Pediocactus sileri - (Engelm.) L. Benson
Siler Pincushion Cactus
Other Common Names: Siler pincushion cactus
Synonym(s): Utahia sileri (Engelm.) Britt. & Rose
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Pediocactus sileri (Engelm.) L. Benson (TSN 19775)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.132964
Element Code: PDCAC0E060
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Cactus Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Caryophyllales Cactaceae Pediocactus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Pediocactus sileri
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 16Sep2013
Global Status Last Changed: 16Sep2013
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: This species is endemic to a narrow strip along the Arizona-Utah border where it is ecologically restricted to a specific gypsum and salt-rich soil. The Bureau of Land Management, Arizona Strip District, has documented the plants on 17,000 ha of land. In most cases individual plants are widely separated, but the survey did find three dense populations. Fairly heavy off-road vehicle use has adversely impacted some populations. Other threats include grazing, uranium mining, and long-term drought. Many populations in the Kanab area are in sharp decline in recent years due to drought and herbivory.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arizona (S2), Utah (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LT: Listed threatened (27Dec1993)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R2 - Southwest

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Scattered areas along the Utah-Arizona border from the vicinity of Fredonia, Coconino County, Arizona, to an area south and southeast of St. George, Utah in Mohave County, Arizona and at a few places in Washington County, Utah. The distirbution was quantified in USFWS 2008: "southeast of Fredonia, extreme northwestern Coconino County, Arizona, west for about 70 air miles in north-central Mohave County, Arizona; it also includes about 3 miles of southern Utah in Washington and Kane Counties".

Area of Occupancy: 6-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: BLM has documented approximately 22 occurrences in Arizona, and populations in the Kanab and St. George areas of Utah. In the NatureServe central database, there are approximately 25 extant occurrences (EO data in the NatureServe central database as of August 2013).

Population Size Comments: Several 100, possibly 10,000 or even more plants. In 2006, BLM estimated there were over 10,000 individuals (BLM 2006 cited by USFWS 2008).

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threatened by ORVs, grazing, uranium mining, and long-term drought (USFWS 2008). Unauthorized collection is not known to be a threat (USFWS 2008). "Almost certainly this species, along with its habitat, will be affected in some manner by climate change; the magnitude and extent of the change cannot be quantified at this time (USFWS 2008). Other possible future threats include gypsum mining, oil and gas production, a proposed water pipeline, and increased urban development in Utah (USFWS 2008).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Many populations in the Kanab area in sharp decline in recent years due to drought and herbivory (Laurenzi and Spence 2012).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Stems tend to develop a basal thatch of spines that anchor it to the fine, gypsum-rich soil.

Environmental Specificity: Narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements common.
Environmental Specificity Comments: Grows on rounded hills in gypsum clay and sandy soils of Moenkopi Formation, in Great Basin desert scrub community.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Scattered areas along the Utah-Arizona border from the vicinity of Fredonia, Coconino County, Arizona, to an area south and southeast of St. George, Utah in Mohave County, Arizona and at a few places in Washington County, Utah. The distirbution was quantified in USFWS 2008: "southeast of Fredonia, extreme northwestern Coconino County, Arizona, west for about 70 air miles in north-central Mohave County, Arizona; it also includes about 3 miles of southern Utah in Washington and Kane Counties".

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AZ, UT

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AZ Coconino (04005), Mohave (04015)
UT Kane (49025)*, Washington (49053)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
15 Kanab (15010003)+, Upper Virgin (15010008)+, Fort Pierce Wash (15010009)+, Lower Virgin (15010010)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A spiny succulent with a single, round or oval stem, 5-13 cm tall. Flowers are yellow to maroon in color. Blooms April-mid May.
Reproduction Comments: Members of Pediocactus produce dry, dull-colored fruit which are presumed not to be dispersed by birds or rodents, but rather wind or water. Little variation exists within populations. These populations can be separated by distances of several miles even when there is suitable habitat. Further, dispersal within populations appears to be staggered throughout the growing season from shortly after seeds are produced in June to fall. This dispersal strategy may be disadventageous for the genus, however, populations in the genus when left undisturbed seem to be healthy with all age classes represented (Heil et al. 1981).

Terrestrial Habitat(s): Desert, Forest/Woodland, Grassland/herbaceous, Woodland - Conifer
Habitat Comments: Soils derived from the Moenkopi Formation, high in gypsum and soluble salts. In these soils, the species is found in a variety of plant communities from low elevation (about 850 m) Mohave Desert scrub up to conifer woodlands and grasslands at 1650 m elevation.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 16Sep2013
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: D. Atwood, rev. C. Russell, rev. Maybury (1996), rev. S. Schuetze (2012), rev. A. Tomaino (2013)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • 100th Congress. 1988. Endangered Species Act of 1973, appropriations authorization for fiscal years 1988-1992. Public Law 100-478-October 7, 1988 102 STAT.2307-102 STAT.2323.

