Pelecanus erythrorhynchos - Gmelin, 1789
American White Pelican
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Pelecanus erythrorhynchos J. F. Gmelin, 1789 (TSN 174684)
French Common Names: pélican d'Amérique
Spanish Common Names: Pelícano Blanco
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.102798
Element Code: ABNFC01010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Other Birds
Image 11088

© Jeff Nadler

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Pelecaniformes Pelecanidae Pelecanus
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Pelecanus erythrorhynchos
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 09Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 04Dec2008
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Large nesting and winter range in Canada, United States, and Mexico; several dozen colonies include more than 60,000 nesting pairs; population has increased greatly since the 1960s; highly vulnerable to disturbance; habitat protection remains a concern, as does increased incidence and severity of disease.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4 (04Dec2008)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5B,N5M (22Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S3N), Arizona (S3N), Arkansas (S4N), California (S1S2), Colorado (S1B), Florida (SNRN), Georgia (SNRN), Idaho (S3B), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (SNA), Iowa (SXB,S4N), Kansas (S5N), Kentucky (SNA), Louisiana (S3N), Minnesota (S3B), Mississippi (S3N), Missouri (SNRM), Montana (S3B), Navajo Nation (S4M,S1N), Nebraska (SNR), Nevada (S2B), New Jersey (SNA), New Mexico (S3N), New York (S1B), North Carolina (SNA), North Dakota (SNRB), Oklahoma (S3N), Oregon (S2B), South Dakota (S3B), Tennessee (S3N), Texas (S2B,S3N), Utah (S3B), Washington (S1S2B), Wisconsin (S3B), Wyoming (S1B)
Canada Alberta (S2S3B), British Columbia (S1B), Manitoba (S3S4B), Northwest Territories (S2B), Nunavut (S2B,S2M), Ontario (S2B), Saskatchewan (S3B)

Other Statuses

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Not at Risk (01Apr1987)
Comments on COSEWIC: The Canadian population is large and increasing with many successfully breeding colonies.

Designated Threatened in April 1978. Status re-examined and designated Not at Risk in April 1987.

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Nesting occurs locally in south-central British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and southwestern Ontario south through northern California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, South Dakota, and Minnesota; also on the central coast of Texas and sporadically in east-central Mexico (Tamaulipas) and central Durango, Mexico (Johnsgard 1993, Knopf and Evans 2004). During the nonbreeding season the range includes Florida, Gulf of Mexico coast south to northern Yucatan Peninsula, and central California south to southern Baja California and through western mainland Mexico to Nicaragua (AOU 1983, Knopf and Evans 2004). In North America, the highest winter density occurs in southern Texas (Root 1988); other important areas include the Gulf coast and Everglades region of Florida. In summer, white pelicans sometimes wander north of the usual range.

Coded range extent refers to breeding range.

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: Breeding occurrences include at least 27 colonies east of the Continental Divide and 15 west of the Divide; several additional colonies likely exist but have not been recently documented (King and Anderson 2005).

Population Size: 100,000 - 1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Using available data (1998-2001), King and Anderson (2005) determined that at least 27 American white pelican colonies and 48,240 nests occur east of the Continental Divide and at least 15 colonies and 18,790 nests exist west of the Divide, for a total of about 134,000 breeding pelicans in North America. However, many pelican colonies have not been surveyed since the early 1980s, and these figures do not include several colonies in Canada, the United States, and Mexico. Population size in 1995, including nonbreeders, was estimated at 400,000 (Keith 2005). The largest colony (34,000 breeders in 2002) is at Chase Lake, North Dakota (Sovoda et al. 2005).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Some (13-40)
Viability/Integrity Comments: Many nesting colonies have at least 500 nesting pairs (King and Anderson 2005).

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: This species is highly sensitive to human intrusion into breeding colonies, which cause desertions and exposure of eggs and young to temperature extremes and gull predation (Knopf and Evans 2004). Loud and close passes by motor boats and low flying airplanes can cause bird to flee from nesting colonies or feeding or roosting areas (Knopf and Evans 2004).

