Penstemon grahamii - Keck
Graham's Beardtongue
Other English Common Names: Uinta Basin Beardtongue
Other Common Names: Uinta Basin beardtongue
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Penstemon grahamii Keck (TSN 33698)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.151543
Element Code: PDSCR1L2S0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Figwort Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Scrophulariales Scrophulariaceae Penstemon
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Penstemon grahamii
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 04Dec2009
Global Status Last Changed: 17Jul1986
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Infrequent to occasional in generally small, isolated colonies across the southern margin of the Uinta Basin of northeastern Utah (primarily Uintah County but barely extending into Carbon and Duchesne counties) and adjacent Rio Blanco County, Colorado. One site is protected on Bureau of Land Management land in Colorado; no Utah sites are protected. All the known occurrences are on oil-rich substrates and are potentially threatened by energy exploration and development. Many of the occurrences have not been visited in over 20 years.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Colorado (S1), Utah (S2)

Other Statuses

Comments on USESA: Penstemon grahamii was recognized as a Category 1 candidate on December 15, 1980. After three petitions (including the initial Smithsonian list of 1975), a proposed rule to list P. grahamii as threatened with a proposed designation of critical habitat was published in the Federal Register on January 19, 2006 (Federal Register Vol. 71, No. 12, 2006). After review of additional information provided (predominantly by the BLM) during the public comment period, USFWS determined that threats to P. grahamii and its habitat were not sufficient to warrant listing, and therefore withdrew the proposed listing rule and proposed critical habitat designation (Federal Register Vol. 71, No. 243, December 19, 2006); this decision also removed the species from candidate status.  In the August 6, 2013 Federal Register, Penstemon grahamii was Proposed Threatened; "The best available information for Graham's beardtongue has changed considerably since 2006, when the proposed rule was published and then withdrawn. We believe it is appropriate to publish a revised proposed listing rule to better reflect new information regarding Graham's beardtongue. We have determined that energy exploration and development are threats to Graham's beardtongue."  In the August 6, 2014 Federal Register, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service withdrew the proposed rule to list Penstemon grahamii as threatened.  "This withdrawal is based on our conclusion that the threats to the species as identified in the proposed rule no longer are as significant as we previously determined.  We base this conclusion on our analysis of new information concerning current and future threats and conservation efforts."

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: The narrow range of this species is approximately 10km (6mi) wide by 128km (80 mi) long. The area makes-up a shape that looks like a curved band. The species is known from the area in Utah where the Carbon, Duschesne and Uintah counties meet in the Sand Wash and Nine Mile Creek drainages. The range extends east across the Utah border into Colorado and north to Rio Blanco County, Colorado (USFWS 2006).

Area of Occupancy: 6-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: The area of occupany of all occurrences of this species is quite small, and is estimated to be less than 4kmsq in total area (USFWS 2006, map provided).

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: There are 36 occurrences documented, 5 in Colorado and 31 in Utah. 32 of the occurrences have not been visited in over 20 years (CNHP 2006, UCDC 2003). These data are still current as of 2006. USFWS (2006) reports 109 occurrences/subpopulations, however, these are more finely divided than 'occurrences' determined by the sources above. Further, USFWS (2006) places these 109 occurrences into 5 population habitat units.

Population Size Comments: There are approximately 6,200 individuals known (USFWS 2006).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Unknown
Viability/Integrity Comments: Most of the occurrences have not been visited in over 20 years. Three occurrences were rated either 'excellent' or 'good' viability when last observed in the late 1970s/early 1980s.

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Penstemon grahamii occurs on soils that are rich in 'oil shale' in the Green River geologic formation. 'Oil shale' is hard calcareous shale, marl, which can be heated and vaporized to form synthetic petroleum (USFWS 2006). Most occurrences of this species are found on exposures with oil shale, which is a focus of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 encouraging that oil shales to be developed as an alternate source of fuel. The development of oil from oil shales is the greatest threat to this species.

