189), Ste. Genevieve (29186), Stoddard (29207), Warren (29219), Wayne (29223)
OH Adams (39001), Brown (39015), Hamilton (39061), Monroe (39111), Scioto (39145), Washington (39167)
OK McCurtain (40089), Ottawa (40115)
WV Cabell (54011), Marshall (54051), Mason (54053), Ohio (54069), Pleasants (54073), Wirt (54105)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Conasauga (03150101)+, Upper Coosa (03150105), Middle Coosa (03150106), Lower Coosa (03150107), Lower Tallapoosa (03150110), Upper Alabama (03150201), Cahaba (03150202), Middle Alabama (03150203), Lower Alabama (03150204), Upper Tombigbee (03160101), Town (03160102)*, Buttahatchee (03160103), Luxapallila (03160105), Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub (03160106), Mulberry (03160109), Sipsey Fork (03160110)+, Locust (03160111), Upper Black Warrior (03160112), Lower Black Warrior (03160113), Middle Tombigbee-Chickasaw (03160201), Lower Tambigbee (03160203), Chunky-Okatibbee (03170001), Lower Chickasawhay (03170003), Lower Leaf (03170005), Pascagoula (03170006), Upper Pearl (03180001), Middle Pearl-Strong (03180002)*, Middle Pearl-Silver (03180003), Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004)
04 Au Sable (04070007)+, Pigeon-Wiscoggin (04080103)+, Cass (04080205)+*, Saginaw (04080206)+, Lake Huron (04080300)+*, Lake St. Clair (04090002)+, Huron (04090005)+*, Ottawa-Stony (04100001), Cedar-Portage (04100010)*, Sandusky (04100011)*, Lake Erie (04120200)*
05 Upper Ohio-Wheeling (05030106)+, Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201)+, Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202)+, Little Kanawha (05030203)+, Muskingum (05040004)+, Lower Scioto (05060002)*, Lower Great Miami (05080002), Raccoon-Symmes (05090101)+, Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103)+, Little Sandy (05090104), Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201)+, Little Miami (05090202)+, Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203)+, Licking (05100101), Upper Kentucky (05100204), Upper Green (05110001), Rough (05110004)*, Tippecanoe (05120106), Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108), Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111), Lower Wabash (05120113), Upper White (05120201), Lower East Fork White (05120208), Lower Cumberland (05130205), Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Lower Ohio (05140206)
06 Upper French Broad (06010105), Pigeon (06010106), Lower French Broad (06010107), Watts Bar Lake (06010201), Lower Little Tennessee (06010204), Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001), Hiwassee (06020002), Sequatchie (06020004), Wheeler Lake (06030002), Lower Elk (06030004)+, Pickwick Lake (06030005), Bear (06030006), Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001), Lower Duck (06040003), Kentucky Lake (06040005)
07 Twin Cities (07010206), Lower St. Croix (07030005), Rush-Vermillion (07040001), Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003), Trempealeau (07040005), La Crosse-Pine (07040006)*, Black (07040007), Lower Chippewa (07050005), Red Cedar (07050007), Coon-Yellow (07060001), Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003), Apple-Plum (07060005), Baraboo (07070004)*, Lower Wisconsin (07070005), Copperas-Duck (07080101), Flint-Henderson (07080104), Bear-Wyaconda (07110001)+, North Fabius (07110002), The Sny (07110004)+, Peruque-Piasa (07110009)+, Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003)*, Cahokia-Joachim (07140101)+, Meramec (07140102)+, Bourbeuse (07140103)+, Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105)+, Big Muddy (07140106), Whitewater (07140107)+, Shoal (07140203), Lower Kaskaskia (07140204)*
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100)+, Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201), Obion (08010202), Lower Hatchie (08010208), Upper St. Francis (08020202)+, Lower St. Francis (08020203)+, Little River Ditches (08020204)+, Lower White (08020303), Big (08020304), Lower Arkansas (08020401), Lower Mississippi-Greenville (08030100), Big Sunflower (08030207)*, Lower Ouachita-Smackover (08040201), Lower Ouachita-Bayou De Loutre (08040202), Lower Saline (08040204), Bayou D'arbonne (08040206), Lower Ouachita (08040207)*, Lower Red (08040301)*, Boeuf (08050001), Lower Big Black (08060202), Bayou Pierre (08060203)
09 Sandhill-Wilson (09020301), Lower Red (09020311)
10 Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102)+, Lower Missouri (10300200)+
11 Middle White (11010004), Upper Black (11010007)+, Lower Black (11010009), Spring (11010010), Strawberry (11010012), Middle Neosho (11070205)+, Lake O' the Cherokees (11070206)+, Spring (11070207)+, Lower Neosho (11070209), Polecat-Snake (11110101), Dirty-Greenleaf (11110102), Illinois (11110103), Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104), Poteau (11110105), Frog-Mulberry (11110201), Dardanelle Reservoir (11110202), Lake Conway-Point Remove (11110203), Petit Jean (11110204), Lower Arkansas-Maumelle (11110207), Bois D'arc-Island (11140101), Blue (11140102), Muddy Boggy (11140103), Clear Boggy (11140104), Kiamichi (11140105), Pecan-Waterhole (11140106), Upper Little (11140107)+, Lower Little (11140109), Mckinney-Posten Bayous (11140201), Middle Red-Coushatta (11140202), Lower Red-Lake Iatt (11140207), Caddo Lake (11140306)
12 Middle Sabine (12010002), Toledo Bend Reservoir (12010004), Lower Sabine (12010005), Upper Neches (12020001), Middle Neches (12020002), Upper Angelina (12020004), Lower Angelina (12020005), Upper San Antonio (12100301), Medina (12100302), Lower San Antonio (12100303), Cibolo (12100304), Atascosa (12110110)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Small fish.
Reproduction Comments: Spawns January-April in Texas, February-March in Tennessee, April-May in Illinois, possibly June or July in Manitoba (Hubbs 1985).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: Migrates upstream in spring, downstream in fall (Trautman 1981)
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, High gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Riffle
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Large rivers and lower part of tributaries; deep chutes and riffles where current is swift and bottom is coarse gravel or rock. Smaller individuals generally occur in slower water than do larger ones. Adults generally at depth of 1 m or more. May typically spawn at depths of 1/2 m or a little more in areas of strong current, scattered rubble, and associated clean gravel (Kuehne and Barbour 1983).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Young eat mainly microcrustaceans, adults eat mainly midge and caddisfly larvae. Some populations feed heavily on snails.
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Phenology Comments: Diurnal feeder.
Length: 7 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Biological Research Needs: Research life-history, reproductive biology, genetics, and ecology. Develop effective sampling techniques.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Darters