Hydrological alterations by humans have resulted in a net loss of breeding and feeding areas (Murphy 2005), and these alterations remain an important potential limiting factor (Knopf and Evans 2004). Some hydrological changes have created or improved nesting habitat.

Diseases (particularly Type C botulism and West Nile virus) have caused significant die-offs and mortality in recent years and are a cause for concern (Rocke et al. 2005).

In some areas, pelicans fly long distances (hundreds of kilometers) from nesting areas to the closest suitable feeding areas, but may nevertheless breed successfully.

Ehrlich et al. (1992) noted that several nesting colonies were jeopardized by several consecutive years of drought, which may lower water levels and allow mammal predators (particularly coyote and raccoon) access to pelican breeding sites.

Shooting historically was a significant mortality factor and still is the greatest mortality factor resulting in band returns (Evans and Knopf 1993).

After the 1960s, hundreds of pelicans died yearly due to the ingestion of insecticides such as toxaphene, endrin, and dieldrin, and as recently as winter 1998-99, 800 American white pelicans died in Florida from poisoning by insecticides that were resuspended from flooded agricultural soils (Keith 2005). However, pesticides and mercury currently are not regarded as significant causes of reproductive failure or population decline (see Knopf and Evans 2004). However, there is concern that increased incidence and severity of disease in pelicans may be related to pesticide contamination (Murphy 2005).

Short-term Trend: Increase of >10%
Short-term Trend Comments: The number of nesting pairs in 20 colonies that were surveyed during 1979-81 and again in 1998-2001 more than doubled during that approximately 20-year time interval (King and Anderson 2005).

Breeding Bird Survey data indicate that the continental population increasied steadily and rapidly at rate of 3.9 percent per year from 1980 through 2003 (Knopf and Evans 2004).

Long-term Trend: Decline of 30-70%
Long-term Trend Comments: Severe declines occurred historically (King and Anderson 2005, Murphy 2005), but the magnitude of the difference between the former population size and current population size is uncertain.

West of the Continental Divide, the number of breeding colonies declined from 23-24 in the early 1900s 5-8 in 1984 (King and Anderson 2005). Several colonies of unknown but likely large size in California disappeared in the 1900s before breeding numbers had been documented (Shuford 2005). At the same time, new colonies became established (e.g., in Montana and British Columbia).

Population size declined through the 1960s and increased greatly through the early 2000s.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Protection Needs: The larger colonies (500+ nests) should be protected. Some nesting areas need protection against incursion by coyotes and raccoons; predator exclusion fences have been used successfully (Madden and Restani 2005)..

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Nesting occurs locally in south-central British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and southwestern Ontario south through northern California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, South Dakota, and Minnesota; also on the central coast of Texas and sporadically in east-central Mexico (Tamaulipas) and central Durango, Mexico (Johnsgard 1993, Knopf and Evans 2004). During the nonbreeding season the range includes Florida, Gulf of Mexico coast south to northern Yucatan Peninsula, and central California south to southern Baja California and through western mainland Mexico to Nicaragua (AOU 1983, Knopf and Evans 2004). In North America, the highest winter density occurs in southern Texas (Root 1988); other important areas include the Gulf coast and Everglades region of Florida. In summer, white pelicans sometimes wander north of the usual range.

