Perca flavescens - (Mitchill, 1814)
Yellow Perch
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Perca flavescens (Mitchill, 1814) (TSN 168469)
French Common Names: perchaude
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.102985
Element Code: AFCQC03010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Perches and Darters
Image 133

© Noel Burkhead & Virginia Dept of Game and Inland Fisheries (Fishes of Virginia)

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Perciformes Percidae Perca
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Perca flavescens
Taxonomic Comments: Some authors regard this species as conspecific with Eurasian P. fluviatilis (Lee et al. 1980). Allozyme data indicate that P. flavescens and P. fluviatilis are separate species (Marsden et al. 1995).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 17Aug2015
Global Status Last Changed: 24Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (17Aug2015)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (S3), Arizona (SNA), California (SNA), Colorado (SNA), Connecticut (S5), Delaware (S5), District of Columbia (S5), Florida (SNR), Georgia (SNA), Idaho (SNA), Illinois (S3), Indiana (S4), Iowa (S5), Kansas (SNA), Kentucky (SNA), Maine (S5), Maryland (S5), Massachusetts (S5), Michigan (S5), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (SNA), Missouri (SNR), Montana (SNA), Navajo Nation (SNA), Nebraska (S5), Nevada (SNA), New Hampshire (S5), New Jersey (S5), New Mexico (SNA), New York (S5), North Carolina (S5), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (S5), Oklahoma (SNA), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (S5), Rhode Island (S5), South Carolina (SNR), South Dakota (S5), Texas (SNA), Utah (SNA), Vermont (S5), Virginia (S5), Washington (SNA), West Virginia (SNA), Wisconsin (S5), Wyoming (SNA)
Canada Alberta (S5), British Columbia (SU), Manitoba (S5), New Brunswick (S5), Northwest Territories (SU), Nova Scotia (S5), Nunavut (SNR), Ontario (S5), Quebec (S5), Saskatchewan (S5)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: This species is native throughout much of northern North America east of the Rockies in Atlantic, Arctic, Great Lakes, and Mississippi River basins, from Nova Scotia and Quebec west to Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories, and south to Ohio, Illinois, and Nebraska, and south in Atlantic drainages to Santee River, South Carolina. It has been introduced in most western states and elsewhere.

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of subpopulations and locations.

Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but relatively large.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Localized threats may exist, but on a range-wide scale no major threats are known.

Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable or slowly declining.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: This species is native throughout much of northern North America east of the Rockies in Atlantic, Arctic, Great Lakes, and Mississippi River basins, from Nova Scotia and Quebec west to Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories, and south to Ohio, Illinois, and Nebraska, and south in Atlantic drainages to Santee River, South Carolina. It has been introduced in most western states and elsewhere.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AZexotic, CAexotic, COexotic, CT, DC, DE, FL, GAexotic, IA, IDexotic, IL, IN, KSexotic, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MSexotic, MTexotic, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NMexotic, NNexotic, NVexotic, NY, OH, OKexotic, ORexotic, PA, RI, SC, SD, TXexotic, UTexotic, VA, VT, WAexotic, WI, WVexotic, WYexotic
Canada AB, BCnative and exotic, MB, NB, NS, NT, NU, ON, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.

