Passerella iliaca - (Merrem, 1786)
Fox Sparrow
Other English Common Names: fox sparrow
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Passerella iliaca (Merrem, 1786) (TSN 179464)
French Common Names: bruant fauve
Spanish Common Names: Gorrión Rascador
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.102367
Element Code: ABPBXA2010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Perching Birds
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Passeriformes Passerellidae Passerella
Genus Size: A - Monotypic genus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Passerella iliaca
Taxonomic Comments: Composed of four groups which may represent distinct species: iliaca (Red Fox-Sparrow), unalaschcensis (Sooty Fox-Sparrow), schistacea (Slate-colored Fox-Sparrow), and megarhyncha (Thick-billed Fox-Sparrow) (AOU 1998). Burns and Zink (1990) found that populations from the Sierra Nevada-Cascade axis, Transverse Range (southern California), Great Basin, and Rocky Mountains are genetically homogeneous. Zink (1994) examined rangewide geographic variation in mtDNA restriction sites and reported the following results. Haplotypes fall into four phylogeographic groups that correspond to groups defined by plumage characters. Within each group, these is little geographic variation in mtDNA restriction sites, but there is geographic variation in plumage coloration and body size. Hybridization is limited between between all pairs of groups except "P. megarhyncha" and "P. schistacea," for which mtDNA evidence suggests a narrow contact zone along the interface of the Great Basin and Sierra Nevada/Cascades. Morphometric characters intergrade over a broader area, suggesting that different processes are responsible for the two gradients. The number of biological species represented ranges from one to four, depending on the degree of hybridization tolerated. The mtDNA and plumage characters suggest four phylogenetic species: P. iliaca, P. megarhyncha, P. unalaschcensis, and P. schistacea. Rising (1996) listed three species: P. iliaca (Red Fox Sparrow), P. unalaschcensis (Sooty Fox Sparrow), and P. schistacea (Slate-colored Fox Sparrow).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 09Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 04Dec1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5B,N5N (05Jan1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5B,N4N5N,N5M (22Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S4N), Alaska (S5B,S3N), Arizona (S2N), Arkansas (S5N), California (SNR), Colorado (S4B), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (SNA), District of Columbia (S3N), Florida (SNA), Georgia (S5), Idaho (S4B), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (S2N), Iowa (S2N), Kansas (S3N), Kentucky (S4N), Louisiana (S4N), Maine (S2B,S2?N), Maryland (S2N), Massachusetts (S4N), Michigan (SNRN), Minnesota (SNRN), Mississippi (SNA), Missouri (SNRN), Montana (S5B), Navajo Nation (S2N), Nebraska (SNRN), Nevada (S5B), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (S4N), New Mexico (S4N), New York (SNRN), North Carolina (S5N), North Dakota (SNA), Ohio (SNRN), Oklahoma (S3N), Oregon (S4), Pennsylvania (S3N), Rhode Island (SNA), South Carolina (SNRN), South Dakota (SNA), Tennessee (S3N), Texas (S4), Utah (S2S3B), Vermont (SNA), Virginia (S3N), Washington (S4B,S5N), West Virginia (S3N), Wisconsin (SNA), Wyoming (S4B)
Canada Alberta (S5B), British Columbia (S5B), Labrador (S5B,S5M), Manitoba (S5B), New Brunswick (S4B,S5M), Newfoundland Island (S5B,S5M), Northwest Territories (S5B), Nova Scotia (S3S4B), Nunavut (SUB,SUM), Ontario (S4B), Quebec (S5), Saskatchewan (S5B), Yukon Territory (S5B)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: BREEDING: western and northern Alaska, northern Yukon, Mackenzie, southwestern Keewatin, northern Manitoba, northern Ontario, northern Quebec, and northern Labrador south along the Pacific coast to northwestern Washington, in the western mountains to southern California, Nevada, Utah, and Colorado, and, east of the Rockies, to central Alberta, central Saskatchewan, central Manitoba, central Ontario, southern Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland (AOU 1983). Breeding strongly suspected in Sierra San Pedro Martir, Baja California (Erickson and Wurster 1998). NON-BREEDING: southern Alaska and southern British Columbia southward through Pacific states to northern Baja California, and from Arizona, New Mexico, Kansas, Iowa, Wisconsin, Indiana, southern Ontario, southwestern Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and southern Newfoundland south to northern Sonora (casually), New Mexico, Texas, Gulf coast, and Florida (AOU 1983).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: BREEDING: western and northern Alaska, northern Yukon, Mackenzie, southwestern Keewatin, northern Manitoba, northern Ontario, northern Quebec, and northern Labrador south along the Pacific coast to northwestern Washington, in the western mountains to southern California, Nevada, Utah, and Colorado, and, east of the Rockies, to central Alberta, central Saskatchewan, central Manitoba, central Ontario, southern Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland (AOU 1983). Breeding strongly suspected in Sierra San Pedro Martir, Baja California (Erickson and Wurster 1998). NON-BREEDING: southern Alaska and southern British Columbia southward through Pacific states to northern Baja California, and from Arizona, New Mexico, Kansas, Iowa, Wisconsin, Indiana, southern Ontario, southwestern Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and southern Newfoundland south to northern Sonora (casually), New Mexico, Texas, Gulf coast, and Florida (AOU 1983).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NN, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, NU, ON, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002; WILDSPACETM 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
ID Ada (16001), Bannock (16005), Latah (16057), Valley (16085)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
17 Portneuf (17040208)+, Boise-Mores (17050112)+, North Fork Payette (17050123)+, Clearwater (17060306)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A small bird (sparrow).
Reproduction Comments: Clutch size 3-5. Incubation 12-14 days, mostly by female (Terres 1980).
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Mostly a long-distance migrant; moves northward in March-April. Migrations more localized on west coast.
Palustrine Habitat(s): Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Shrubland/chaparral, Suburban/orchard, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Hardwood
Habitat Comments: Dense thickets in coniferous or mixed woodlands, chaparral, parks, and gardens, wooded bottomlands along rivers and creeks. Requires dense brushy cover during the nesting season.