Coded range extent refers to breeding range.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, FL, GA, IAextirpated, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NJ, NM, NN, NV, NY, OK, OR, SD, TN, TX, UT, WA, WI, WY
Canada AB, BC, MB, NT, NU, ON, SK

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002; WILDSPACETM 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CA Modoc (06049), Siskiyou (06093)
CO Alamosa (08003), Bent (08011), Boulder (08013), Delta (08029), Grand (08049), Jackson (08057), Kiowa (08061), Las Animas (08071), Park (08093), Weld (08123)
ID Bannock (16005), Bear Lake (16007), Bingham (16011), Blaine (16013), Bonneville (16019), Boundary (16021), Camas (16025), Canyon (16027), Caribou (16029), Cassia (16031), Elmore (16039), Franklin (16041), Fremont (16043), Jefferson (16051), Kootenai (16055), Nez Perce (16069), Owyhee (16073), Payette (16075), Power (16077), Twin Falls (16083)
MN Beltrami (27007), Big Stone (27011), Cass (27021), Grant (27051), Lac Qui Parle (27073), Lake of the Woods (27077), Lincoln (27081), Marshall (27089), Martin (27091), Meeker (27093), Pope (27121), St. Louis (27137)
MS Adams (28001), Bolivar (28011), Clay (28025), DeSoto (28033), Grenada (28043), Harrison (28047), Jackson (28059), Lafayette (28071), Lowndes (28087), Noxubee (28103), Oktibbeha (28105), Panola (28107), Sharkey (28125), Tallahatchie (28135)*, Tate (28137), Washington (28151), Yalobusha (28161)
MT Broadwater (30007), Phillips (30071), Pondera (30073), Roosevelt (30085), Sheridan (30091), Teton (30099)
NV Washoe (32031)
OR Clatsop (41007), Deschutes (41017)*, Harney (41025), Jackson (41029)*, Klamath (41035), Lake (41037), Malheur (41045)*, Umatilla (41059)*
SD Bennett (46007), Brown (46013), Codington (46029), Day (46037), Hutchinson (46067)
UT Beaver (49001)*, Box Elder (49003), Cache (49005)*, Davis (49011)*, Garfield (49017)*, Grand (49019)*, Juab (49023)*, Kane (49025)*, Millard (49027)*, Piute (49031)*, Salt Lake (49035)*, San Juan (49037)*, Sevier (49041)*, Tooele (49045)*, Uintah (49047)*, Utah (49049), Washington (49053), Wayne (49055)*, Weber (49057)*
WA Adams (53001)+, Benton (53005)+, Chelan (53007)+, Clark (53011)+, Columbia (53013)+, Douglas (53017)+, Franklin (53021)+, Grant (53025)+, King (53033)+, Kittitas (53037)+, Klickitat (53039)+, Lincoln (53043)+, Okanogan (53047)+, Pend Oreille (53051)+, Walla Walla (53071)+, Whitman (53075)+
WI Dodge (55027), Door (55029), Fond Du Lac (55039), Green Lake (55047), Winnebago (55139)
WY Albany (56001), Big Horn (56003)*, Campbell (56005), Carbon (56007), Converse (56009)*, Fremont (56013), Goshen (56015)*, Johnson (56019), Laramie (56021), Lincoln (56023), Natrona (56025), Park (56029), Platte (56031)*, Sheridan (56033), Sublette (56035)*, Sweetwater (56037), Teton (56039), Uinta (56041), Washakie (56043)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Upper Tombigbee (03160101)+, Tibbee (03160104)+, Noxubee (03160108)+, Pascagoula (03170006)+, Mississippi Coastal (03170009)+
