Percina maculata - (Girard, 1859)
Blackside Darter
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Percina maculata (Girard, 1859) (TSN 168488)
French Common Names: dard noir
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.106566
Element Code: AFCQC04140
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Perches and Darters
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Perciformes Percidae Percina
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Percina maculata
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 17Aug2015
Global Status Last Changed: 24Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (17Aug2015)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (S5), Arkansas (S4), Illinois (S5), Indiana (S5), Iowa (S3), Kansas (S1), Kentucky (S4S5), Louisiana (S4), Michigan (S5), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (SNR), Nebraska (SX), New York (S3), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (S5), Oklahoma (S2), Pennsylvania (S5), South Dakota (S2), Tennessee (S5), Texas (S1), Virginia (SX), West Virginia (S5), Wisconsin (S5)
Canada Manitoba (S5), Ontario (S4), Saskatchewan (S3S4)

Other Statuses

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Candidate (Low) (26Jan2015)
IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range includes the Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, and Mississippi River basins, from southern Ontario and New York to southeastern Saskatchewan and south to Louisiana; Gulf drainages from Mobile Bay, Alabama, to Neches River (Sabine River drainage, Texas (Page and Burr 2011). This is one of the most common and widespread darters (Page and Burr 2011).

Number of Occurrences: 81 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of subpopulations and locations.

Population Size: 100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but relatively large.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Localized threats may exist, but on a range-wide scale no major threats are known.

Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable or slowly declining.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Range includes the Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, and Mississippi River basins, from southern Ontario and New York to southeastern Saskatchewan and south to Louisiana; Gulf drainages from Mobile Bay, Alabama, to Neches River (Sabine River drainage, Texas (Page and Burr 2011). This is one of the most common and widespread darters (Page and Burr 2011).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MI, MN, MO, MS, ND, NEextirpated, NY, OH, OK, PA, SD, TN, TX, VAextirpated, WI, WV
Canada MB, ON, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
KS Wabaunsee (20197)
NE Antelope (31003)*, Holt (31089)*, Madison (31119)*
OK Choctaw (40023)*, Haskell (40061)*, Johnston (40069)*, LeFlore (40079)*, McCurtain (40089)
PA Potter (42105)*
SD Bon Homme (46009), Deuel (46039), Grant (46051), Lincoln (46083), Minnehaha (46099), Moody (46101), Roberts (46109)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Lower Tallapoosa (03150110), Upper Alabama (03150201), Cahaba (03150202), Middle Alabama (03150203), Lower Alabama (03150204), Upper Tombigbee (03160101), Town (03160102), Buttahatchee (03160103), Tibbee (03160104), Luxapallila (03160105), Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub (03160106), Sipsey (03160107), Noxubee (03160108), Mulberry (03160109), Sipsey Fork (03160110), Locust (03160111), Upper Black Warrior (03160112), Lower Black Warrior (03160113), Middle Tombigbee-Chickasaw (03160201), Sucarnoochee (03160202), Upper Pearl (03180001), Middle Pearl-Strong (03180002), Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004), Bogue Chitto (03180005)
04 Manitowoc-Sheboygan (04030101), Door-Kewaunee (04030102), Duck-Pensaukee (04030103), Oconto (04030104), Peshtigo (04030105), Menominee (04030108), Cedar-Ford (04030109), Upper Fox (04030201), Wolf (04030202), Lake Winnebago (04030203), Lower Fox (04030204), Pike-Root (04040002), Milwaukee (04040003), St. Joseph (04050001), Black-Macatawa (04050002), Kalamazoo (04050003), Upper Grand (04050004), Maple (04050005), Lower Grand (04050006), Thornapple (04050007), Pere Marquette-White (04060101), Muskegon (04060102), Manistee (04060103), Betsie-Platte (04060104), Lone Lake-Ocqueoc (04070003), Cheboygan (04070004), Black (04070005), Thunder Bay (04070006), Au Sable (04070007), Au Gres-Rifle (04080101), Pigeon-Wiscoggin (04080103), Tittabawassee (04080201), Pine (04080202), Shiawassee (04080203), Cass (04080205), Saginaw (04080206), St. Clair (04090001), Huron (04090005), Ottawa-Stony (04100001), Raisin (04100002), St. Joseph (04100003), St. Marys (04100004), Upper Maumee (04100005), Tiffin (04100006), Auglaize (04100007), Blanchard (04100008), Lower Maumee (04100009), Cedar-Portage (04100010)*, Sandusky (04100011), Huron-Vermilion (04100012)*, Black-Rocky (04110001), Cuyahoga (04110002), Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003), Grand (04110004), Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101), Cattaraugus (04120102)*, Buffalo-Eighteenmile (04120103)*, Niagara (04120104), Lake Erie (04120200)*, Oak Orchard-Twelvemile (04130001), Upper Genesee (04130002)+, Irondequoit-Ninemile (04140101), Seneca (04140201), Oneida (04140202)
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001), Conewango (05010002), Middle Allegheny-Tionesta (05010003), French (05010004), Clarion (05010005), Middle Allegheny-Redbank (05010006), Kiskiminetas (05010008), Tygart Valley (05020001), West Fork (05020002), Upper Monongahela (05020003), Cheat (05020004), Upper Ohio (05030101)*, Shenango (05030102), Mahoning (05030103)*, Connoquenessing (05030105), Upper Ohio-Wheeling (05030106)*, Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201), Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202), Little Kanawha (05030203), Hocking (05030204), Tuscarawas (05040001)*, Mohican (05040002)*, Walhonding (05040003), Muskingum (05040004)*, Wills (05040005)*, Licking (05040006), Greenbrier (05050003), Lower New (05050004), Gauley (05050005), Upper Kanawha (05050006), Elk (05050007), Lower Kanawha (05050008), Coal (05050009), Upper Scioto (05060001), Lower Scioto (05060002), Paint (05060003), Upper Guyandotte (05070101), Lower Guyandotte (05070102), Tug (05070201), Upper Levisa (05070202), Lower Levisa (05070203), Big Sandy (05070204), Upper Great Miami (05080001)*, Lower Great Miami (05080002)*, Whitewater (05080003), Raccoon-Symmes (05090101), Twelvepole (05090102), Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103), Little Sandy (05090104), Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201), Little Miami (05090202), Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203), Licking (05100101), South Fork Licking (05100102), North Fork Kentucky (05100201), Middle Fork Kentucky (05100202), South Fork Kentucky (05100203), Upper Kentucky (05100204), Lower Kentucky (05100205), Upper Green (05110001), Barren (05110002), Middle Green (05110003), Rough (05110004), Lower Green (05110005), Pond (05110006), Upper Wabash (05120101), Salamonie (05120102), Mississinewa (05120103), Eel (05120104), Middle Wabash-Deer (05120105), Tippecanoe (05120106), Wildcat (05120107), Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108), Vermilion (05120109), Sugar (05120110), Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111), Embarras (05120112), Lower Wabash (05120113), Little Wabash (05120114), Skillet (05120115), Upper White (05120201), Lower White (05120202), Eel (05120203), Driftwood (05120204), Flatrock-Haw (05120205), Upper East Fork White (05120206), Muscatatuck (05120207), Lower East Fork White (05120208), Patoka (05120209), Upper Cumberland (05130101), Rockcastle (05130102), Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103), South Fork Cumberland (05130104), Lower Cumberland (05130205), Red (05130206), Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Salt (05140102), Rolling Fork (05140103), Blue-Sinking (05140104), Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201), Highland-Pigeon (05140202), Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203), Saline (05140204), Tradewater (05140205), Lower Ohio (05140206)
