Pediocactus peeblesianus - (Croizat) L. Benson
Peebles' Hedgehog Cactus
Other English Common Names: Navajo Pincushion Cactus
Other Common Names: Navajo pincushion cactus
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Pediocactus peeblesianus (Croizat) L. Benson (TSN 19774)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.133095
Element Code: PDCAC0E050
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Cactus Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Caryophyllales Cactaceae Pediocactus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Pediocactus peeblesianus
Taxonomic Comments: According to Flora of North America (2003), Pediocactus peeblesianus has two subspecies, ssp. peeblesianus and ssp. fickeiseniae (corrected to "fickeiseniorum" according to ICBN Art. 60.11 see Hunt 2006) and does not mention any other infrataxa. Kartesz (1999), recognized two varieties, var. peeblesianus and var. fickeiseniae, with var. maianus placed in "excluded names". Kartesz (1994), had recognized var. peeblesianus, var. fickeiseniae and ?var. maianus. As of 2013, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service recognizes Pediocactus peeblesianus var. peeblesianus and Pediocactus peeblesianus var. fickeiseniae.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 26Sep2013
Global Status Last Changed: 26Sep2013
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Narrow endemic to alkaline soils in northern Arizona. Major threats are grazing, horticultural collection, gravel mining, and climate change. It appears to have low reproductive capacity. Declines are suspected.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arizona (S2), Navajo Nation (SNR)

Other Statuses

Implied Status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE
Comments on USESA: As of October 1, 2013, both Pediocactus peeblesianus var. peeblesianus and Pediocactus peeblesianus var. fickeiseniae are Listed Endangered.

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Endemic to northern Arizona, in Coconino, Mohave and Navajo counties (Arizona Game and Fish Department 2011). Subspecies peeblesianus is restricted to Navajo County, near Joseph City and Holbrook (USFWS 2008). Subspepcies fickeiseniorum occurs scattered from Mainstreet Valley in Mohave County to House Rock Valley in Coconino County, along the canyon rims of the Colorado and Little Colorado rivers, to the area of Gray Mountain, and along the canyon rims of Cataract Canyon on the Coconino Plateau (AZ Ecological Services Field Office 2012).

Area of Occupancy: 6-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: There are three occurrences of Pediocactus peeblesianus ssp. peeblesianus and approximately 35 extant occurrences of Pediocactus peeblesianus ssp. fickeiseniorum (EO data in the NatureServe central database as of August 2013).

Population Size Comments: Last observed population data available for species occurrences indicates a total between 1000 and 2000 plants (EO data in the NatureServe central database as of August 2013). There is considerable year to year variation in numbers and failure to relocate plants may be due to mortality, or just dormancy (Hazelton 2011). At Salt Trail monitoring plots, there were 119 plants in 2006, 146 in 2007, 143 in 2008, 100 in 2009, and 66 in 2011 (Hazelton 2011).

Overall Threat Impact: High
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Major threats are grazing and illegal collection (Butterworth and Porter 2013). Other threats include gravel mining, urban development, off-road vehicle traffic, recreational activities, road construction, and global climate change (USFWS 2008, AGFD 2009, AGFD 2011).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Suspected declines in number of locations and area of occupancy (Butterworth and Porter 2013). Between 2008 and 2011, a high proportion of plants at the largest site on Navajo Nation were lost; mean vigor, diameter, and reproductive output of the remaining plants declined as well. (Hazelton 2011).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: "The species seems to have low reproductive capacity, even during favorable weather conditions." (Arizona Ecological Services Field Office 2012).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Endemic to northern Arizona, in Coconino, Mohave and Navajo counties (Arizona Game and Fish Department 2011). Subspecies peeblesianus is restricted to Navajo County, near Joseph City and Holbrook (USFWS 2008). Subspepcies fickeiseniorum occurs scattered from Mainstreet Valley in Mohave County to House Rock Valley in Coconino County, along the canyon rims of the Colorado and Little Colorado rivers, to the area of Gray Mountain, and along the canyon rims of Cataract Canyon on the Coconino Plateau (AZ Ecological Services Field Office 2012).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AZ, NN