Unconventional oil and gas exploration is a key feature of the Energy Policy Act of 2005. 'The Energy and Policy Act of 2005 establishes that oil shale, tar sands, and other strategic unconventional fuels should be developed to reduce the nation's dependency on on imported oil. Section 309(m)(1)(B) identifies the Green River Region, including the entire range of P. grahamii (U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2005), as a priority for oil shale and tar sand development (USFWS 2006). Further, legislation previously put into place that put restrictions on oil shale leases are now changed by the new act of 2005. The Mineral Leasing Act of 1920 limited oil shale lease size to 5,120 acres and allowed one lease per individual. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 now allows for multiple leases per individual/corporation and tracts up to 50,000 acres (USFWS 2006). One hundred and five of the 109 occurrences/subpopulations of P. grahamii occur in the Parachute Creek member of the Green River formation and oil shale beds are frequent and important in this substrate. The other 4 occurrences/subpopulations occur on the Evacuation Creek member of the Green River formation, which contain a few oil shale beds. The 105 occurrences/subpopulations on the Parachute Creek substrate make up 98% of the species total population. Ninty six of the 109 occurrences/subpopulations that occur on the Parachute Creek substrate are located in high-value oil shale or tar sand areas (USFWS 2006). Finally, the entire range of this species is in an area with hydrocarbon resources (natural gas) (USFWS 2006).

Two natural gas development projects are planned in known sites for P. grahamii (USFWS 2006), so impacts to this species, either direct or indirect are imminent. One occurrence/subpopulation fully occurs in the project area and six other occurrences occur partly in the project area (USFWS 2006). There are other projects slated in areas with suitable habitat for this species and field surveys haven't yet been completed (USFWS 2006).

Overall, oil shale and tar sand extraction is the greatest threat to this species leading to potential elimination of occurrences/subpopulations, habitat degradation and fragmentation. Habitat loss can lead to fragmentation, which can then lead to decreased population sizes and reduced colonization (USFWS 2006). The occurrences/subpopulations of P. grahamii are naturally separated by long distances (up to 27kms) and additional fragmentation could lead to reduction in the long-term survival of this species (USFWS 2006). Other negative impacts from habitat loss and small population size include higher probability of random demographic or genetic events causing loss of species viability.

Non-native species are also a threat to this species. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and halogeton (Halogeton glomeratus) are in areas where P. grahamii occur. Grazing may also be a threat as it is believed that one occurrence/subpopulation may have been extirpated livestock (USFWS 2006).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: The Raven Ridge site was monitored by the BLM from 1986 to 1995. The summary produced in 1995 shows a slight decline in the total number of individuals (from 148 in 1986 to 124 in 1995), and a marked decline in flowering stems. Between 1986-1988 the mean number of flowering stems produced per year was 160, between 1988 and 1989 a drastic decline occurred which was sustained through 1995. The mean number of flowering stems produced between 1993 and 1995 was 21. Both the observed decline in number of flowers produced and the low levels of successful establishment suggest that reproduction and recruitment are not adequate to sustain this occurrence over the long-term. Drought, grazing and frost damage have been implicated in suppressing reproduction and recruitment at Raven Ridge (CNE et al. 2002). BLM and the Denver Botanic Gardens continue to monitoring trends in population size at Raven Ridge (Dawson 2009).

Long-term Trend: Unknown
Long-term Trend Comments: Unknown. There is insufficient data to characterize long-term trends.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: This species typically occurs in small populations with fewer than 100 individuals. It also produces very few flowers (USFWS 2006).

Environmental Specificity: Very narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements scarce.
Environmental Specificity Comments: Penstemon grahamii occurs on substrate in the Green River Formation where oil shales are present (USFWS 2006).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: The narrow range of this species is approximately 10km (6mi) wide by 128km (80 mi) long. The area makes-up a shape that looks like a curved band. The species is known from the area in Utah where the Carbon, Duschesne and Uintah counties meet in the Sand Wash and Nine Mile Creek drainages. The range extends east across the Utah border into Colorado and north to Rio Blanco County, Colorado (USFWS 2006).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CO, UT