06 Upper Clinch (06010205), Powell (06010206)*, Lower Clinch (06010207), Emory (06010208)*, Ocoee (06020003), Wheeler Lake (06030002), Pickwick Lake (06030005), Bear (06030006), Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001), Kentucky Lake (06040005), Lower Tennessee (06040006)
07 Twin Cities (07010206), Upper Minnesota (07020001)+, Lac Qui Parle (07020003)+, Hawk-Yellow Medicine (07020004), Chippewa (07020005), Middle Minnesota (07020007), Blue Earth (07020009), Le Sueur (07020011), Upper St. Croix (07030001), Namekagon (07030002), Lower St. Croix (07030005), Rush-Vermillion (07040001), Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003), Zumbro (07040004), Trempealeau (07040005), La Crosse-Pine (07040006), Black (07040007), Root (07040008), Upper Chippewa (07050001), Flambeau (07050002), South Fork Flambeau (07050003), Jump (07050004), Lower Chippewa (07050005), Eau Claire (07050006), Red Cedar (07050007), Coon-Yellow (07060001), Upper Iowa (07060002)*, Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003)*, Turkey (07060004)*, Maquoketa (07060006)*, Upper Wisconsin (07070001), Lake Dubay (07070002), Castle Rock (07070003), Baraboo (07070004), Lower Wisconsin (07070005), Kickapoo (07070006), Copperas-Duck (07080101)*, Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102), Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103)*, South Skunk (07080105), Upper Cedar (07080201), Shell Rock (07080202), Winnebago (07080203), West Fork Cedar (07080204), Middle Cedar (07080205), Lower Cedar (07080206)*, Upper Iowa (07080207), Middle Iowa (07080208), Lower Iowa (07080209)*, Upper Rock (07090001), Crawfish (07090002), Pecatonica (07090003), Sugar (07090004), Kishwaukee (07090006), Upper Des Moines (07100002)*, East Fork Des Moines (07100003)*, Middle Des Moines (07100004)*, Boone (07100005), North Raccoon (07100006), Lake Red Rock (07100008)*, South Fork Salt (07110006), Salt (07110007), Cuivre (07110008), Peruque-Piasa (07110009)*, Kankakee (07120001), Iroquois (07120002), Chicago (07120003), Des Plaines (07120004), Upper Illinois (07120005), Upper Fox (07120006), Lower Fox (07120007), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001), Vermilion (07130002), Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003), Mackinaw (07130004), Spoon (07130005)*, Upper Sangamon (07130006), Lower Sangamon (07130008), Salt (07130009), La Moine (07130010), Lower Illinois (07130011), Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105), Big Muddy (07140106)*, Whitewater (07140107), Cache (07140108), Upper Kaskaskia (07140201), Middle Kaskaskia (07140202)*, Shoal (07140203)
08 South Fork Forked Deer (08010205), Upper Hatchie (08010207), Lower Hatchie (08010208), Wolf (08010210), Upper St. Francis (08020202), Lower St. Francis (08020203), Little River Ditches (08020204), Cache (08020302), Lower White (08020303), Little Tallahatchie (08030201), Yocona (08030203), Yalobusha (08030205), Upper Ouachita (08040102), Little Missouri (08040103), Lower Ouachita-Smackover (08040201), Lower Ouachita-Bayou De Loutre (08040202), Upper Saline (08040203), Lower Saline (08040204), Bayou D'arbonne (08040206), Lower Ouachita (08040207), Castor (08040302), Dugdemona (08040303), Little (08040304), Boeuf (08050001), Upper Big Black (08060201), Lower Big Black (08060202), Bayou Pierre (08060203), Homochitto (08060205), Amite (08070202), Bayou Teche (08080102), Upper Calcasieu (08080203)*, Whisky Chitto (08080204)*
09 Otter Tail (09020103), Buffalo (09020106), Elm-Marsh (09020107), Eastern Wild Rice (09020108), Goose (09020109), Lower Sheyenne (09020204), Sandhill-Wilson (09020301), Red Lakes (09020302), Red Lake (09020303), Thief (09020304), Clearwater (09020305), Turtle (09020307), Forest (09020308), Snake (09020309), Park (09020310), Lower Red (09020311), Pembina (09020313), Upper Rainy (09030004), Little Fork (09030005), Rapid (09030007)
10 Lower Niobrara (10150007)+*, James Headwaters (10160001), Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101)+, Upper Big Sioux (10170202)+*, Lower Big Sioux (10170203)+, Rock (10170204), Upper Elkhorn (10220001)+, North Fork Elkhorn (10220002)+*, Little Sioux (10230003), Upper Kansas (10270101)*, Middle Kansas (10270102)+, Lower Grand (10280103)*, Upper Chariton (10280201), Lower Chariton (10280202), Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102), Lamine (10300103)
11 Beaver Reservoir (11010001)*, Middle White (11010004), Buffalo (11010005), Upper Black (11010007), Current (11010008), Lower Black (11010009), Spring (11010010), Strawberry (11010012)*, Little Red (11010014), Middle Verdigris (11070103), Lower Canadian (11090204), Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104)+, Poteau (11110105)+, Frog-Mulberry (11110201), Dardanelle Reservoir (11110202), Petit Jean (11110204), Blue (11140102)+*, Kiamichi (11140105)+, Pecan-Waterhole (11140106)+, Upper Little (11140107)+, Mountain Fork (11140108)+*, Lower Little (11140109)+*, Bodcau Bayou (11140205)*, Lower Red-Lake Iatt (11140207), Saline Bayou (11140208), Black Lake Bayou (11140209), Sulphur headwaters (11140301), Lower Sulphur (11140302), Caddo Lake (11140306)
12 Middle Sabine (12010002), Upper Angelina (12020004), Lower Angelina (12020005)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
Help
Reproduction Comments: Spawns April to June. Eggs hatch in about 6 days. Sexually mature usually in 2 years, rarely in 1 year (Becker 1983). Oldest breeding females generally are 4 years old (Bart and Page 1992).
Ecology Comments: May reach density of 650/surface ha (Kuehne and Barbour 1983).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: May migrate several miles between spawning and nonspawning habitats (Becker 1983).
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Creeks and small to medium rivers; prefers quiet pools and pools with some current, over gravel or sand bottoms. Spawns in small headwater streams; eggs are laid in gravel or sand of pools or raceways in 30-60 cm of water.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Adults eat mainly immature aquatic insects, young feed mainly on microcrustaceans (Page 1983).
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Phenology Comments: Most active during daylight.
Length: 8 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Group Name: Darters

