Pandion haliaetus - (Linnaeus, 1758)
Other English Common Names: osprey
Other Common Names: Águia-Pesqueira
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Pandion haliaetus (Linnaeus, 1758) (TSN 175590)
French Common Names: balbuzard pêcheur
Spanish Common Names: Gavilán Pescador, Águila Pescadora
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.105808
Element Code: ABNKC01010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Other Birds
Image 11114

© Jeff Nadler

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Accipitriformes Pandionidae Pandion
Genus Size: A - Monotypic genus
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online:
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Pandion haliaetus
Taxonomic Comments: Previously considered a subfamily of the Accipitridae (AOU 1998), the Osprey is returned to family status because of its genetic and morphological distinctiveness (AOU 2010 and references cited therein).
Conservation Status

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 09Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 22Nov1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Very large range; increasing population trend in many areas where formerly depleted by effects of pesticides; benefiting from active management in many areas; pesticide-related problems still exist in some areas.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5B,N4N (05Jan1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5B,N5N,N5M (08Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S4), Alaska (S3S4B), Arizona (S2B,S4N), Arkansas (S1B,S4N), California (S4), Colorado (S3B), Connecticut (S4B), Delaware (S3B), District of Columbia (S2S3N), Florida (S3S4), Georgia (S3), Hawaii (SNA), Idaho (S4B), Illinois (S1), Indiana (S1B), Iowa (S3N), Kansas (S3N), Kentucky (S3S4B), Louisiana (S3), Maine (S5B), Maryland (S4B), Massachusetts (S4B,S5M), Michigan (S4), Minnesota (S4S5B), Mississippi (S3B,S1S2N), Missouri (S2), Montana (S5B), Navajo Nation (S3N), Nebraska (SNRN), Nevada (S1B,S3M), New Hampshire (S3B), New Jersey (S2B), New Mexico (S2B,S4N), New York (S4B), North Carolina (S4B), North Dakota (SU), Ohio (SH), Oklahoma (S2N), Oregon (S4), Pennsylvania (S2B), Rhode Island (S2B,S2N), South Carolina (S4), South Dakota (S1B), Tennessee (S3B), Texas (S4), Utah (S4B), Vermont (S3B), Virginia (S4), Washington (S4B), West Virginia (S2B), Wisconsin (S4B), Wyoming (S3B)
Canada Alberta (S4B), British Columbia (S5B), Labrador (S4B,SUM), Manitoba (S4S5B), New Brunswick (S4S5B,S5M), Newfoundland Island (S4S5B,SUM), Northwest Territories (S4?B), Nova Scotia (S4B), Nunavut (SUB,SUM), Ontario (S5B), Prince Edward Island (S5B), Quebec (S4S5), Saskatchewan (S4B,S3M), Yukon Territory (S1B)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species Protection Status (CITES): Appendix II

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Ospreys breed throughout much of the world (not in South America). In the New World, they nest from northwestern Alaska across boreal Canada to Labrador and Newfoundland, and south to Baja California, northwestern mainland Mexico, Yucatan Peninsula, Belize, U.S. Gulf Coast, Florida, and the West Indies. During the northern winter, ospreys in the New World range from California, the U.S. Gulf Coast, and Bermuda south through Central America to South America. In the U.S., primary wintering areas include central California, southern Texas, the Gulf coast, and southern Florida, though the winter range also includes other areas in the southern and southeastern U.S. and various inland sites (Root 1988). The species is also widespread in the Old World (AOU 1998).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

Population Size: 10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Global population unknown. Nesting numbers in the conterminous U.S. have been estimated at 8,000 pairs (Henny 1983). Estimated number of breeding pairs in Canada in the early 1990s was estimated at 10,000-12,000 (Kirk et al. 1995).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Now recovering in many areas following severe declines resulting from organochlorine biocide use. A primary threat is the continued use of organochlorines in Central and South America (Henny and Anthony 1989, Evans 1982). Also, organochlorines and other contaminants still are contributing to eggshell thinning and low hatching success in populations nesting around Delaware Bay (Steidl et al. 1991). Other human-related causes of death in the eastern United States include included gunshots, steel traps, impact with or electrocution by high-tension wires, and being caught or drowned in nets (Wiemeyer et al. 1980, cited in Henny and Anthony 1989).