U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Upper St. John (01010001), Allagash (01010002), Fish (01010003), Aroostook (01010004), Meduxnekeag (01010005), West Branch Penobscot (01020001), East Branch Penobscot (01020002), Mattawamkeag (01020003), Piscataquis (01020004), Lower Penobscot (01020005), Upper Kennebec (01030001), Dead (01030002), Lower Kennebec (01030003), Upper Androscoggin (01040001), Lower Androscoggin (01040002), St. Croix (01050001), Maine Coastal (01050002), St. George-Sheepscot (01050003), Presumpscot (01060001), Saco (01060002), Piscataqua-Salmon Falls (01060003), Pemigewasset (01070001), Merrimack (01070002), Contoocook (01070003), Nashua (01070004), Concord (01070005), Upper Connecticut (01080101), Passumpsic (01080102), Waits (01080103), Upper Connecticut-Mascoma (01080104), White (01080105), Black-Ottauquechee (01080106), West (01080107), Middle Connecticut (01080201), Miller (01080202), Deerfield (01080203), Chicopee (01080204), Lower Connecticut (01080205), Westfield (01080206), Farmington (01080207), Charles (01090001), Cape Cod (01090002), Blackstone (01090003), Narragansett (01090004), Pawcatuck-Wood (01090005), Quinebaug (01100001), Shetucket (01100002), Thames (01100003), Quinnipiac (01100004), Housatonic (01100005), Saugatuck (01100006), St. Francois (01110000)
02 Lake George (02010001), Otter (02010002), Winooski (02010003), Ausable (02010004), Lamoille (02010005), Great Chazy-Saranac (02010006), Missisquoi (02010007), Upper Hudson (02020001), Sacandaga (02020002), Hudson-Hoosic (02020003), Mohawk (02020004), Schoharie (02020005), Middle Hudson (02020006), Rondout (02020007), Hudson-Wappinger (02020008), Lower Hudson (02030101), Bronx (02030102), Hackensack-Passaic (02030103), Raritan (02030105), Northern Long Island (02030201), Southern Long Island (02030202), Upper Delaware (02040101), East Branch Delaware (02040102), Lackawaxen (02040103), Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead (02040104), Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105), Lehigh (02040106), Crosswicks-Neshaminy (02040201), Lower Delaware (02040202), Schuylkill (02040203), Brandywine-Christina (02040205), Cohansey-Maurice (02040206), Broadkill-Smyrna (02040207), Mullica-Toms (02040301), Great Egg Harbor (02040302), Upper Susquehanna (02050101), Chenango (02050102), Owego-Wappasening (02050103), Tioga (02050104), Chemung (02050105), Upper Susquehanna-Tunkhannock (02050106), Upper Susquehanna-Lackawanna (02050107), Upper West Branch Susquehanna (02050201), Bald Eagle (02050204), Pine (02050205), Lower West Branch Susquehanna (02050206), Lower Susquehanna-Penns (02050301), Lower Susquehanna (02050306), Chester-Sassafras (02060002), Gunpowder-Patapsco (02060003), Choptank (02060005), Patuxent (02060006), Blackwater-Wicomico (02060007), Nanticoke (02060008), Pocomoke (02060009), Chincoteague (02060010), North Branch Potomac (02070002), Cacapon-Town (02070003), Conococheague-Opequon (02070004), Shenandoah (02070007), Middle Potomac-Catoctin (02070008), Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan (02070010), Lower Potomac (02070011), Great Wicomico-Piankatank (02080102), Lower Rappahannock (02080104), Mattaponi (02080105), Pamunkey (02080106), York (02080107), Lynnhaven-Poquoson (02080108), Western Lower Delmarva (02080109), Eastern Lower Delmarva (02080110), Middle James-Buffalo (02080203), Middle James-Willis (02080205), Lower James (02080206), Appomattox (02080207), Hampton Roads (02080208)