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AZ Coconino (04005), Mohave (04015), Navajo (04017)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
15 Lower Colorado-Marble Canyon (15010001)+, Kanab (15010003)+, Havasu Canyon (15010004)+, Fort Pierce Wash (15010009)+, Middle Little Colorado (15020008)+, Leroux Wash (15020009)+, Lower Little Colorado (15020016)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: An inconspicuous, spiny succulent with rounded stems, 1.5-6.2 cm long (often only the tops protrude above the soil, and in dry weather, the plants usually retract entirely into the soil).
Duration: PERENNIAL
Reproduction Comments: Members of Pediocactus produce dry, dull-colored fruit which are presumed not to be dispersed by birds or rodents, but rather wind or water. Little variation exists within populations. These populations can be separated by distances of several miles even when there is suitable habitat. Further, dispersal within populations appears to be staggered throughout the growing season from shortly after seeds are produced in June to fall. This dispersal strategy may be disadventageous for the genus, however, populations in the genus when left undisturbed seem to be healthy with all age classes represented (Heil et al. 1981).

Terrestrial Habitat(s): Desert, Grassland/herbaceous
Habitat Comments: Navajoan Desert and transitional desert-Great Plains Grassland areas; alkaline desert scrub and desert grasslands, gravelly soils, 1220-1700 m elevation (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 2003).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 26Sep2013
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: LAMBERT, A., rev. A. Tomaino (2013)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Arizona Ecological Services Field Office. 2009. April last update. Peebles Navajo Cactus (Pediocactus peeblesianus var. peeblesianus general species information. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Southwest Region 2. Online. Available: http://www.fws.gov/southwest/es/arizona/Peebles.htm (accessed 2013).

  • Arizona Ecological Services Field Office. 2012. October last update. Fickeisen Plains Cactus (Pediocactus peeblesianus var. fickeiseniae general species information. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Southwest Region 2. Online. Available: http://www.fws.gov/southwest/es/arizona/Fickeisen.htm (accessed 2013).

  • Arizona Game and Fish Department. 2009. Pediocactus peeblesianus var. peeblesianus. Unpublished abstract compiled and edited by the Heritage Data Management System, Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, AZ. 6 pp. [http://www.azgfd.gov/w_c/edits/documents/Pedipepe.d_001.pdf]

  • Arizona Game and Fish Department. 2011. Pediocactus peeblesianus var. fickeiseniae. Unpublished abstract compiled and edited by the Heritage Data Management System, Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, AZ. 7 pp. [http://www.azgfd.gov/w_c/edits/documents/Pedipefi.fi_003.pdf]

  • Benson, L. 1982. The Cacti of the United States and Canada. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. 1044 pp.

  • Butterworth, C., and J.M. Porter. 2013. Pediocactus peeblesianus. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. Online. Available: http://www.iucnredlist.org (accessed 11 July 2013).

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2003b. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 4, Magnoliophyta: Caryophyllidae, part 1. Oxford University Press, New York. 559 pp.

  • Hazelton, A. 2011. Fickeisen Plains Cactus (Pediocactus peeblesianus ssp. fickeiseniae). Monitoring Report. Salt Trail Canyon Monitoring Site 2006-2011. Unpublished monitoring report prepared for the Navajo Natural Heritage Program, Window Rock, AZ. [http://nnhp.nndfw.org/docs_reps/Fick2011_monitor_report.pdf]

  • Heil, K., B. Armstrong and D. Schleser. 1981. A review of the genus Pediocactus. Cactus and Succulent Journal 53:17-39.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Maschinski, J., D.H. Hammound, and L. Holter, tech. eds. 1996 Southwestern rare and endangered plants; proceedings of the second conference. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-283. USDA Forest Service, Fort Collins, CO. 328 pp.

  • Phillips, B.G., and A.M. Phillips, III. 1996. Results of an eleven year monitoring study of endangered Pediocactus peeblesianus (Croizat L.D. Benson var. peedlesianus. In J. Maschinski, D. H. Hammond, and L. Holter. Southwestern rare and endagnered plants: proceedings of the second conference. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-283. USDA Forest Service, Fort Collins, CO. 328 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2010. April last update. Species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Pediocactus peeblesianus var. fickeiseniae. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Program. Online. Available: http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2010/r2/Q1C9_P01.pdf (Accessed 2013).

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2008. Peebles Navajo cactus (Pediocactus peeblesianus var. peeblesianus). 5-year review: summary and evaluation. Arizona Ecological Services Office, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Phoenix, AZ.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2013. Endangered Species Status for Echinomastus erectocentrus var. acunensis (Acuna Cactus) and Pediocactus peeblesianus var.fickeiseniae (Fickeisen Plains Cactus) Throughout Their Ranges. Federal Register 78(190): 60608-60652.

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