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. Though larvae of some species may drift with the current, Turner (2001) found no significant relationship between a larval transport index and gene flow among several different darter species.

Separation distances are arbitrary but reflect the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied generally represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 19Feb2013
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 08Oct1993
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Atton, F.M. and J.J. Merkowsky. 1983. Atlas of Saskatchewan Fish. Saskatchewan Department of Parks and Renewable Resources, Fisheries Branch Technical Report 83-2. 281pp.

  • Bart, H. L., Jr., and L. M. Page. 1992. The influence of size and phylogeny on life history variation in North American percids. Pages 553-572 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Fisheries Branch. 1991. Fish Species Distributions in Saskatchewan. Report 91-7. Saskatchewan Parks and Renewable Resources, Fisheries Branch. Regina. 102pp.

  • Kuehne, R. A., and R. W. Barbour. 1983. The American Darters. University Press of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. 177 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman. 1979. Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada. Bull. 84. 966pp.

  • Smart, H.J. and J.H. Gee. 1979. Coexistence and resource partitioning in two species of darters (Percidae), Etheostoma nigrum and Percina maculata. Canadian Journal of Zoology 57:2061-2071.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Douglas, N. H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Jenkins, R. E., and N. M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. xxiii + 1079 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Page, L. M. 1983. Handbook of Darters. T. F. H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey. 271 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1983. Fishes of New York (maps and printout of a draft section on scarce fishes of New York). Unpublished draft.

  • Smith, C. L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, New York, xi + 522 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • State Natural Heritage Data Centers. 1996a. Aggregated element occurrence data from all U.S. state natural heritage programs, including the Tennessee Valley Authority, Navajo Nation and the District of Columbia. Science Division, The Nature Conservancy.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of October 2015.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2015 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2015. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.