Percina evides - (Jordan and Copeland, 1877)
Gilt Darter
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Percina evides (Jordan and Copeland in Jordan, 1877) (TSN 168483)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.102101
Element Code: AFCQC04090
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Perches and Darters
Image 185

© Noel Burkhead & Virginia Dept of Game and Inland Fisheries (Fishes of Virginia)

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Perciformes Percidae Percina
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Percina evides
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 24Sep1996
Global Status Last Changed: 24Sep1996
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Wide but discontinuous and reduced range in eastern U.S.; declines have resulted from pollution and habitat alteration.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4 (05Sep1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S2), Arkansas (S3), Georgia (S3), Illinois (SX), Indiana (S1), Iowa (SX), Kentucky (S4), Minnesota (S3), Mississippi (S1), Missouri (SNR), New York (SH), North Carolina (S4), Ohio (SX), Pennsylvania (S1S2), Tennessee (S4), Virginia (S2), West Virginia (S2), Wisconsin (S2S3)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Mississippi River basin from New York and northwestern Pennsylvania to Minnesota and south to northern Alabama and northern Arkansas; Maumee River system (Lake Erie drainage), Ohio and Indiana; locally common but extirpated from much of former range, including all of Ohio, Iowa, and Illinois (Page and Burr 1991).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Lee et al. (1980) mapped 123 collection sites.

Population Size: Unknown
Population Size Comments: Population numbers are reduced; locally common rare in many parts of its former range.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threatened by pollution and habitat alteration.

Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable or slowly declining.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Mississippi River basin from New York and northwestern Pennsylvania to Minnesota and south to northern Alabama and northern Arkansas; Maumee River system (Lake Erie drainage), Ohio and Indiana; locally common but extirpated from much of former range, including all of Ohio, Iowa, and Illinois (Page and Burr 1991).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, GA, IAextirpated, ILextirpated, IN, KY, MN, MO, MS, NC, NY, OHextirpated, PA, TN, VA, WI, WV

