Percina phoxocephala - (Nelson, 1876)
Slenderhead Darter
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Percina phoxocephala (Nelson, 1876) (TSN 168494)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.104090
Element Code: AFCQC04230
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Perches and Darters
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Perciformes Percidae Percina
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Percina phoxocephala
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 24Sep1996
Global Status Last Changed: 24Sep1996
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Moderately large range mainly in the upper and middle Mississippi River basin; fairly common in some areas; secure throughout more than 80% of the range.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S2), Arkansas (S2), Illinois (S4), Indiana (S4), Iowa (S3), Kansas (S5), Kentucky (S4S5), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (S1), Missouri (SNR), Ohio (S4), Oklahoma (S3), South Dakota (S2), Tennessee (S3), West Virginia (S1), Wisconsin (S5)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Mississippi River basin from Ohio to northeastern South Dakota and south to Oklahoma and northern Alabama; Lake Winnebago system (Lake Michigan drainage) in Wisconsin; fairly common in some parts of range (Page and Burr 1991). Most widespread darter in the subgenus (Lee et al. 1980).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: The large range probably is divisible into at least 100 element occurrences.

Population Size: 10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total population size is unknown but undoubtedly exceeds 10,000 individuals.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Moderately intolerant of silt (Lee et al. 1980)

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Apparently relatively stable at the global scale.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Determine current rangewide distribution and abundance.

Protection Needs: Prevent stream alteration (e.g., gravel mining). Discourage land use practices that result in sediment deposition in streams.

Distribution
Help
Global Range: Mississippi River basin from Ohio to northeastern South Dakota and south to Oklahoma and northern Alabama; Lake Winnebago system (Lake Michigan drainage) in Wisconsin; fairly common in some parts of range (Page and Burr 1991). Most widespread darter in the subgenus (Lee et al. 1980).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MN, MO, MS, OH, OK, SD, TN, WI, WV

