Penstemon pinorum - L.& J. Shultz
Pinyon Penstemon
Other English Common Names: Pine Valley Penstemon
Other Common Names: Pine Valley penstemon
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Penstemon pinorum L.& J. Shultz (TSN 504223)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.145017
Element Code: PDSCR1L720
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Figwort Family
Image 10833

© Leila Shultz

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Scrophulariales Scrophulariaceae Penstemon
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Penstemon pinorum
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 20Feb2013
Global Status Last Changed: 20Feb2013
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Endemic to a small area straddling the Washington-Iron County line in southwestern Utah. Though locally abundant, the species is known from a total area of less than 485 hectares. Of the three known locations, one has suffered habitat destruction and disturbance as the result of firewood removal and mining exploration.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Utah (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: A narrow endemic known only from an area straddling the Washington-Iron County line in southwest Utah. It occurs in the hills south-southwest of Newcastle, east of Old Irontown, in the Red Hills to the north and onto the southeast slopes of the Antelope Range (Franklin 2005).

Area of Occupancy: 6-25 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Approximately 15 4-sq km grid cells.

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5
Number of Occurrences Comments: Known from three general locations (Franklin 2005). There are eight occurrences, however, due to their close proximity, several of these could possibly be combined. It is unlikely that additional occurrences will be found. Species has been looked for extensively during two Heritage surveys.

Population Size Comments: There are an estimated 50,000 individuals, however their combined acerage is small.

Overall Threat Impact: High
Overall Threat Impact Comments: There are three occurrences on Bureau of Land Management administered lands that are within a greenwood fuel cutting area where removal of overstory and on-ground disturbances are threatening the species' survival. Also on Bureau of Land Management lands there are several locations within one large occurrence where plants, over an area measurable in acres, are unexplainably stunted and sickly; this may be human-caused. Chaining at one location resulted in the loss of habitat (Franklin 1994 in Franklin 2005). Mining-related activities have also resulted in the loss of habitat (Franklin 1994 in Franklin 2005). Long-term effects of grazaing, if any, are unknown (Kass 1995 in Franklin 2005). Off-road-vehicle travel may also pose a threat (C. Pontarolo, BLM, pers. comm.).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Apparently stable during time the Heritage botanist has monitored this species (UTHP 1996). BLM does not have detailed documentation of trends population wide. Plants within Dr. Al Tait's (2010) study plots appear to be relatively healthy and conditions recorded during the study may indicate that the population is expanding within this particular area.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: A narrow endemic known only from an area straddling the Washington-Iron County line in southwest Utah. It occurs in the hills south-southwest of Newcastle, east of Old Irontown, in the Red Hills to the north and onto the southeast slopes of the Antelope Range (Franklin 2005).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States UT

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
UT Iron (49021), Washington (49053)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
16 Escalante Desert (16030006)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial herb, 0.7-4.5 dm tall, that bears clusters of funnel-shaped, blue-violet flowers in May and early June.
Technical Description: Perennial herb 15-35 cm tall, from a branching caudex; leaves sharply serrate, narrowly oblanceolate, glabrate or glabrous; calyx about 6 mm long, glandular-pubescent, lobes lanceolate; corolla purplish blue, 10-15 mm long; anther sacs 1-1.2 mm long; staminode bearded with golden yellow hairs, tip recurved.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Species has a lax habit with the lower two internodes much elongated, purplish blue corollas 10-15 mm long, anther sacs 1-.12 mm long, and sharply serrate, narrowly spatulate leaves.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest/Woodland, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Conifer
Habitat Comments: Pinyon-juniper, mountain-mahogany, ephedra, oak, sagebrush, and less commonly greasewood communities on Tertiary Claron Formation, i.e., quartzite cobble conglomerate and sandstone to calcareous sandstone and sandy limestone (soils are reddish and gravelly to cobble-like), across slopes of varying degree and aspect (predominately northerly) between 1713 m and 2072 m.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: It would be BLM's recommendation to maintain Pinyon penstemon as a high priority due to lack of population data and extant of populations (C. Pontarolo, BLM, pers. comm).Plants should be protected from potential and existing threats. Efforts should be made to determine the cause (pathogenic or non-pathogenic factors) of early death of some plants. It is suggested that areas that support this species be excluded from greenwood fuel cutting. At the time of the survey (1990s) many places, as of yet, had not been accessed for cutting, at least in recent times, likely due to the difficulty of access.
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 30Aug1995
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Franklin, Ben, rev. B. Franklin (1996), rev. A.. Tomaino (2009), rev. M. Russo (2011)
Management Information Edition Date: 22Sep2011
Management Information Edition Author: Russo, M.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Franklin, M. A. 1990. Report for 1990 Challenge Cost Share Project, Dixie National Forest. Target species: Penstemon pinorum L. Shultz & J. Shultz (Pinyon penstemon). Utah Natural Heritage Program, Utah Department of Natural Resources. Unpublished reoport on file Utah Natural Heritage Program, Salt Lake City, Utah. Pp. 1-5 + appendices.

  • Franklin, M.A. 1994. Survey report on Penstemon pinorum L. Shultz & J. Shultz (pinyon penstemon). 1993 Challenge Cost Share Project. Utah Natural Heritage Program and Cedar City District Bureau of Land Management. Unpublished report on file Utah Natural Heritage Program, Salt Lake City. 7 pp. + appendices.

  • Franklin, M.A. 2005. Plant information compiled by the Utah Natural Heritage Program: A progress report. Publication Number 05-40. Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, Salt Lake City, Utah. 341 pp. [http://dwrcdc.nr.utah.gov/ucdc/ViewReports/plantrpt.htm]

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kass, R. J. 1995. Status report on Penstemon pinorum. Intermountain Ecosystems, L.C., Springville, Utah. 16 pp.

  • Shultz, L. M. and J. S. Shultz. 1985. Penstemon pinorum (Scrophulariaceae), a new species from Utah. Brittonia 37(1): 98-101.

  • Shultz, L.M., and J.S. Shultz. 1985. Penstemon pinorum (Scrophulariaceae), a new species from Utah. Brittonia 37(1): 98-101.

  • Tait, B.A. 2010. Baseline parameters and early data for the long-term study of Penstemon pinorum L. Shultz and J. Shultz. Challenge Cost Share Project. Dr. Bernard Al Tait and Utah State Office Bureau of Land Management. Unpublished report on file Bureau of Land Management's Cedar City Field Office, Cedar City, UT. 28 pp. + appendices.

  • U.S. National Forest Service. 1995. Pinyon penstemon (Penstemon pinorum) draft conservation agreement and strategy. U.S. Forest Service, Intermountain Region and Bureau of Land Management, Utah State Office. Unpaginated [6 pp.].

  • Welsh, S.L., N.D. Atwood, S. Goodrich, and L.C. Higgins (eds.) 1993. A Utah flora. 2nd edition. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, Utah. 986 pp.

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