04 Upper Fox (04030201)+, Lake Winnebago (04030203)+
07 Leech Lake (07010102)+, Crow (07010204)+, Upper Minnesota (07020001)+, Pomme De Terre (07020002)+, Hawk-Yellow Medicine (07020004)+, Chippewa (07020005)+, Blue Earth (07020009)+, Upper Rock (07090001)+
08 Lower Mississippi-Helena (08020100)+, Little Tallahatchie (08030201)+, Tallahatchie (08030202)+*, Yocona (08030203)+, Coldwater (08030204)+, Yalobusha (08030205)+, Big Sunflower (08030207)+, Deer-Steele (08030209)+, Homochitto (08060205)+
09 Bois De Sioux (09020101)+, Red Lakes (09020302)+, Thief (09020304)+, Lower Red (09020311)+, Rainy Headwaters (09030001)+, Vermilion (09030002)+, Lake of the Woods (09030009)+
10 Upper Missouri (10030101)+, Two Medicine (10030201)+, Teton (10030205)+, Beaver (10050014)+, Big Muddy (10060006)+, Yellowstone Headwaters (10070001)+, Lower Wind (10080005)+, Badwater (10080006)+, Upper Bighorn (10080007)+, Nowood (10080008)+*, Greybull (10080009)+, North Fork Shoshone (10080012)+, Upper Tongue (10090101)+, Upper Powder (10090202)+, South Fork Powder (10090203)+, Salt (10090204)+, Little White (10140203)+, Upper James (10160003)+, Mud (10160005)+, Vermillion (10170102)+, Middle Big Sioux Coteau (10170201)+, North Platte Headwaters (10180001)+, Upper North Platte (10180002)+, Pathfinder-Seminoe Reservoirs (10180003)+, Medicine Bow (10180004)+, Little Medicine Bow (10180005)+*, Sweetwater (10180006)+*, Middle North Platte-Casper (10180007)+, Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff (10180009)+*, Upper Laramie (10180010)+, Lower Laramie (10180011)+*, Horse (10180012)+*, South Platte Headwaters (10190001)+, Middle South Platte-Cherry Creek (10190003)+, St. Vrain (10190005)+, Cache La Poudre (10190007)+*, Crow (10190009)+, Upper Lodgepole (10190015)+*
11 Upper Arkansas-John Martin (11020009)+, Purgatoire (11020010)+
13 San Luis (13010003)+
14 Colorado headwaters (14010001)+, Lower Gunnison (14020005)+, Upper Colorado-Kane Springs (14030005)+*, Upper Green (14040101)+*, New Fork (14040102)+*, Upper Green-Slate (14040103)+, Big Sandy (14040104)+*, Bitter (14040105)+, Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir (14040106)+, Blacks Fork (14040107)+, Great Divide closed basin (14040200)+*, Lower White (14050007)+*, Lower Green-Diamond (14060001)+*, Duchesne (14060003)+*, Lower Green-Desolation Canyon (14060005)+*, Fremont (14070003)+*, Lower Lake Powell (14070006)+*
15 Upper Virgin (15010008)+, Lower Virgin (15010010)+
16 Upper Bear (16010101)+, Bear Lake (16010201)+, Middle Bear (16010202)+, Little Bear-Logan (16010203)+*, Lower Bear-Malad (16010204)+, Lower Weber (16020102)+*, Utah Lake (16020201)+, Spanish Fork (16020202)+, Provo (16020203)+, Jordan (16020204)+*, Southern Great Salt Lake Desert (16020306)+*, Curlew Valley (16020309)+*, Great Salt Lake (16020310)+*, Upper Sevier (16030001)+*, East Fork Sevier (16030002)+*, Middle Sevier (16030003)+*, Lower Sevier (16030005)+*, Beaver Bottoms-Upper Beaver (16030007)+*, Lower Beaver (16030008)+*, Pyramid-Winnemucca Lakes (16050103)+