03 Middle Roanoke (03010102), Upper Dan (03010103), Lower Dan (03010104), Roanoke Rapids (03010106), Lower Roanoke (03010107), Nottoway (03010201), Blackwater (03010202), Ghowan (03010203), Meheriin (03010204), Albemarle (03010205), Upper Tar (03020101), Fishing (03020102), Lower Tar (03020103), Pamlico (03020104), Pamlico Sound (03020105), Bogue-Core Sounds (03020106), Upper Neuse (03020201), Middle Neuse (03020202), Contentnea (03020203), Lower Neuse (03020204), New (03030001), Haw (03030002), Upper Cape Fear (03030004), Lower Cape Fear (03030005), Black (03030006), Northeast Cape Fear (03030007), Upper Yadkin (03040101), Lower Yadkin (03040103), Upper Pee Dee (03040104), Rocky, North Carolina, (03040105), Lower Pee Dee (03040201), Lynches (03040202), Lumber (03040203), Little Pee Dee (03040204), Black (03040205), Waccamaw (03040206), Carolina Coastal-Sampit (03040207), Upper Catawba (03050101), Lower Catawba (03050103), Wateree (03050104), Lower Broad (03050106), Enoree (03050108), Saluda (03050109), Congaree (03050110), Lake Marion (03050111), Santee (03050112), Cooper (03050201), North Fork Edisto (03050203), South Fork Edisto (03050204), Salkehatchie (03050207), Seneca (03060101), Tugaloo (03060102), Upper Savannah (03060103), Middle Savannah (03060106), Stevens (03060107), Middle Chattahoochee-Lake Harding (03130002), Middle Chattahoochee-Walter F. George Reservoir (03130003), Lower Chattahoochee (03130004), Upper Choctawhatchee (03140201), Mobile - Tensaw (03160204)
04 St. Louis (04010201), Beartrap-Nemadji (04010301), Bad-Montreal (04010302), Black-Presque Isle (04020101), Ontonagon (04020102), Sturgeon (04020104), Betsy-Chocolay (04020201), Lake Superior (04020300), Manitowoc-Sheboygan (04030101), Door-Kewaunee (04030102), Duck-Pensaukee (04030103), Oconto (04030104), Peshtigo (04030105), Brule (04030106), Michigamme (04030107), Menominee (04030108), Escanaba (04030110), Fishdam-Sturgeon (04030112), Upper Fox (04030201), Wolf (04030202), Lake Winnebago (04030203), Lower Fox (04030204), Little Calumet-Galien (04040001), Pike-Root (04040002), Milwaukee (04040003), St. Joseph (04050001), Black-Macatawa (04050002), Manistique (04060106), Brevoort-Millecoquins (04060107), Lake Michigan (04060200), Detroit (04090004), Huron (04090005), Ottawa-Stony (04100001), St. Joseph (04100003), St. Marys (04100004)*, Upper Maumee (04100005), Tiffin (04100006)*, Auglaize (04100007), Lower Maumee (04100009), Cedar-Portage (04100010), Sandusky (04100011), Huron-Vermilion (04100012), Black-Rocky (04110001), Cuyahoga (04110002), Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003), Grand (04110004), Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101), Cattaraugus (04120102), Buffalo-Eighteenmile (04120103), Niagara (04120104), Lake Erie (04120200), Oak Orchard-Twelvemile (04130001), Upper Genesee (04130002), Lower Genesee (04130003), Irondequoit-Ninemile (04140101), Salmon-Sandy (04140102), Seneca (04140201), Oneida (04140202), Oswego (04140203), Black (04150101), Chaumont-Perch (04150102), Lake Ontario (04150200), Upper St. Lawrence (04150301), Oswegatchie (04150302), Indian (04150303), Grass (04150304), Raquette (04150305), St. Regis (04150306), English-Salmon (04150307)
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001), Conewango (05010002), Middle Allegheny-Tionesta (05010003), French (05010004), Clarion (05010005), Middle Allegheny-Redbank (05010006), Youghiogheny (05020006), Upper Ohio (05030101)*, Shenango (05030102)*, Mahoning (05030103)*, Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201)*, Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202)*, Tuscarawas (05040001)*, Mohican (05040002)*, Walhonding (05040003)*, Muskingum (05040004), Licking (05040006), Upper Scioto (05060001), Lower Scioto (05060002)*, Upper Great Miami (05080001), Lower Great Miami (05080002)*, Whitewater (05080003), Raccoon-Symmes (05090101)*, Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103)*, Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201)*, Upper Wabash (05120101), Eel (05120104), Middle Wabash-Deer (05120105), Tippecanoe (05120106), Upper White (05120201), Eel (05120203), Lower East Fork White (05120208)
06 Guntersville Lake (06030001), Wheeler Lake (06030002), Pickwick Lake (06030005)