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AR Benton (05007)*, Franklin (05047)*, Independence (05063)*, Lawrence (05075), Little River (05081), Logan (05083)*, Madison (05087), Randolph (05121)*, Sebastian (05131)*, Sevier (05133), Sharp (05135), Stone (05137)*, Yell (05149)*
MS Tishomingo (28141)
OH Adams (39001), Athens (39009), Brown (39015), Clermont (39025), Franklin (39049), Hamilton (39061), Lawrence (39087), Monroe (39111), Morgan (39115), Muskingum (39119), Pickaway (39129), Ross (39141), Scioto (39145), Warren (39165), Washington (39167)
OK Ottawa (40115), Pushmataha (40127)
SD Grant (46051)
TN Bedford (47003), Benton (47005)*, Cheatham (47021)*, Clay (47027)*, Davidson (47037)*, Hickman (47081), Humphreys (47085), Marshall (47117), Maury (47119), Montgomery (47125), Pickett (47137)*, Robertson (47147), Rutherford (47149)*, Williamson (47187)*, Wilson (47189)*
WV Calhoun (54013), Fayette (54019)*, Mason (54053), Mingo (54059)*, Ritchie (54085), Wyoming (54109)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
04 Manitowoc-Sheboygan (04030101), Wolf (04030202), Lake Winnebago (04030203)
05 Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201)+, Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202)+, Little Kanawha (05030203)+, Hocking (05030204)+, Muskingum (05040004)+, Licking (05040006)+, Lower New (05050004)+*, Upper Scioto (05060001)+, Lower Scioto (05060002)+, Paint (05060003)+, Upper Guyandotte (05070101)+*, Upper Great Miami (05080001)*, Lower Great Miami (05080002)*, Whitewater (05080003)*, Raccoon-Symmes (05090101)+, Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103)+, Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201)+, Little Miami (05090202)+, Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203)+, Lower Kentucky (05100205), Upper Green (05110001), Barren (05110002), Middle Green (05110003), Rough (05110004), Lower Green (05110005), Mississinewa (05120103), Eel (05120104), Middle Wabash-Deer (05120105), Wildcat (05120107), Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108), Vermilion (05120109), Sugar (05120110), Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111), Embarras (05120112), Lower Wabash (05120113), Little Wabash (05120114), Upper East Fork White (05120206), Lower East Fork White (05120208), Patoka (05120209), Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103), Obey (05130105)+*, Upper Cumberland-Cordell Hull (05130106)+, Lower Cumberland-Old Hickory Lake (05130201)+, Lower Cumberland-Sycamore (05130202), Stones (05130203)+, Harpeth (05130204)+, Lower Cumberland (05130205), Red (05130206)+, Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Salt (05140102), Rolling Fork (05140103), Blue-Sinking (05140104), Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201), Highland-Pigeon (05140202), Tradewater (05140205)*, Lower Ohio (05140206)*
06 Pickwick Lake (06030005)+*, Bear (06030006)+, Upper Duck (06040002)+, Lower Duck (06040003)+, Kentucky Lake (06040005)+
07 Twin Cities (07010206), Upper Minnesota (07020001)+, Hawk-Yellow Medicine (07020004), Middle Minnesota (07020007), Lower Minnesota (07020012), Upper St. Croix (07030001), Lower St. Croix (07030005), Rush-Vermillion (07040001), Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003), Black (07040007), Upper Chippewa (07050001), South Fork Flambeau (07050003), Jump (07050004), Lower Chippewa (07050005), Coon-Yellow (07060001)*, Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003), Turkey (07060004)*, Apple-Plum (07060005), Maquoketa (07060006)*, Upper Wisconsin (07070001), Castle Rock (07070003), Lower Wisconsin (07070005), Kickapoo (07070006)*, Copperas-Duck (07080101)*, Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102), Flint-Henderson (07080104), Upper Cedar (07080201), Shell Rock (07080202), West Fork Cedar (07080204), Middle Cedar (07080205), Lower Cedar (07080206), Upper Iowa (07080207), Middle Iowa (07080208), Lower Iowa (07080209), Upper Rock (07090001), Crawfish (07090002), Pecatonica (07090003), Sugar (07090004), Lower Rock (07090005), Kishwaukee (07090006), Green (07090007), Upper Des Moines (07100002)*, East Fork Des Moines (07100003)*, Middle Des Moines (07100004), Boone (07100005), North Raccoon (07100006)*, Lake Red Rock (07100008)*, Lower Des Moines (07100009)*, Bear-Wyaconda (07110001), North Fabius (07110002), South Fabius (07110003), The Sny (07110004), North Fork Salt (07110005), South Fork Salt (07110006), Salt (07110007), Cuivre (07110008), Kankakee (07120001), Iroquois (07120002), Des Plaines (07120004), Upper Illinois (07120005), Lower Fox (07120007), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001)*, Vermilion (07130002), Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003)*, Mackinaw (07130004), Spoon (07130005), Upper Sangamon (07130006), South Fork Sangamon (07130007), Salt (07130009), La Moine (07130010), Lower Illinois (07130011), Macoupin (07130012)*, Meramec (07140102), Bourbeuse (07140103), Big (07140104)*, Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105), Upper Kaskaskia (07140201), Middle Kaskaskia (07140202)*, Shoal (07140203), Lower Kaskaskia (07140204)*
08 Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201)*, Upper St. Francis (08020202)*, Coldwater (08030204)*
10 Boyer (10230007), Upper Marais Des Cygnes (10290101), Lower Marais Des Cygnes (10290102), Little Osage (10290103), Marmaton (10290104), Harry S. Missouri (10290105), Sac (10290106), Pomme De Terre (10290107), South Grand (10290108), Niangua (10290110)*, Lower Osage (10290111), Upper Gasconade (10290201), Big Piney (10290202)*, Lower Gasconade (10290203), Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102), Lamine (10300103), Lower Missouri (10300200)
11 Beaver Reservoir (11010001)+, Middle White (11010004)+*, Lower Black (11010009)+*, Spring (11010010)+, Strawberry (11010012)+, Little Arkansas (11030012), Middle Arkansas-Slate (11030013), South Fork Ninnescah (11030015), Ninnescah (11030016), Upper Walnut River (11030017), Lower Walnut River (11030018), Kaw Lake (11060001), Chikaskia (11060005), Black Bear-Red Rock (11060006), Upper Verdigris (11070101), Fall (11070102), Middle Verdigris (11070103), Elk (11070104), Lower Verdigris (11070105), Caney (11070106), Bird (11070107), Neosho headwaters (11070201), Upper Cottonwood (11070202), Lower Cottonwood (11070203), Upper Neosho (11070204), Middle Neosho (11070205), Lake O' the Cherokees (11070206), Spring (11070207)+, Lower Neosho (11070209), Lower Canadian (11090204), Dirty-Greenleaf (11110102), Illinois (11110103)+, Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104), Frog-Mulberry (11110201)+, Dardanelle Reservoir (11110202)+, Petit Jean (11110204)+, Middle Washita (11130303), Kiamichi (11140105)+, Upper Little (11140107), Lower Little (11140109)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: A fish (darter) that reaches a length of 9-10 cm.
Reproduction Comments: Spawns mainly from late May to early July in Illinois, late April-May in Missouri (Hubbs 1985), late March through mid-July (peak in May) in Tennessee (Etnier and Starnes 1993). Eggs hatch in about two weeks (Etnier and Starnes 1993). Sexually mature in 1 year, apparently lives not more than 2-3 years (Kuehne and Barbour 1983, Page 1983, Bart and Page 1992) or 4 years (Etnier and Starnes 1993).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, High gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool, Riffle
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Runs and riffles of creeks and small to medium rivers with moderate to strong flow and gravel, rubble, or bedrock substrate. Frequents gravel shoal areas (Etnier and Starnes 1993). Can do well in gravel and rubble ruins below dams (Lee et al. 1980). Apparently moves downstream to deeper water in colder months, returns upstream in spring. Very few lake or reservoir records. Spawns in swift gravel riffles 15-60 cm deep (Page 1983, Etnier and Starnes 1993).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats mainly immature aquatic insects, especially mayflies, midges, and caddisflies (Page 1983).
Phenology Comments: May feed at least partly after dark (Page 1983).
Length: 8 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Group Name: Darters

