Parascalops breweri - (Bachman, 1842)
Hairy-tailed Mole
Other English Common Names: hairy-tailed mole
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Parascalops breweri (Bachman, 1842) (TSN 179977)
French Common Names: taupe à queue velue
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.103941
Element Code: AMABB03010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Mammals - Other Mammals
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Mammalia Soricomorpha Talpidae Parascalops
Genus Size: A - Monotypic genus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.
Concept Reference Code: B93WIL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Parascalops breweri
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 04Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 04Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Sep1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N4N5 (01Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Connecticut (S5), Georgia (S1), Kentucky (S4), Maine (S5), Maryland (S4), Massachusetts (S5), New Hampshire (S5), New Jersey (SU), New York (S5), North Carolina (S4), Ohio (SNR), Pennsylvania (S5), South Carolina (S2?), Tennessee (S3), Vermont (S4), Virginia (S5), West Virginia (S5)
Canada Ontario (S4), Quebec (S4)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Primarily in northeastern U.S. and southern Ontario. Range extends south to Great Smoky Mountains region.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Primarily in northeastern U.S. and southern Ontario. Range extends south to Great Smoky Mountains region.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CT, GA, KY, MA, MD, ME, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, SC, TN, VA, VT, WV
Canada ON, QC

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: Sechrest, 2002


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
GA Rabun (13241), Towns (13281)
NC Macon (37113)*
SC Greenville (45045), Oconee (45073)*, Pickens (45077)*
TN Blount (47009)*, Campbell (47013), Carter (47019), Claiborne (47025)*, Cocke (47029), Greene (47059), Hawkins (47073), Johnson (47091), Morgan (47129), Sevier (47155)*, Sullivan (47163), Unicoi (47171)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Upper Broad (03050105)+, Saluda (03050109)+*, Seneca (03060101)+*, Tugaloo (03060102)+
05 South Fork Cumberland (05130104)+
06 North Fork Holston (06010101)+, South Fork Holston (06010102)+, Watauga (06010103)+, Holston (06010104)+, Upper French Broad (06010105)+, Lower French Broad (06010107)+*, Nolichucky (06010108)+, Watts Bar Lake (06010201)+*, Upper Little Tennessee (06010202)+, Tuckasegee (06010203)+*, Lower Little Tennessee (06010204)+*, Upper Clinch (06010205)+, Powell (06010206)+*, Emory (06010208)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Breeding: March-April. Gestation lasts 4 weeks. Litter size: 4-5. Young are born in April-May. Usually 1 litter annually. Sexual maturity is attained 11 months after birth.
Ecology Comments: Home range is about 0.2 acres, expands in summer. Densities vary from 1.2 to ll per acre (Eadie 1939).
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Hardwood, Grassland/herbaceous, Old field, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Hardwood
Special Habitat Factors: Burrowing in or using soil
Habitat Comments: Deciduous woodlands with thick humus. Adapted to second growth stands, old fields, hedgerows. Prefers well-drained, light, moist soil with well-mixed organic matter and minerals. Avoids soils that are hard, dry, or with a large clay content. Two tunnel systems are constructed. Deeper system (10-18" deep) gives resting, breeding space, and winter shelter. Males leave tunnel systems in search of females in breeding season.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Primarily soil invertebrates; earthworms, insect larvae, and pupae comprise approximately two-thirds of diet.
Adult Phenology: Circadian
Immature Phenology: Circadian
Length: 17 centimeters
Weight: 64 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Moles

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals in appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Barriers: Major rivers; arbitrarily set at rivers wider than 50 meters at low water. However, some moles are relatively strong, active swimmers; most notably the Star-nosed Mole, CONDYLURA CRISTATA.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 3 km
Separation Justification: Although home ranges of moles are relatively small, dispersal distances can be surprisingly large. Maximum documented dispersal distances for young Scapanus townsendii were 0.72 kilometers (males) and 0.86 kilometers (females) (see Carraway et al. 1993). Some dispersers crossed roads, but dispersal distance was largest in suitable habitat. Since documented distances surely underestimate actual dispersal patterns, these data suggest that the separation distance for suitable habitat should be greater than 1 km. Despite the fossorial habits of moles, it seems unlikely that locations separated by a gap of less than a few kilometers of suitable habitat would represent independent occurrences over the long term.


Home ranges: for SCAPANUS ORARIUS, average for males 0.12 hectares, average for females 0.15 to 0.35 hectares (Hartman and Yates 1985); for CONDYLURA CRISTATA, about 0.4 hectares (Nowak 1991).

Date: 10Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G. and S. Cannings
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 15Sep1988

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Allsbrooks. D.W. et al. 1983. Notes on the hairy-tailed mole (Parascalops breweri) in the Cumberland Mountains of Tennessee. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Sciences 58(1-2);

  • Aquin, P. 1999. Évaluation de la situation des groupes taxonomiques des mammifères du Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune. 5 pages.