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. Though larvae of some species may drift with the current, Turner (2001) found no significant relationship between a larval transport index and gene flow among several different darter species.

Separation distances are arbitrary but reflect the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied generally represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 08Feb1995
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Soule, J., B. Van Dam, and G. Hammerson
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 29Apr1996
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • Anderson, Allison A., C. Hubbs, K. O. Winemiller, and R. J. Edwards. 1995. Texas freshwater fish assemblages following three decades of environmental change. The Southwest Naturalist 40(3):314-321.

  • Bandoli, James H. 1998. Status and Distribution of Darters in Southwestern Indiana, with Special Emphasis on the Spottail Darter, an Indiana Endangered Species. Submitted to the Indiana Department of Natural Resources Nongame and Endangered Wildlife Program. 22 pp.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. Univ. Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1052 pp.

  • COSSARO. 2016. Ontario Species at Risk Evaluation Report for River Darter (Percina shumardi). December 2016 (final). 23pp.

  • CROSS, F.B., AND J.T. COLLINS. 1975. FISHES IN KANSAS. UNIV. KANS. MUS.NAT.HIST., PUB.ED.SERIES NO.3.

  • CROSS, F.B.1967.HANDBOOK OF FISHES IN KANSAS. E. RAYMOND HALL.UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, LAWRENCE, KANSAS.

  • Dalton, K. W. 1990. Status of the river darter, Percina schumardi [sic], in Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist 104:59-63.

  • Dalton, K.W. [1989]. Status report on the river darter, Percina shumardi, in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. 11 pp + appendices.

  • Douglas, Neil H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's publ. div. Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • General Status, Environment Canada. 2015. Manitoba fish species and subnational ranks proposed by DFO.

  • Hubbs, C. 1985. Darter reproductive seasons. Copeia 1985:56-68.

  • Kuehne, R. A., and R. W. Barbour. 1983. The American Darters. University Press of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. 177 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Lowe-McConnell, R.H. 1990. Summary address: rare fish, problems, progress and prospects for conservation. Journal of Fish Biology 37(Supplement A):263-269.

  • Miller, R. J. 1979. New records of fishes from 2 southern Oklahoma rivers USA. Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science 59:121-122. [ISSN: 0078-4303]

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • PFLIEGER,W.L.1975. THE FISHES OF MISSOURI. SULLIVAN, MARK. MISSOURI DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION.

  • Page, L. M. 1983b. Identification of the percids, Boleosoma phlox Cope and Ioa vigil Hay. Copeia 1983: 1082-1083.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • ROSS, STEPHEN T. 1996. INLAND FISHES OF MISSISSIPPI. SELECTED SPECIES ACCOUNTS. COAUTHORED WITH W.M. BRENNEMAM, W.T. SLACK, M.T. O'CONNELL, AND T.L. PETERSON. ILLUSTRATED BY D.G. ROSS. DRAFT COPY.

  • Riggs, C. D. and G. A. Moore. 1963. A new record of Moxostoma macrolepidotum pisolabrum, and a range extension for Percina shumardi, in the Red River, Oklahoma and Texas. Copeia 1963 (2):451-452.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman. 1979. Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa. 966 pp.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

  • Suttkus, R. D. 1985. Identification of the percid, Ioa vigil Hay. Copeia 1985:225-227.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Douglas, N. H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Master, L. L. and A. L. Stock. 1998. Synoptic national assessment of comparative risks to biological diversity and landscape types: species distributions. Summary Report submitted to Environmental Protection Agency. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA. 36 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Page, L. M. 1983a. Handbook of Darters. T. F. H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey. 271 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

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Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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