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CO Rio Blanco (08103)
UT Carbon (49007)*, Duchesne (49013), Uintah (49047)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
14 Lower White (14050007)+, Lower Green-Desolation Canyon (14060005)+, Willow (14060006)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: A low perennial herb with 1 to several stems, 5-20 cm tall, minutely whitish-pubescent, becoming glandular-pubescent in the inflorescence. Leaves 2-4 cm long, thick and leathery, dark green to grayish green, the lower leaves narrowed to a leaf-stem base and with prominent veins, the upper leaves clasping the stem. Flowers are crowded into a narrow inflorescence; they are large (3-3.8 cm long), showy, tubular, light to deep lavender, with a densely golden-yellow bearded sterile stamen protruding from the opening. Flowering period is late May to early June.
General Description: Few-branched perennial herb to 2 dm in height from a tap-root. Leaves thick, entire, villous-glandular or glabrous, to 5 cm long and 18 mm wide. Basal leaves ovate spatulate or broadly oblanceolate, narrowed to a petiolar base. The opposite stem leaves lanceolate, sessile, and clasping. Flowers pinkish lavender with deep red guidelines in the throat. The inflorescence glandular-pubescent; the corolla 25 to 37 mm long; the golden yellow bearded staminode exserted.
Technical Description: A low perennial herb; stems one to several, erect or ascending, 5-20 cm tall, minutely whitish-pubescent, becoming glandular-pubescent in the inflorescence; leaves 2-4 cm long, entire, thick and leathery, dark green to grayish green, rather well distributed along the stem, without hairs and the margins not toothed, the lower leaves narrowed to a petiolar base and with prominent veins, the upper clasping the stem; flowers crowded in a narrow inflorescence, large and showy, tubular, 30-38 mm long, light to deep lavender, minutely glandular-pubescent externally; stamens protruding from the flower-tube and into the throat, the longer pair nearly reaching to or exceeding the orifice; anthers 1.0-1.4 mm long, smooth, the sacs opening throughout their entire length; staminode protruding from the orifice, densely golden-yellow bearded. Flowering period late May to early June.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Barrens, Forest/Woodland, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Conifer
Habitat Comments: Gravelly clay soils on semi-barren knolls of white calcareous shale (Green River Formation) in the pinon-juniper woodland zone at high elevations and at low elevations in sparse desert shrubland. Specifically, this species occurs on exposed raw shale knolls and slopes derived from Parachute Creek and Evacuation Creek, both part of the Green River Formation. Many of the occurrences of this species are found in association with oil shale (USFWS 2006). Oil shale can be manipulated to produce petroleum 1430-2060 m elevation.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: A natural occurrence of one or more plants.
Separation Barriers: Unsuitable habitat or altered areas; or markedly distinct features on the landscape such as ridges, rivers, or roads.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Justification: The rationale for this large a separation distance across suitable but apparently unoccupied habitat is that it is likely additional research will find this habitat to be occupied. It can often be assumed that apparently unconnected occurrences will eventually be found to be more closely connected. No information on mobility of pollen and propagules is available on which to base the separation distance for this species.
Date: 29Aug2003
Author: Jill Handwerk
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
Excellent Viability: SIZE: 500 or more individuals (based on available EOR data). CONDITION: The occurrence has an excellent likelihood of long-term viability as evidenced by the presence of multiple age classes and evidence of flowering and fruiting, indicating that the reproductive mechanisms are intact. This occurrence should be in a high-quality site with less than 1% cover of exotic plant species and/or no significant anthropogenic disturbance. LANDSCAPE CONTEXT: The occurrence is surrounded by an area that is unfragmented and includes the ecological processes needed to sustain this species. This includes the presence of the appropriate, very specific edaphic requirements of this species, i.e., loose shale soils, shale ledges and talus derived from the Parachute Creek and Evacuation Creek Members of the Green River Formation.
Good Viability: Size: 100 to 499 individuals (based on available EOR data).
Condition: The occurrence should have a good likelihood of long-term viability as evidenced by the presence of multiple age classes and evidence of flowering and fruiting, indicating that the reproductive mechanisms are intact. Anthropogenic disturbance within the occurrence is minimal. If exotic species are present, they comprise less than 10% of the total ground cover.
Landscape Context: The surrounding landscape should contain the ecological processes needed to sustain the occurrence but may be fragmented and/or impacted by humans.

Fair Viability: Size: 10 to 99 individuals (based on available EOR data).
Condition: The occurrence may be less productive than the above situations, but is still viable, with multiple age classes and evidence of flowering and fruiting, indicating that the reproductive mechanisms are intact. The occupied habitat is somewhat degraded (exotic plant species make up between 10-50% of the total ground cover and/or there is a moderate level of anthropogenic disturbance).
Landscape Context: There may be moderate human disturbance, but the ecological processes needed to sustain the species are still intact.

Poor Viability: Size: less than 10 individuals (based on available EOR data).
Condition: Little or no evidence of successful reproduction is observed (poor seedling recruitment, no flowering or fruiting observed, or poor age class distribution). Exotic plant species make up greater than 50% of the total ground cover, and/or there is a significant level of human disturbance.
Landscape context: The surrounding area is fragmented with many ecological processes no longer intact.