  • Banfield, A. W. F. 1974. The mammals of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Canada. 438 pp.

  • Bradley, R.D., L.K. Ammerman, R.J. Baker, L.C. Bradley, J.A. Cook. R.C. Dowler, C. Jones, D.J. Schmidly, F.B. Stangl Jr., R.A. Van den Bussche and B. Würsig. 2014. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 2014. Museum of Texas Tech University Occasional Papers 327:1-28. Available at: http://www.nsrl.ttu.edu/publications/opapers/ops/OP327.pdf

  • Burns, J.A. 1983. Parascalops breweri - new northern limit. Ont. Field Biol. 37(2): 96.

  • Carraway, L. N., L. F. Alexander, and B. J. Verts. 1993. SCAPANUS TOWNSENDII. Mammalian Species 434:1-7.

  • Chambers, R.E. 1983. Integrating timber and wildlife management. State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation.

  • Connor, P.F. 1960. The small mammals of Otsego and Schoharie Counties, New York. N.Y.S. Museum and Science Service Bull. 382. 84 pp.

  • Connor, P.F. 1966. The mammals of the Tug Hill Plateau, New York. New York State Museum and Science Service Bulletin. 406. 82 pp.

  • Connor, P.F. 1971. The mammals of Long Island, New York. NYS Museum and Science Service Bull. 416. 78 pp.

  • DeGraaf, R. M. and D. R. Rudis. 1986. New England wildlife: habitat, natural history, and distribution. Univ. Mass. Press. Amherst, MA. 491 pp.

  • Dobbyn, J.S. 1994. Atlas of the Mammals of Ontario. Federation of Ontario Naturalists, Don Mills, Ontario. 120 pp.

  • Eadie, W.R. 1939. A contribution to the biology of Parasca- lops breweri. Jour. Mamm. 20:150-173.

  • Eagar, D.C. and Hatcher, R.M. (editors). 1980. Tennessee's Rare Wildlife - Volume 1: The Vertebrates.

  • Godin, A. J. 1977. Wild mammals of New England. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 304 pp.

  • Gordon, D.C. 1986. Mammals of Jefferson and Lewis counties, New York. Humphrey Press, Canandaigua, N.Y. 135 pp.

  • Gorman, M. L., and R. D. Stone. 1990. The natural history of moles. Cornell Univ. Press. 208 pp.

  • Hall, E. R. 1981a. The Mammals of North America, second edition. Vols. I & II. John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York. 1181 pp.

  • Hall, E. Raymond and Keith R. Kelson. 1959. The Mammals of North America. The Ronald Press Company, New York. 1083 pp.

  • Hallett, J. G. 1978. Parascalops breweri. Mammalian Species 98. 4 pp

  • Hallt, J.G. 1978. Hairy-tailed mole. Am. Soc. Mamm., Mammalian Species No. 98. 4 pp.

  • Hamilton, W. J., Jr., and J. O. Whitaker, Jr. 1979. Mammals of the eastern United States. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, New York. 346 pp.

  • Hamilton, W.J., Jr. and J.O. Whitaker, Jr. 1979. Mammals of the eastern United States. Cornell University Press. Ithaca, New York. 346 pp.

  • Hartman, G. D., and T. L. Yates. 1985. SCAPANUS ORARIUS. American Society Mammalogists, Mammalian Species No. 253:1-5.

  • Jackson, H. H. T. 1915. A review of the American moles. North American Fauna 38:1-100.

  • Kurta, Allen. 1995. Mammals of the Great Lakes Region. The University of Michigan Press. 376 pp.

  • Linzey, D.W. 2016. Mammals of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: 2016 revision. Southeastern Naturalist 15(Monograph 8):1?93.

  • Merritt, J.F. 1987. Guide to the Mammals of Pennsylvania. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 408 pp. B87MER01PAUS.

  • New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Checklist of the amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals of New York State, including their protective status. Nongame Unit, Wildlife Resources Center, Delmar, NY.

  • Nowak, R. M. 1991. Walker's mammals of the world. Fifth edition. Vols. I and II. Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore. 1629 pp.

  • Parks Canada. 2000. Vertebrate Species Database. Ecosystems Branch, 25 Eddy St., Hull, PQ, K1A 0M5.

  • Rohling, J. 1985. Life in the dark line. Wildlife in North Carolina 49(5):

  • Smith, C.R. et al. 1974. The mammals of northeastern Tennessee. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science 49(3):88-94

  • Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 1993. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. xviii + 1206 pp. Available online at: http://www.nmnh.si.edu/msw/.

  • van Zyll de Jong, C.G. 1983. Handbook of Canadian mammals. 1. Marsupials and insectivores. National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museums of Canada, Ottawa, Canada. 210 pp.

  • van Zyll de Yong, C.G. 1983. Handbook of Canadian Mammals. Volume 1: Marsupials and Insectivores. National Museums of Canada, National Museum of Natural Science, Ottawa. 212 pp.

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