07 Blue Earth (07020009), Upper St. Croix (07030001), Namekagon (07030002), Lower St. Croix (07030005), Rush-Vermillion (07040001), Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003), Trempealeau (07040005)*, La Crosse-Pine (07040006), Black (07040007), Upper Chippewa (07050001), Flambeau (07050002), South Fork Flambeau (07050003), Jump (07050004), Lower Chippewa (07050005), Eau Claire (07050006), Red Cedar (07050007), Coon-Yellow (07060001), Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003), Turkey (07060004), Apple-Plum (07060005), Upper Wisconsin (07070001), Lake Dubay (07070002), Castle Rock (07070003), Baraboo (07070004), Lower Wisconsin (07070005), Copperas-Duck (07080101), Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103)*, Flint-Henderson (07080104), South Skunk (07080105)*, Upper Cedar (07080201), Shell Rock (07080202), Winnebago (07080203), Middle Cedar (07080205), Upper Iowa (07080207), Middle Iowa (07080208), Lower Iowa (07080209), Upper Rock (07090001), Crawfish (07090002), Pecatonica (07090003), Sugar (07090004), Upper Des Moines (07100002), East Fork Des Moines (07100003), Middle Des Moines (07100004), Boone (07100005), North Raccoon (07100006), South Raccoon (07100007)*, Lake Red Rock (07100008), Lower Des Moines (07100009), The Sny (07110004), Kankakee (07120001), Chicago (07120003)*, Des Plaines (07120004), Upper Illinois (07120005), Upper Fox (07120006), Lower Fox (07120007), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001)*, Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003)*, Lower Illinois (07130011)*
09 Upper Souris (09010001), Elm-Marsh (09020107), Goose (09020109), Lower Sheyenne (09020204), Sandhill-Wilson (09020301), Turtle (09020307), Forest (09020308), Park (09020310), Lower Red (09020311)
10 Lower Little Missouri (10110205), Middle Cheyenne-Spring (10120109), Middle Cheyenne-Elk (10120111), Knife (10130201), Upper Heart (10130202), Lower Heart (10130203), Upper Cannonball (10130204), Cedar (10130205), Lower Cannonball (10130206), James Headwaters (10160001), Upper James (10160003), Elm (10160004), Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101), Middle Big Sioux Coteau (10170201), Upper Big Sioux (10170202), Lower Big Sioux (10170203), Rock (10170204), Blackbird-Soldier (10230001), Floyd (10230002), Little Sioux (10230003), Maple (10230005), Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006), Boyer (10230007), West Nishnabotna (10240002), East Nishnabotna (10240003), West Nodaway (10240009), Nodaway (10240010), Upper Grand (10280101)*, Thompson (10280102), Upper Chariton (10280201)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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General Description: Body fairly deep and compressed; two dorsal fins; tail fin moderately forked; green on upper side, with 6-9 green-brown saddles or bars on yellow sides; black blotch at rear of first dorsal fin; paired fins yellow ro red; large mouth extends to middle of eye. Total length to around 40 cm. Eggs: in pleated or folded gelatinous strands up to several feet long.
Reproduction Comments: Spawning occurs in spring or late winter. Eggs hatch in about 10-20 days. In the north, males become sexually mature in 2-3 years, females in 3-4 years (Moyle 1976, Becker 1983, Scott and Crossman 1973). Females may spawn up to about 8 times in their lifetime; maximum age is about 10 years (Bart and Page 1992).
Ecology Comments: Tends to form loose schools.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: May migrate from lakes into tributary rivers to spawn, or into fresh water from brackish water (Scott and Crossman 1973).
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, CREEK, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Yellow perch are usually in clear weedy backwaters or pools of creeks and small to large rivers, shallow waters of lakes, and large ponds. Often they are associated with heavy growths of aquatic plants in lakes. They occur and spawn in brackish water in some areas. Spawning occurs in spring or late winter over submerged beds of aquatic plants or brush, or over sand, gravel, or rubble, in quiet water (Moyle 1976, Sublette et al. 1990). Sometimes they migrate into tributary streams or from brackish to freshwater to spawn (Scott and Crossman 1973). Eggs are deposited at depths of up to 4 meters (Sublette et al. 1990).