Justification: Large populations in high quality sites ("A", "B" or "C" ranked EOs) are presumed to contain a high degree of genetic variability, to have a low susceptibility to the effects of inbreeding depression, and to be relatively resilient. "D" ranked occurrences have a low probability of long-term persistence due to inbreeding depression, natural stochastic events, and their intrinsic vulnerability to human impacts.
Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 04Dec2009
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Stone, D., rev. Jill Handwerk (2003), rev. L. Oliver (2006), rev. J. Bell (2008), rev. Jill Handwerk (2009)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 12Mar2008
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): STONE, D. (1997), rev. J. Bell (2008)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • 100th Congress. 1988. Endangered Species Act of 1973, appropriations authorization for fiscal years 1988-1992. Public Law 100-478-October 7, 1988 102 STAT.2307-102 STAT.2323.

  • Ackerfield, J. 2012. The Flora of Colorado. Colorado State University Herbarium. 433 pp.


  • Albee, B.J., L.M. Shultz, and S. Goodrich. 1988. Atlas of the vascular plants of Utah. Utah Museum Natural History Occasional Publication 7, Salt Lake City, Utah. 670 pp.

  • BLM Vernal District. 1994. DRAFT: Building stone colllecting Environmental Assessment. E.A. #1994-1

  • Center for Native Ecosystems. 2002. Petition to List Graham's Penstemon (Penstemon grahamii) as Threatened or Endangered under the Endangered Species Act. Office of Endangered Species, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior.

  • Center for Native Ecosystems. 2002. Petition to List Graham's Penstemon (Penstemon grahamii) as Threatened or Endangered under the Endangered Species Act. Office of Endangered Species, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior.

  • Colorado Native Plant Society. 1989. Rare plants of Colorado. Rocky Mountain Nature Association, Colorado Native Plant Society, Estes Park, Colorado. 73 pp.

  • Colorado Natural Heritage Program. 2003. Biological Conservation Datasystem. Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, CO.

  • Colorado Natural Heritage Program. 2013. The Tenth Annual Colorado Rare Plant Symposium: G2-G3 Plants of Northeast Colorado. Symposium Minutes. Available on-line http://www.cnhp.colostate.edu/teams/botany.asp#symposia.

  • Cronquist, A., A. H. Holmgren, N. H. Holmgren, J. L. Reveal and P. K. Holmgren. 1977. Intermountain Flora Vascular Plants of the Intermountain West, USA: vol. 6. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY.

  • Elliott, B. A., S. Spackman Panjabi, B. Kurzel, B. Neely, R. Rondeau, M. Ewing. 2009. Recommended Best Management Practices for Plants of Concern. Practices developed to reduce the impacts of oil and gas development activities to plants of concern. Unpublished report prepared by the Rare Plant Conservation Initiative for the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation.

  • Galatowitsch, S. and S.L. O'Kane, Jr. 1985. Plant species of special concern for state of Colorado.

  • Goodrich, S. and E. Neese. 1986. Uinta Basin flora. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ogden, UT. 320 pp.

  • Graham, E. H. 1937. Botanical studies in the Uinta Basin of Utah and Colorado. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 26. Pittsburg, PA.

  • Graham, E. H. 1937. Botanical studies in the Uinta Basin of Utah and Colorado. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 26: 1-432.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Neely, B., S. Panjabi, E. Lane, P. Lewis, C. Dawson, A. Kratz, B. Kurzel, T. Hogan, J. Handwerk, S. Krishnan, J. Neale, and N. Ripley. 2009. Colorado Rare Plant Conservation Strategy, Developed by the Colorado Rare Plant conservation Initiative. The Nature Conservancy, Boulder, Colorado, 117 pp.

  • Neese, E., and F. Smith. 1982. Final Report: Threatened and endangered plant inventory for the Oil Shale RMP, Bookcliffs Resource Area, Utah Bureau of Land Management, Vernal District. Volume 1 - Text. Pp 1-88 + appendices.

  • Nitschke-Sinclear, J. 1989. Report on the Special Status Plant Inventory conducted on the Diamond Mountain Resource Area, 1989. Bureau of Land Management, Vernal District, Diamond Mountain Resource Area. 12 pp. [UNHP copy missing pg. 2].

  • O'Kane, S. L. 1988. Colorado's Rare Flora. Great Basin Naturalist. 48(4):434-484.

  • Robertson, E. 2003. CNE reply to Penstemon grahamii emergency listing denial.