17 Lower Kootenai (17010104)+, Pend Oreille (17010216), Coeur D'alene Lake (17010303)+, Chief Joseph (17020005), Okanogan (17020006), Similkameen (17020007), Upper Columbia-Entiat (17020010), Upper Crab (17020013), Banks Lake (17020014), Lower Crab (17020015), Upper Columbia-Priest Rapids (17020016), Lower Yakima, Washington (17030003), Snake headwaters (17040101)+, Greys-Hobock (17040103)+*, Palisades (17040104)+*, Salt (17040105)+, Idaho Falls (17040201)+, Upper Henrys (17040202)+, American Falls (17040206)+, Blackfoot (17040207)+, Portneuf (17040208)+, Lake Walcott (17040209)+, Raft (17040210)+, Upper Snake-Rock (17040212)+, Beaver-Camas (17040214)+, Camas (17040220)+, Little Wood (17040221)+, C. J. Idaho (17050101)+, Bruneau (17050102)+, Middle Snake-Succor (17050103)+, Jordan (17050108)+*, Lower Boise (17050114)+, Middle Snake-Payette (17050115)+, Palouse (17060108), Rock (17060109), Lower Snake (17060110), Clearwater (17060306)+, Middle Columbia-Lake Wallula (17070101)+, Walla Walla (17070102), Umatilla (17070103)+*, Middle Columbia-Hood (17070105), Upper Deschutes (17070301)+*, Lower Columbia (17080006)+, Lower Willamette (17090012), Upper Rogue (17100307)+*, Nooksack (17110004), Duwamish (17110013), Harney-Malheur Lakes (17120001)+, Silver (17120004)+*, Summer Lake (17120005)+, Warner Lakes (17120007)+*
18 Williamson (18010201)+, Sprague (18010202)+, Upper Klamath Lake (18010203)+, Lost (18010204)+, Upper Klamath (18010206)+, Goose Lake (18020001)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A large white waterbird with a very large beak.
Reproduction Comments: Egg laying occurs May-July in Texas, late April-June (mainly before June) in Utah. In Canada, nesting begins in May or June; hatching in the first nests sometimes precedes initiation of the last clutches. In Manitoba, flocks first flew over colony sites 34-38 days before hatching. Clutch size is commonly 2, but pairs rarely fledge more than one young. Incubation, by both adults, averages 31-32 days, Young are tended by adults, leave nest in about 21-28 days, join other young in group, fledge at 9-10 weeks, and attain sexual maturity usually at 3 years. Mortality of eggs and chicks generally is high. Female generally does not renest following clutch loss.
Ecology Comments: Gregarious. Significant predators at various breeding sites include gulls, coyotes, and probably large corvids and other mammals.
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Most are long-distance migrants; resident along Gulf coast of Texas and Tamaulipas (Johnsgard 1993). Migration corridors are mostly inland. Winter range of breeders from North Dakota and Saskatchewan includes the western Gulf coast; some birds from Saskatchewan have been recovered on the Pacific coast of Mexico and El Salvador; most breeders from western Wyoming, Utah, Nevada, and British Columbia winter in California and western Mexico (see Johnsgard 1993).

