Penstemon penlandii - W.A. Weber
Kremmling Beardtongue
Other English Common Names: Penland Beardtongue
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Penstemon penlandii W.A. Weber (TSN 196189)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.139970
Element Code: PDSCR1L780
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Figwort Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Scrophulariales Scrophulariaceae Penstemon
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Penstemon penlandii
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 29Aug2012
Global Status Last Changed: 23Oct1986
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Penstemon penlandii is restricted to a narrow, unusual habitat and known only from a very small area (about 5 miles by 1.5 miles) in northern Colorado. The steep topography and nature of the soils make this species' habitat vulnerable to destruction by off-road vehicles.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Colorado (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (13Jul1989)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R6 - Rocky Mountain

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: A narrow endemic; known from Grand County, Colorado. Estimated range is 13 square kilometers (5 square miles), calculated in 2008 by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program in GIS by drawing a minimum convex polygon around the known occurrences.

Area of Occupancy: 1-25 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: The total area occupied by the mapped occurrences is 680 acres (calculated by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program in 2012).

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5
Number of Occurrences Comments: Two occurrences known in the world. The occurrences are less than two miles apart, and were last observed in 2008.

Population Size Comments: Estimates from Ecotone 2010 surveys are approximately 1.4 million individuals. A point in time count conducted by Neale et al. in 2008 estimated 12,829 individuals (+/- 20%) in a 100 sq meter macroplot.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very few (1-3)
Viability/Integrity Comments: One occurrence is ranked A, the other is ranked B.

Overall Threat Impact: High
Overall Threat Impact Comments: The primary threat is considered to be off-road vehicle use; existing trails run through the populations. Road widening and weed control are threats to the plants in some areas. The Colorado Natural Heritage Program considers all Penstemon species locations as sensitive information because of the risk of collectors targeting populations for use in gardens.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: The BLM and staff from the Denver Botanic Gardens (DBG) conducted demographic monitoring of the species from 1992-1996. In 2008, DBG staff set up one temporary macroplot and conducted a point in time count estimate. The resulting population estimate for the 100 sq meter macroplot was 12,829 individuals (+/- 20%). When compared to visual estimates from the same site in 2005, the population appears stable or increasing (Neale et al. 2008).

Long-term Trend: Unknown
Long-term Trend Comments: No long term data available.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: A narrow endemic; known from Grand County, Colorado. Estimated range is 13 square kilometers (5 square miles), calculated in 2008 by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program in GIS by drawing a minimum convex polygon around the known occurrences.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CO

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CO Grand (08049)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
14 Colorado headwaters (14010001)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A perennial herb, up to 2.5 dm tall, with a clump-forming habit, linear leaves, and flowers with blue lobes at the opening of a violet-colored throat. Blooms June-July.
General Description: Compact herbceous perennials up to 25 cm tall and 20 cm wide. Stems are clumped and pubescent. Leaves are linear, 1-2 mm side, involute or folded. Flowers are about 2 cm long, and are bicolored with blue lobes and violet throats. Anthers have short hairs, and the staminode is bearded (Spackman et al. 1997).
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Barrens, Shrubland/chaparral
Habitat Comments: Strongly seleniferous clay-shales of the Troublesome Formation; on steep barrens with sparse plant cover, sagebrush badlands.  Associated taxa: Artemisia, Purshia, Chrysothamnus.


Strongly seleniferous clay-shales of the Troublesome Formation; on steep barrens with sparse plant cover, sagebrush badlands. Associated taxa: Artemisia, Purshia, Chrysothamnus.

Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Any naturally occurring population that is separated by a sufficient distance or barrier from a neighboring population.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1.61 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 3.22 km
Separation Justification: The rationale for this large a separation distance across suitable but apparently unoccupied habitat is that it is likely additional research will find this habitat to beoccupied. It can often be assumed that apparently unconnected populations will eventually be found to be more closely connected; these are best regarded as suboccurrences. No information on mobility of pollen and propagules is available on which to base the separation distance for this species.
Date: 28Sep2000
Author: Spackman, S. and D. Anderson
Population/Occurrence Viability
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Excellent Viability: Size: 2500 or more individuals within a 5 year period (based on available EOR data). Condition: The occurrence has an excellent likelihood of long-term viability as evidenced by the presence of multiple age classes and evidence of flowering and fruiting, indicating that the reproductive mechanisms are intact. This occurrence should be in a high-quality site with less than 1% cover of exotic plant species and/or no significant anthropogenic disturbance. Landscape Context: The occurrence is surrounded by an area that is unfragmented and includes the ecological processes needed to sustain this species.
Good Viability: Size: 1000 to 2500 individuals observed within a 5 year period (based on available EOR data). Condition: The occurrence should have a good likelihood of long-term viability as evidenced by the presence of multiple age classes and evidence of flowering and fruiting, indicating that the reproductive mechanisms are intact. Anthropogenic disturbance within the occurrence is minimal. If exotic species are present, they comprise less than 10% of the total ground cover. Landscape Context: The surrounding landscape should contain the ecological processes needed to sustain the occurrence but may be fragmented and/or impacted by humans.
Fair Viability: Size: 100 to 1000 individuals within a 5 year period (based on available EOR data). Condition: The occurrence may be less productive than the above situations, but is still viable, with multiple age classes and evidence of flowering and fruiting, indicating that the reproductive mechanisms are intact. The occupied habitat is somewhat degraded (exotic plant species make up between 10-50% of the total ground cover and/or there is a moderate level of anthropogenic disturbance). Landscape Context: There may be significant human disturbance, but the ecological processes needed to sustain the species are still intact.
Poor Viability: Size: Less than 100 individuals observed within a 5 year period (based on available EOR data). Condition: Little or no evidence of successful reproduction is observed (poor seedling recruitment, no flowering or fruiting observed, or poor age class distribution). Exotic plant species make up greater than 50% of the total ground cover, and/or there is a significant level of human disturbance. Landscape context: The surrounding area is fragmented with many ecological processes no longer intact. The occurrence has a low probability of long-term persistence due to inbreeding depression, natural stochastic events, and its intrinsic vulnerability to human impacts.
Justification: A Rank: Further research is needed to assess the population dynamics and ecology of this species. Many Penstemons fluctuate in numbers of individuals at a specific location from year to year. Because this species is known from only two occurrences, the EO specs should be reassessed if more occurrences are found. Large populations in high quality sites are presumed to contain a high degree of genetic variability, to have a low susceptibility to the effects of inbreeding depression, and to be relatively resilient.

C Rank: EOs not meeting "C"-rank criteria are likely to have a very high probability of inbreeding depression and extirpation due to natural stochastic processes and/or occur in degraded habitat with low long-term potential for survival.

Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
Date: 28Sep2000
Author: Spackman, S. and D. Anderson
Notes: COHP
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 29Aug2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: S. Spackman, rev. Maybury/Spackman (1996), rev. Spackman, S. and D. Anderson (2000), rev. Doyle, G., J. Handwerk, and S. Panjabi (2006); rev. Handwerk, J. (2009); rev. Handwerk, J. (2012)

Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): rev. SSP (2015)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Ackerfield, J. 2012. The Flora of Colorado. Colorado State University Herbarium. 433 pp.


  • Anderson, J. 1991. Astragalus osterhoutii and Penstemon penlandii recovery plan. Unpublished report prepared for the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Denver, CO.

  • Colorado Native Plant Society. 1989. Rare plants of Colorado. Rocky Mountain Nature Association, Colorado Native Plant Society, Estes Park, Colorado. 73 pp.

  • Colorado Natural Heritage Program. 2004. The First Annual Colorado Rare Plant Symposium: Threatened, Endangered and Candidate Plants of Colorado. Symposium Minutes.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Neale, J.R. and M. DePrenger-Levin. 2008. Report to the Bureau of Land Management on the survey work conducted for Penstemon penlandii W.A. Weber (Penland's penstemon).

  • Neely, B., S. Panjabi, E. Lane, P. Lewis, C. Dawson, A. Kratz, B. Kurzel, T. Hogan, J. Handwerk, S. Krishnan, J. Neale, and N. Ripley. 2009. Colorado Rare Plant Conservation Strategy, Developed by the Colorado Rare Plant conservation Initiative. The Nature Conservancy, Boulder, Colorado, 117 pp.

  • O'Kane, S. L. 1988. Colorado's Rare Flora. Great Basin Naturalist. 48(4):434-484.

  • Rocky Mountain Society of Botanical Artists. 2009. RARE Imperiled Plants of Colorado, a traveling art exhibition. Exhibition catalogue developed by the Denver Botanic Gardens and Steamboat Art Museum.

  • Spackman, S., B. Jennings, J. Coles, C. Dawson, M. Minton, A. Kratz, and C. Spurrier. 1997. Colorado rare plant field guide. Prepared for Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Forest Service and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service by Colorado Natural Heritage Program.

  • U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1988. Proposal to determine Astragalus osterhoutii and Penstemon penlandii to be endangered species. Federal Register 53(128): 25181-25185.

  • USDA, NRCS. 2013. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.

  • Weber, W. A. and R. C. Wittmann. 2012. Colorado Flora, Western Slope, A Field Guide to the Vascular Plants, Fourth Edition. Boulder, Colorado. 532 pp.

  • Weber, W.A. 1986. Penstemon penlandii, spec. nov. (SCR) from Colorado. Phytologia 60(6): 459-461.

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