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Lauderdale (01077), Limestone (01083)
GA Catoosa (13047), Fannin (13111), Rabun (13241), Towns (13281), Union (13291)
IN Allen (18003)*, Carroll (18015)*, Cass (18017)*, Fountain (18045)*, Fulton (18049), Knox (18083)*, Kosciusko (18085), Morgan (18109)*, Parke (18121)*, Posey (18129)*, Pulaski (18131), Tippecanoe (18157)*, White (18181)
KY Butler (21031), Calloway (21035)*, Warren (21227)*
MN Chisago (27025), Kanabec (27065), Pine (27115), Washington (27163)
MS Tishomingo (28141)
NY Cattaraugus (36009)*
PA Clarion (42031), Crawford (42039), Erie (42049), Forest (42053), Venango (42121), Warren (42123)
TN Hancock (47067)*
VA Lee (51105), Russell (51167), Scott (51169), Washington (51191), Wise (51195)
WI Burnett (55013), Douglas (55031), Jackson (55053), La Crosse (55063), Monroe (55081), Polk (55095), Rusk (55107), St. Croix (55109), Washburn (55129)
WV Braxton (54007), Kanawha (54039)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
04 St. Joseph (04100003)+, St. Marys (04100004)+*, Upper Maumee (04100005)+*, Lower Maumee (04100009)*
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001)+, Middle Allegheny-Tionesta (05010003)+, French (05010004)+, Clarion (05010005)+, Elk (05050007)+, Tug (05070201), Upper Levisa (05070202), Lower Levisa (05070203), Raccoon-Symmes (05090101), Licking (05100101), North Fork Kentucky (05100201), Middle Fork Kentucky (05100202), South Fork Kentucky (05100203), Upper Green (05110001)+, Barren (05110002)+, Upper Wabash (05120101)+*, Eel (05120104)+*, Middle Wabash-Deer (05120105)+*, Tippecanoe (05120106)+, Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108)+, Sugar (05120110)+*, Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111)+, Lower Wabash (05120113)+, Upper White (05120201)+, Lower White (05120202), South Fork Cumberland (05130104), Obey (05130105), Upper Cumberland-Cordell Hull (05130106), Caney (05130108)
06 North Fork Holston (06010101)+, South Fork Holston (06010102)+, Watauga (06010103), Holston (06010104), Upper French Broad (06010105), Lower French Broad (06010107), Nolichucky (06010108), Watts Bar Lake (06010201), Upper Little Tennessee (06010202)+, Tuckasegee (06010203), Lower Little Tennessee (06010204), Upper Clinch (06010205)+, Powell (06010206)+, Lower Clinch (06010207), Emory (06010208), Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001)+, Hiwassee (06020002)+, Ocoee (06020003)+, Upper Elk (06030003), Lower Elk (06030004)+, Pickwick Lake (06030005)+, Bear (06030006)+, Lower Duck (06040003), Buffalo (06040004), Kentucky Lake (06040005)+
07 Upper St. Croix (07030001)+, Namekagon (07030002)+, Kettle (07030003)+, Snake (07030004)+, Lower St. Croix (07030005)+, La Crosse-Pine (07040006)+, Black (07040007)+, Upper Chippewa (07050001)+, Flambeau (07050002), Jump (07050004)+, Middle Cedar (07080205)*, Lower Rock (07090005)*, Kankakee (07120001), Meramec (07140102), Bourbeuse (07140103), Big (07140104)
08 Upper St. Francis (08020202)
10 Lower Osage (10290111), Upper Gasconade (10290201), Big Piney (10290202), Lower Gasconade (10290203)
11 Beaver Reservoir (11010001), James (11010002), Bull Shoals Lake (11010003)*, Middle White (11010004), Buffalo (11010005), North Fork White (11010006)*, Upper Black (11010007), Current (11010008), Spring (11010010), Eleven Point (11010011), Strawberry (11010012)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: A small fish (darter).
Reproduction Comments: Spawns in May at 17-20 C in Virginia, late April-early May in Arkansas, probably in mid-June in northwestern Wisconsin; four age classes in Wisconsin (Hubbs 1985, Page 1983, Becker 1983). Age range of breeding females is 2-3 years; 2 spawns per lifetime (Bart and Pages 1992).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, High gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool, Riffle
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Generally in clear, small to medium rivers with clean, silt-free bottoms and permanently strong flow. Usually in moderate to fast, deep riffles and pools, over gravel, rubble, and small boulders. Occupies deeper pools in winter. Spawns apparently over gravel riffles (Becker 1983).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats mainly aquatic insect larvae (Page 1983, Becker 1983).
Length: 7 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Group Name: Darters

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. Though larvae of some species may drift with the current, Turner (2001) found no significant relationship between a larval transport index and gene flow among several different darter species.

Separation distances are arbitrary but reflect the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied generally represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 10Aug2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Jennings, R., and G. Hammerson
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 08Oct1993
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries. 2005. Conserving Alabama's wildlife: a comprehensive strategy. Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries. Montgomery, Alabama. 303 pages. [Available online at http://www.dcnr.state.al.us/research-mgmt/cwcs/outline.cfm ]

  • Bart, H. L., Jr., and L. M. Page. 1992. The influence of size and phylogeny on life history variation in North American percids. Pages 553-572 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. Univ. Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1052 pp.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. The fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisconsin. 1052 pp.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 736 pages.

  • Carlson, Douglas M. 1998. Species Accounts for the rare fishes of New York. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Division of Fish, Wildlife and Marine Resources. Bureau of Fisheries, Endangered Fish Project. 95pp.

  • Denoncourt, R.F. 1969. A systematic study of the gilt darter Percina evides (Jordan and Copeland) (Pisces:Percidae). Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. PhD. Thesis. 209 pp.

  • Eaton, S.W., R.J. Nemecek and M.M. Kozubowski. 1982. Fishes of the Allegheny River above Kinzua Dam. New York Fish and Game J. 29(2):189-198.

  • Endangered Species Unit. 1986. Unpublished fish files. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Wildlife Resources Center. Delmar, NY.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • Hatch, J. T. 1982. Life history of the Gilt Darter (Percina evides) in the Sunrise River, Chisago County, Minnesota. Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 162 pp.