May nest on ground or in shrubs and trees. Nest usually at height below 2 m.

Adult Food Habits: Frugivore, Granivore
Immature Food Habits: Frugivore, Granivore
Food Comments: Forages on the ground for seeds (e.g., smartweed, ragweed). Also eats berries (e.g., blueberries, elderberries) grapes and other fruits. May eat invertebrates (e.g., beetles, spiders, millipedes and crane flies).
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Length: 18 centimeters
Weight: 32 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Passerines

Use Class: Breeding
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Nest Site, Nesting Colony
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding, or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.

Mapping Guidance: Breeding occurrences include nesting areas as well as foraging areas.

For swallows and other species that have separate nesting and foraging areas, separations are based on nest sites or nesting areas, not to locations of foraging individuals. For example, nesting areas separated by a gap larger than the separation distance are different occurrences, regardless of the foraging locations of individuals from those nesting areas. This separation procedure is appropriate because nesting areas are the critical aspect of swallow breeding occurrences, tend to be relatively stable or at least somwhat predictable in general location, and so are the basis for effective conservation; foraging areas are much more flexible and not necessarily static.

Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Significant dispersal and associated high potential for gene flow among populations of birds separated by tens of kilometers (e.g., Moore and Dolbeer 1989), and increasing evidence that individuals leave their usual home range to engage in extrapair copulations, as well as long foraging excursions of some species, make it difficult to circumscribe occurrences on the basis of meaningful population units without occurrences becoming too large. Hence, a moderate, standardized separation distance has been adopted for songbirds and flycatchers; it should yield occurrences that are not too spatially expansive while also accounting for the likelihood of gene flow among populations within a few kilometers of each other.

Be careful not to separate a population's nesting areas and foraging areas as different occurrences; include them in the same occurrence even if they are more than 5 km apart. Mean foraging radius (from nesting area) of Brown-headed Cowbird females was 4.0 kilometers in California, 1.2 kilometers in Illinois-Missouri (Thompson 1994). Yellow-headed Blackbirds, Brewer's Blackbirds, and probably Red-winged Blackbirds all forage up to 1.6 kilometers away from breeding colony (Willson 1966, Horn 1968). In one study, Brewer's Blackbirds were found as far as 10 kilometers from nesting area (Williams 1952), but this may be unusual.