  • Arizona Game and Fish Department. 2003. Pediocactus sileri. Unpublished abstract compiled and edited by the Heritage Data Management System, Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, AZ. 6 pp. [http://www.azgfd.gov/w_c/edits/documents/Pedisile.d_000.pdf]

  • Armstrong, L., et.al. 1995. Threatened And Endangered Plant Clearance - Desert Tortoise Land Interchange, Dixie Resource Area.

  • Benson, L. 1982. The Cacti of the United States and Canada. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. 1044 pp.

  • Bureau of Land Management, Dixie Resource Area. Threatened and Endangered animals and plants.

  • Butterworth, C., and J.M. Porter. 2013. Pediocactus sileri. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. Online. Available: http://www.iucnredlist.org (accessed 11 July 2013).

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2003b. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 4, Magnoliophyta: Caryophyllidae, part 1. Oxford University Press, New York. 559 pp.

  • Frates, T. 1985. Letter of November 29 to Larry England of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  • Heil, K., B. Armstrong and D. Schleser. 1981. A review of the genus Pediocactus. Cactus and Succulent Journal 53:17-39.

  • Hochstätter, F. 1990. To the habitats of Pedio- and Sclerocactus. Over 100,000 kilometers in the North American wilderness. 170 pp.

  • Hughes, L.E. 1991. Pediocactus sileri report. Report for the Bur. Land Management, Arizona Strip District, St. George. 26 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kearney, T.H., R.H. Peebles, and collaborators. 1951. Arizona flora. 2nd edition with Supplement (1960) by J.T. Howell, E. McClintock, and collaborators. Univ. California Press, Berkeley. 1085 pp.

  • Laurenzi, A. and J.R. Spence. 2012. Conservation priority setting for Arizona G1 and G2 plant species: A regional assessment.

  • Lunsford, B. 1984. Maps of "T & E and sensitive plants in the Kanab Resource Area [BLM]." 1 p. + 2 maps.

  • Ruby, D.N. 1992. Dwarf Bear Claw Poppy research activities/observations during FY 92.

  • Rutman, S. 1992. Handbook of Arizona's endangered, threatened, and candidate plants. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Phoenix, AZ. 30 pp.

  • Sivinski, R. and K. Lightfoot, eds. 1993. Southwestern Rare and Endangered Plants. Proceedings of the Southern Rare and Endangered Plant Conference. New Mexico Forestry and Resources Conservation Division, Energy, Minerals, and Natural Resources Department, Sante Fe. 390 pp.

  • Still, S. 2012. Arizona EO Report. Chicago Botanic Garden. 93 pp.

  • Tilley, D., L. St. John, and D. Ogle. 2010. Plant guide for Siler's pincushion cactus (Pediocactus sileri). USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service, Idaho Plant Materials Center. Aberdeen, ID[http://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/pg_pesi4.pdf]

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1980. DRAFT: Biological opinion on expected effects of proposed Allen-Warner Valley Energy System on three listed plants.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1993. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed rule to reclassify the plant Pediocactus sileri from Endangered to Threatened. Proposed Rule. Dated: March 10, 1993. Federal Register 58(45): 13244-13249.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1993. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; reclassification of the plant Pediocactus sileri (Siler Pincushion cactus) from endangered to threatended status. Federal Register 58(246): 68476-68480.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1993. Reclassification of the plant Pediocactus sileri (Siler pincushion cactus) from endangered to threatened status. Federal Register 58(246): 68476-68480.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS. 2008. Siler Pincushion Cactus (Pediocactus sileri). 5-year review: summary and evaluation. Arizona Ecological Services Office, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Phoenix, AZ.

  • USBLM. [1979]. Lists I, II, and III, i.e., threatened, endangered, and sensitive plant species. Cedar City District. Unpaginated (6 pp.) + map.

  • Utah TES Plant Interagency Committee. 1991. Endangered, threatened, and sensitive plant field guide. No pagination.

  • Welsh, S. L. 1978. Endangered and threatened plants of Utah: a reevaluation. Great Basin Naturalist 38(1): 1-18.

  • Welsh, S. L., and K. H. Thorne. 1992. Report of Bureau of Land Management sensitive plant species: western Kane County, Utah. ?? pp.

  • Welsh, S. L., and N. D. Atwood. 1999. Flora of [the] Bureau of Land Management['s] Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument. 104 pp. + field forms.

  • Welsh, S.L. 1979. Illustrated manual of proposed endangered and threatened plants of Utah. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. 318 pp.

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