Maximum distance between nesting site and breeding season foraging area can be 100 to 300 kilometers (Low et al. 1950, Marshall and Giles 1953, Lingle and Sloan 1980; also see Johnsgard 1993).

Estuarine Habitat(s): Bay/sound, Lagoon, River mouth/tidal river
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, Low gradient
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes rivers, lakes, reservoirs, estuaries, bays, and open marshes, sometimes inshore marine habitats. Pelicans rest/roost on islands and peninsulas. Nests usually are on islands or peninsulas (natural or dredge spoils) in brackish or freshwater lakes, or on ephemeral islands in shallower wetlands as in the northern Great Plains or on the Texas coast (knopf and Evans 2004). Eggs are laid on the ground in a slight depression or on a mound of earth and debris 24-36 inches across, 15-20 inches high (Terres 1980), usually on low flat, or gently sloping terrain. Nest sites usually are in open areas but often near vegetation, driftwood, or large rocks (Spendelow and Patton 1988). Habitats used in winter are mainly coastal but also include also inland waters such as the Salton Sea and some rivers with open water (Knopf and Evans 2004). Suitable sand bars and similar sites for roosting or loafing are important components of winter habitat (Knopf and Evans 2004).
Adult Food Habits: Piscivore
Immature Food Habits: Piscivore
Food Comments: Diet includes mainly fishes of little commercial value (e.g., carp, perch, catfish, suckers, sticklebacks, minnows) (Terres 1980), also locally trout, centrarchids, tiger salamanders, or crayfishes. Locally, tiger salamanders may be important as food for chicks. Foraging often occurs in shallow water. Pelicans sometimes forage cooperatively, forming a semicircle and herding fishes.
Adult Phenology: Circadian, Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Circadian, Diurnal
Phenology Comments: Feeding activity generally peaks in morning and late afternoon or evening. In some areas, foraging occurs at night as well as diurnally (McMahon and Evans 1992).
Colonial Breeder: Y
Length: 158 centimeters
Weight: 7500 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Management Requirements: Maintain water levels where birds nest and forage. Limit or restrict access to breeding colonies especially during courtship and early incubation. Prevent shooting. Restrict pesticide usage.
Biological Research Needs: The relationship between pesticide contamination and vulnerability to disease needs to be investigated (Murphy 2005). Better information is needed on demographics and metapopulation dynamics.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Use Class: Breeding
Subtype(s): Breeding Colony, Feeding Area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of breeding (including historical); and potential recurring breeding at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Mapping Guidance: Disjunct feeding lakes for birds from breeding colonies should be considered source features for the colony occurrence, but mapped as separate polygons.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: Colonies closer than separation distance given may be considered separate occurrences if long-term research indicates little population mixing.
Separation Justification: Separation distance arbitrary; designed primarily with conservation actions in mind. Breeding birds can fly up to 100-300 kilometers to feed (Low et al. 1950, Marshall and Giles 1953, Lingle and Sloan 1980).
Unsuitable habitat: uplands; i.e. colonies on different lakes need only be separated by 5 kilometers to be considered separate occurrences.

Date: 19Nov2001
Author: Cannings, S.

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of occurrence (including historical); and potential recurring occurrence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 or more individuals in appropriate habitat for at least 10 days per appropriate season. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance arbitrary; designed primarily with conservation actions in mind. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of recurring foraging concentrations, rather than distinct populations. Unsuitable habitat: uplands.
Date: 19Nov2001
Author: Cannings, S.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 04Dec2008
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G., J. D. Reichel, and J. Duncan
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 03Dec2008
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Alabama Ornithological Society. 2006. Field checklist of Alabama birds. Alabama Ornithological Society, Dauphin Island, Alabama. [Available online at http://www.aosbirds.org/documents/AOSChecklist_april2006.pdf ]

  • Alberta Department of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources Services. 1995. Alberta's threatened wildlife: White Pelican. Natural Resources Service, Wildlife Management Division. Edmonton, Alberta. 5 pp.

  • American Ornithologists Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American Birds. 7th edition. American Ornithologists Union, Washington, D.C. 829 pages.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1983. Check-list of North American Birds, 6th edition. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 877 pp.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.

  • American Ornithologists' Union. Committee on Classification and Nomenclature. 1983. Check-list of North American Birds. Sixth Edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 877 pp.

  • Andersen, M.D. 2011. Maxent-based species distribution models. Prepared by Wyoming Natural Diversity Database for use in the pilot WISDOM application operational from inception to yet-to-be-determined date of update of tool.

  • Andersen, M.D. and B. Heidel. 2011. HUC-based species range maps. Prepared by Wyoming Natural Diversity Database for use in the pilot WISDOM application operational from inception to yet-to-be-determined date of update of tool.

  • Andrews, R. R. and R. R. Righter. 1992. Colorado Birds. Denver Museum of Natural History, Denver. 442 pp.

  • Baicich, P.J., and C.J.O. Harrison. 1997. A guide to the nests, eggs and nestlings of North American birds. Second edition. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. 347pp.

  • Bailey, A. M. and R. J. Niedrach. 1965. Birds of Colorado. Denver Museum of Natural History. 2 vols. 895 pp.

  • Behle, W. H. 1935. A history of the bird colonies of Great Salt Lake. Condor 37: 24-35.

  • Behle, W. H. 1981. The birds of northeastern Utah. Utah Museum of Natural History Occasional Publications 2: i-iv + 1-136 pp.

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The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2018.
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Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
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Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
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