For swallows and other parrerines with similar behavioral ecology, separation distance pertains to nest sites or nesting colonies, not to locations of foraging individuals. For example, nesting areas separated by a gap of more than 5 km are different occurrences, regardless of the foraging locations of individuals from those nesting areas. This separation procedure is appropriate because nesting areas are the critical aspect of swallow breeding occurrences, tend to be relatively stable or at least somwhat predictable in general location, and so are the basis for effective conservation; foraging areas are much more flexible and not necessarily static.

Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.

Unsuitable habitat: Habitat not normally used for breeding/feeding by a particular species. For example, unsuitable habitat for grassland and shrubland birds includes forest/woodland, urban/suburban, and aquatic habitats. Most habitats would be suitable for birds with versatile foraging habits (e.g., most corvids).

Date: 10Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.

Use Class: Migratory stopover
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Roost Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: For most passerines: Evidence of recurring presence of migrating individuals (including historical) and potential recurring presence at a given location; minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds in appropriate habitat.

For swallows: Evidence of recurring presence of migrating flocks (including historical) and potential recurring presence at a given location; minimally a reliable observation of 100 birds in appropriate habitat (e.g., traditional roost sites).

Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually.

EOs should not be described for species that are nomadic during nonbreeding season: e.g., Lark Bunting.

Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.

Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary but intended to define occurrences of managable size for conservation purposes. Occurrences defined primarily on the basis of areas supporting concentrations of birds, rather than on the basis of distinct populations.

For swallows and other species with similar behavioral ecology, the separation distance pertains to communal roost sites rather than to foraging areas; the former tend to be more stable and specific over time than the latter.

Date: 03Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G., and S. Cannings

Use Class: Nonbreeding
Subtype(s): Foraging Area, Roost Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Any area used traditionally in the nonbreeding season (used for populations that are not resident in a location year-round). Minimally, reliable observations of 10 or more individuals in appropriate habitat for 20 or more days at a time. For G1-G3 species, observations of fewer individuals could constitute an occurrence of conservation value. Sites used during migration should be documented under the 'migratory stopover' location use class.

Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance is necessarily arbitrary but attempts to balance the high mobility of birds with the need for occurrences of reasonable spatial scope. Note that a population's roost sites and foraging areas are parts of the same occurrence, even if they are more than 5 km apart.

For swallows and other species with similar behavioral ecology, the separation distance pertains to communal roost sites rather than to foraging areas; the former tend to be more stable and specific over time than the latter.

Date: 03Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.

Use Class: Nonmigratory
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a particular location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals in or near appropriate habitat.

These occurrence specifications are used for nonmigratory populations of passerine birds.

Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Significant dispersal and associated high potential for gene flow among populations of birds separated by tens of kilometers (e.g., Moore and Dolbeer 1989), and increasing evidence that individuals leave their usual home range to engage in extrapair copulations, as well as long foraging excursions of some species, make it difficult to circumscribe occurrences on the basis of meaningful population units without occurrences becoming too large. Hence, a moderate, standardized separation distance has been adopted for songbirds and flycatchers; it should yield occurrences that are not too spatially expansive while also accounting for the likelihood of gene flow among populations within a few kilometers of each other.

Be careful not to separate a population's nesting areas and breeding-season foraging areas as different occurrences; include them in the same occurrence even if they are more than 5 km apart. Blue jays have small summer home ranges but fly up to 4 kilometers to harvest mast (Tarvin and Woolfenden 1999). Flocks of pinyon jays range over 21-29 square kilometers (Ligon 1971, Balda and Bateman 1971); nesting and foraging areas may be widely separated. Tricolored blackbirds forage in flocks that range widely to more than 15 kilometers from the nesting colony (Beedy and Hamilton 1999).

Unsuitable habitat: Habitat not normally used for breeding/feeding by a particular species. For example, unsuitable habitat for grassland and shrubland birds includes forest/woodland, urban/suburban, and aquatic habitats. Most habitats would be suitable for birds with versatile foraging habits (e.g., most corvids).

Date: 10Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Notes: These specs pertain to nonmigratory species.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 14Dec1994
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): HAMMERSON, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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NatureServe. 2018. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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