Adult Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Food Comments: Larvae and young primarily zooplankton feeders; older young eat mostly invertebrates associated with bottom and with aquatic plants; adults feed among plants and along bottom on larger invertebrates and small fishes (Moyle 1976).
Adult Phenology: Crepuscular, Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Crepuscular, Diurnal
Phenology Comments: Feeding activity mostly diurnal, with peaks in morning and at dusk (Moyle 1976). Inactive at night, rests on bottom (Scott and Crossman 1973). Active in winter beneath ice or in deep water (Scott and Crossman 1973).
Length: 31 centimeters
Economic Attributes
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Economic Comments: Extensively cultured in U.S. in first half of 1900s; production much lower at present (see Sublette et al. 1990).

Illegal introductions of yellow perch and bluegill led to demise of trout fishery in reservoir in northern Utah (Pettengill and Knight 1987).

Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Mapping Guidance: Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate migrations and seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that spawning areas and nonspawning areas for a single population are not artificially segregated as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance is arbitrary. Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.
Date: 25Jun2001
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 21Jan2010
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 21Jan2010
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Aquin, P. 1999. Évaluation de la situation des groupes taxonomiques des poissons du Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune. 9 pages.

  • Atton, F.M. and J.J. Merkowsky. 1983. Atlas of Saskatchewan Fish. Saskatchewan Department of Parks and Renewable Resources, Fisheries Branch Technical Report 83-2. 281pp.

  • Bart, H. L., Jr., and L. M. Page. 1992. The influence of size and phylogeny on life history variation in North American percids. Pages 553-572 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Craig, J. 1987. The biology of perch and related species. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon. 333 pp.

  • Fisheries Branch. 1991. Fish Species Distributions in Saskatchewan. Report 91-7. Saskatchewan Parks and Renewable Resources, Fisheries Branch. Regina. 102pp.

  • Herman, E.F., W. Wisby, L. Wiegert, and M. Burdick. 1959. The yellow perch-its life history, ecology, and management. Wisconsin Conservation Department, Publication 228:1-14.

  • Legendre, V. et J.F. Bergeron. 1977. Liste des poissons d' eau douce du Québec. MLCP, Service Aménage. Expl. Faune. Rap. dact. 6

  • Manooch, C. S., III. 1984. Fisherman's guide. Fishes of the southeastern United States. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh. 362 pp.

  • Marsden, J.E., T. Kassler and D.P. Philipp. 1995. Allozyme confirmation that North American yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and Eurasian yellow perch (Perca fluviatilis) are separate species. Copeia 1995(4):977-981.

  • Moyle, P. B. 1976a. Inland fishes of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, California. 405 pp.

  • Moyle, P. B. 2002. Inland fishes of California. Revised and expanded. University of California Press, Berkeley. xv + 502 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Pettengill, T. D., and D. E. Knight. 1987. Effects of illegal pan fish introductions on a northern Utah trout reservoir. Proceedings of the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies and Western Division, American Fisheries Society, Salt Lake City, Utah.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Scott, W. B., and E. J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184. 966 pp.

  • Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman. 1979. Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada. Bull. 84. 966pp.

  • Sublette, J. E., M. D Hatch, and M. Sublette. 1990. The fishes of New Mexico. University New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 393 pp.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Guthrie, R. C. and J. A. Stolgitis. 1977. Fisheries investigations and management in Rhode Island lakes and ponds. Rhode Island Department of Natural Resources, Division of Fish & Wildlife, Fisheries Report No. 3., Providence, Rhode Island.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Jenkins, R. E., and N. M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. xxiii + 1079 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Marcy, B. C., Jr., D. E. Fletcher, F. D. Martin, M. H. Paller, and M.J.M. Reichert. 2005. Fishes of the middle Savannah River basin. University of Georgia Press, Athens. xiv + 460 pp.

  • Menhinick, E. F. 1991. The freshwater fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. 227 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Owen, J. B., D. S. Elsen and G. W. Russell. 1981. Distribution of fishes in North and South Dakota basins affected by the Garrison Diversion Unit. University of North Dakota Press, Grand Forks, North Dakota. 211 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1983. Fishes of New York (maps and printout of a draft section on scarce fishes of New York). Unpublished draft.

  • Smith, C. L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, New York, xi + 522 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

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  • Whitworth, W. R., P. L. Berrien, and W. T. Keller. 1976. Freshwater fishes of Connecticut. Bulletin of the Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey 101. vi + 134 pp.

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