  • Hatch, J. T. 1985/86. Distribution, habitat, and status of the Gilt Darter (Percina evides) in Minnesota. Journal of the Minnesota Academy of Science 51(2):11-16

  • Hatch, J. T. 1986. Comparative growth, reproduction, habitat and food utilization of darters of the St. Croix River drainage. Final report submitted to Nongame Wildlife Program, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 39+ pp.

  • Hatch, J. T. 1986. Comparative growth, reproduction, habitat and food utilization of darters of the St. Croix River drainage. Final report submitted to Nongame Wildlife Program, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 39+ pp.

  • Hatch, J. T., G. L. Phillips, and K. P. Schmidt, editors. In preparation. The fishes of Minnesota.

  • Hubbs, C. 1985. Darter reproductive seasons. Copeia 1985:56-68.

  • Kuehne, R. A., and R. W. Barbour. 1983. The American Darters. University Press of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. 177 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Lyons, J., P. Hanson, E. White, J. F. Kitchell, and P. Moy.  2012b.  Wisconsin fish identification database [web application].  <http://wiscfish.org>.  Accessed 10 May 2016.

  • Mettee, M.F., P. E. O'Neil, and J.M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Inc., Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pages.

  • Mirarchi, R. E., J. T. Garner, M. F. Mettee, and P.E. O'Neil, editors. 2004. Alabama wildlife. Volume 2. Imperiled aquatic mollusks and fishes. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 255 pages

  • Mirarchi, R.E., M.A. Bailey, J.T. Garner, T.M. Haggerty, T.L. Best, M.F. Mettee, and P. O'Neil, editors. 2004. Alabama Wildlife. Volume 4. Conservation and management recommendations for imperiled wildlife. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 221 pages.

  • Mirarchi, R.E., editor. 2004. Alabama Wildlife. Volume 1. A checklist of vertebrates and selected invertebrates: aquatic mollusks, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 209 pages.

  • Natural Resources Commission. 2014. Roster of Indiana Animals, Insects, and Plants That Are Extirpated, Endangered, Threatened or Rare. Information Bulletin #2 (Sixth Amendment. 20pp.

  • NatureServe.  2015.  NatureServe Explorer:  an online encyclopedia of life [web application].  Version 7.1.  NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia.  <http://www.natureserve.org/explorer>.  Accessed 10 May 2016.

  • Near, T. J. and L. M. Page. 1999. Molecular systematics and speciation of the Gilt Darter (Percina evides) in the St. Croix River Drainage. Technical Report #23. Final Report submitted to State of Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Nongame Wildlife Program.

  • Near, T. J., L. M. Page and R. L. Mayden. 2001. Intraspecific phylogeography of Percina evides (Percidae: Etheostomatinae): an additional test of the Central Highlands pre-Pleistocene vicariance hypothesis. Molecular Ecology 10: 2235-2240.

  • Near, T. J., and L. M. Page. 1999. Molecular systematics and speciation of the Gilt Darter (Percina evides) in the St. Croix River drainage. Final report submitted to the Nongame Wildlife Program, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 26 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Sixth edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 29. 386 pages.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Page, LM, H.Espinoza-Perez, L.Findley, C.Gilbert, R. Lea, N. Mandrak, R.Mayden and J.Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico, 7th edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Proulx, N. 2005. Status and critical habitat of threatened, special concern, and rare fish species in nonwadeable portions of the St. Croix River basin. Final report submitted to  the State Wildlife Grants Program Project, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 20pp.

  • ROSS, STEPHEN T. 1996. INLAND FISHES OF MISSISSIPPI. SELECTED SPECIES ACCOUNTS. COAUTHORED WITH W.M. BRENNEMAM, W.T. SLACK, M.T. O'CONNELL, AND T.L. PETERSON. ILLUSTRATED BY D.G. ROSS. DRAFT COPY.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

  • Smith, C.L. 1985. The Inland Fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY. 522pp.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Jenkins, R. E., and N. M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. xxiii + 1079 pp.

  • Menhinick, E. F. 1991. The freshwater fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. 227 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Page, L. M. 1983a. Handbook of Darters. T. F. H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey. 271 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1983. Fishes of New York (maps and printout of a draft section on scarce fishes of New York). Unpublished draft.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

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