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. Though larvae of some species may drift with the current, Turner (2001) found no significant relationship between a larval transport index and gene flow among several different darter species.

Separation distances are arbitrary but reflect the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied generally represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 13Sep1995
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Dirrigl, F., Jr., & G. Hammerson
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 13Sep1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries. 2005. Conserving Alabama's wildlife: a comprehensive strategy. Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries. Montgomery, Alabama. 303 pages. [Available online at http://www.dcnr.state.al.us/research-mgmt/cwcs/outline.cfm ]

  • Bandoli, James H. 1998. Status and Distribution of Darters in Southwestern Indiana, with Special Emphasis on the Spottail Darter, an Indiana Endangered Species. Submitted to the Indiana Department of Natural Resources Nongame and Endangered Wildlife Program. 22 pp.

  • Bart, H. L., Jr., and L. M. Page. 1992. The influence of size and phylogeny on life history variation in North American percids. Pages 553-572 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. Univ. Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1052 pp.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 736 pages.

  • CROSS, F.B., AND J.T. COLLINS. 1975. FISHES IN KANSAS. UNIV. KANS. MUS.NAT.HIST., PUB.ED.SERIES NO.3.

  • CROSS, F.B.1967.HANDBOOK OF FISHES IN KANSAS. E. RAYMOND HALL.UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, LAWRENCE, KANSAS.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • Gerking, Shelby D. 1945. Distribution of Fishes of Indiana. In Investigations of Indiana Lakes and Streams. 3(1): 1-137. Indiana Department of Conservation, Division of Fish and Game, Indianapolis and Department of Zoology, Indiana University, Bloomington.

  • Hatch, J. T. 1985/86. Distribution, habitat, and status of the Gilt Darter (Percina evides) in Minnesota. Journal of the Minnesota Academy of Science 51(2):11-16

  • Hatch, J. T. 1986. Comparative growth, reproduction, habitat and food utilization of darters of the St. Croix River drainage. Final report submitted to Nongame Wildlife Program, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 39+ pp.

  • Hatch, J. T. 1986. Comparative growth, reproduction, habitat and food utilization of darters of the St. Croix River drainage. Final report submitted to Nongame Wildlife Program, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 39+ pp.

  • Hubbs, C. 1985. Darter reproductive seasons. Copeia 1985:56-68.

  • Kuehne, R. A., and R. W. Barbour. 1983. The American Darters. University Press of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. 177 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Mirarchi, R. E., J. T. Garner, M. F. Mettee, and P.E. O'Neil, editors. 2004. Alabama wildlife. Volume 2. Imperiled aquatic mollusks and fishes. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 255 pages

  • Mirarchi, R.E., M.A. Bailey, J.T. Garner, T.M. Haggerty, T.L. Best, M.F. Mettee, and P. O'Neil, editors. 2004. Alabama Wildlife. Volume 4. Conservation and management recommendations for imperiled wildlife. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 221 pages.

  • Mirarchi, R.E., editor. 2004. Alabama Wildlife. Volume 1. A checklist of vertebrates and selected invertebrates: aquatic mollusks, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 209 pages.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Sixth edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 29. 386 pages.

  • PFLIEGER,W.L.1975. THE FISHES OF MISSOURI. SULLIVAN, MARK. MISSOURI DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION.

  • Page, L. M. and P. W. Smith. 1971. The life history of the slenderhead darter, Percina phoxocephala, in the Embarras River, Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey Biological Notes 74:1-14.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • ROSS, STEPHEN T. 1996. INLAND FISHES OF MISSISSIPPI. SELECTED SPECIES ACCOUNTS. COAUTHORED WITH W.M. BRENNEMAM, W.T. SLACK, M.T. O'CONNELL, AND T.L. PETERSON. ILLUSTRATED BY D.G. ROSS. DRAFT COPY.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Page, L. M. 1983a. Handbook of Darters. T. F. H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey. 271 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2019.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2019 NatureServe, 2511 Richmond (Jefferson Davis) Highway, Suite 930, Arlington, VA 22202, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2019. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.