  • Robertson, E. 2003. CNE reply to Penstemon grahamii emergency listing denial.

  • Rondeau, R., K. Decker, J. Handwerk, J. Siemers, L. Grunau, and C. Pague. 2011. The state of Colorado's biodiversity 2011. Prepared for The Nature Conservancy. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.

  • Shultz, L. M., and K. M. Mutz. 1979. Threatened and endangered plants of the Willow Creek drainage. Vols. I and II. Submitted to: Bureau of Land Management, Vernal District, contract #YA-512-CT9-105. Meiji Resource Consultants. 74 pp. + maps and data sheets.

  • Shultz, L.M., and K.M. Mutz. 1979. Threatened and endangered plants of the Willow Creek drainage. Vol. 1: text. Prepared for the Bureau of Land Management, Vernal District Office, Vernal, Utah. 57 pp. + appendix.

  • Spackman, S. 1995. Letter of 31 March 1995 in response to a request from R. Douglas Stone for Colorado's Astragalus hamiltonii, Penstemon grahamii, and Draba globosa EOs.

  • Stone, R.D. 1998. Endemic and rare plants of Utah: an overview of their distribution and status. Prepared for: Utah Reclamation Mitigation and Conservation Commission, U.S. Department of the Interior by Utah Division of Wildlife Resources. 566 pp. + appendices.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2004. Species assessment and listing priority assignment form. Penstemon grahamii. 9 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2006. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; proposed threatened status for Penstemon grahamii (Graham's beardtongue) with critical habitat. Proposed rule. Dated: January 19, 2006. Federal Register. 71(12):3158-3196.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2006. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; withdrawal of proposed rule to list Penstemon grahamii (Graham's beardtongue) as threatened with critical habitat. Proposed rule; withdrawal. Dated: December 19, 2006. Federal Register 71(243):76024-75035.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2006. Withdrawal of Proposed Rule to List Penstemon grahamii (Graham's beardtongue) as Threatened with Critical Habitat. Federal Register 71(243): 76024-76035.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2006. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Threatened Status for Penstemon grahamii (Graham's beardtongue) With Critical Habitat; Proposed Rule. Federal Register 71(12): 3158-3196.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2013. Threatened Species Status for Graham's Beardtongue (Penstemon grahamii) and White River Beardtongue (Penstemon scariosus var. albifluvis). Federal Register 78(151): 47590-47611.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2014. Withdrawal of the Proposed Rules To List Graham?s Beardtongue (Penstemon grahamii) and White River Beardtongue (Penstemon scariosus var. albifluvis) and Designate Critical Habitat. Federal Register 79(151): 46042-46087.

  • USDA, NRCS. 2013. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.

  • Utah Conservation Data Center. 2003. Biological Conservation Datasystem. State of Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, Salt Lake City, Utah.

  • Utah Conservation Data Center. 2003. Biological Conservation Datasystem. State of Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, Salt Lake City, Utah.

  • Weber, W. A. and R. C. Wittmann. 2012. Colorado Flora, Western Slope, A Field Guide to the Vascular Plants, Fourth Edition. Boulder, Colorado. 532 pp.

  • Welsh, S. L. 1978. Endangered and threatened plants of Utah: a reevaluation. Great Basin Naturalist 38(1): 1-18.

  • Welsh, S. L. 1978. Status report: Penstemon grahamii. Unpublished report prepared for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Unpaginated (6 pp.) + attachments.

  • Welsh, S. L. 1981. Threatened and endangered plant survey of transmission corridors; Bonanza Plant Site to Vernal substation, Bonanza Plant Site to southwest Rangely substation, and Bonanza Plant Site to Upalco substation. Prepared for: Deseret Generation & Transmission Co-operative, Sandy, Utah. Prepared by: Endangered Plants Studies, Inc., Orem, Utah. 8 pp. + appendix.

  • Welsh, S. L. 1983. Collection data - rare plants of Utah. Prepared by Endangered Plant Studies, Inc. 129 North 1000 East, Orem, UT 84057. Report from Larry England, US Fish and Wildlife Service, T & E Species.

  • Welsh, S.L., N.D. Atwood, L.C. Higgins and S. Goodrich. 1987. Utah Flora, Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs, No. 9. Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah. 986 pp.

  • Welsh, S.L., N.D. Atwood, S. Goodrich, and L.C. Higgins (eds.) 1993. A Utah flora. 2nd edition. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, Utah. 986 pp.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2018.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2018 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2018. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.