Short-term Trend: Increase of >10%
Short-term Trend Comments: Population increases and range expansions have been documented for many areas in the United States (Henny and Anthony 1989). These increases are believed to be due, at least in part, to reduced use of pesticides that apparently caused population declines in the 1960s and 1970s. Osprey populations now appear to be reoccupying their historical habitat and, in some areas, have expanded their range to include habitats around new reservoirs. Some other areas have experienced local declines where nesting habitat has been lost or fish populations have declined (Henny and Anthony 1989). A significant increase was recorded in migration counts in northeastern North America, 1972-1987 (Titus and Fuller 1990). See Henny (1986) for regional status in North America; Vahle et al. (1988) for status in the southwestern U.S. Increased in Canada in the 1980s and early 1990s (Kirk et al. 1995, Ewins 1995). Increasing in Utah (Monson 1996, Great Basin Naturalist 56:150-156).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Ospreys breed throughout much of the world (not in South America). In the New World, they nest from northwestern Alaska across boreal Canada to Labrador and Newfoundland, and south to Baja California, northwestern mainland Mexico, Yucatan Peninsula, Belize, U.S. Gulf Coast, Florida, and the West Indies. During the northern winter, ospreys in the New World range from California, the U.S. Gulf Coast, and Bermuda south through Central America to South America. In the U.S., primary wintering areas include central California, southern Texas, the Gulf coast, and southern Florida, though the winter range also includes other areas in the southern and southeastern U.S. and various inland sites (Root 1988). The species is also widespread in the Old World (AOU 1998).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, HI, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NN, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, NU, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002; WILDSPACETM 2002; WWF-US, 2000

U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Baldwin (01003), Elmore (01051), Jackson (01071), Lauderdale (01077), Marshall (01095), Mobile (01097), Montgomery (01101)
AR Howard (05061)
AZ Apache (04001), Coconino (04005), Gila (04007), Greenlee (04011), Maricopa (04013), Navajo (04017), Pima (04019), Santa Cruz (04023)
CA Butte (06007), Colusa (06011), Del Norte (06015), El Dorado (06017), Fresno (06019), Glenn (06021), Humboldt (06023), Inyo (06027), Lake (06033), Lassen (06035), Marin (06041)*, Mendocino (06045), Merced (06047), Modoc (06049), Mono (06051), Napa (06055), Nevada (06057), Orange (06059), Placer (06061), Plumas (06063), Riverside (06065), San Bernardino (06071), San Diego (06073), San Joaquin (06077), Santa Clara (06085), Santa Cruz (06087), Shasta (06089), Siskiyou (06093), Solano (06095), Sonoma (06097), Tehama (06103), Trinity (06105), Tuolumne (06109)
CT Hartford (09003)*, Middlesex (09007), New Haven (09009), New London (09011)
FL Alachua (12001), Bay (12005), Brevard (12009), Charlotte (12015), Citrus (12017), Clay (12019), Collier (12021), Columbia (12023), Duval (12031), Escambia (12033), Franklin (12037), Gadsden (12039), Gulf (12045), Hillsborough (12057), Indian River (12061), Jackson (12063), Lake (12069), Lee (12071), Leon (12073), Levy (12075), Manatee (12081), Marion (12083), Martin (12085), Miami-Dade (12086), Monroe (12087), Nassau (12089), Okaloosa (12091), Osceola (12097), Palm Beach (12099), Pasco (12101), Pinellas (12103), Polk (12105), Putnam (12107), Santa Rosa (12113), Sarasota (12115), Seminole (12117), St. Johns (12109), St. Lucie (12111), Sumter (12119), Taylor (12123), Volusia (12127), Wakulla (12129)
ID Ada (16001), Adams (16003), Bannock (16005), Bear Lake (16007), Benewah (16009), Bingham (16011), Blaine (16013), Boise (16015), Bonner (16017), Bonneville (16019), Boundary (16021), Butte (16023), Camas (16025), Canyon (16027), Caribou (16029), Cassia (16031), Clark (16033), Clearwater (16035), Custer (16037), Elmore (16039), Franklin (16041), Fremont (16043), Gem (16045), Gooding (16047), Idaho (16049), Jefferson (16051), Jerome (16053), Kootenai (16055), Latah (16057), Lemhi (16059), Lewis (16061), Madison (16065), Minidoka (16067), Nez Perce (16069), Owyhee (16073), Payette (16075), Power (16077), Shoshone (16079), Teton (16081), Twin Falls (16083), Valley (16085), Washington (16087)
IL Adams (17001)*, Alexander (17003), Clinton (17027), Cook (17031), DuPage (17043), Fayette (17051), Fulton (17057), Jefferson (17081), Kane (17089), Kendall (17093), Lake (17097), Mason (17125), Massac (17127), Mchenry (17111), Moultrie (17139), Peoria (17143), Pope (17151), Shelby (17173), Will (17197), Winnebago (17201), Woodford (17203)
IN Clark (18019), Crawford (18025), De Kalb (18033), Dubois (18037), Elkhart (18039), Fayette (18041), Franklin (18047), Fulton (18049), Greene (18055), Hamilton (18057), Hendricks (18063), Henry (18065), Jackson (18071), Jasper (18073), Jennings (18079), Kosciusko (18085), La Porte (18091), Lagrange (18087), Lake (18089), Marion (18097)*, Marshall (18099), Martin (18101), Morgan (18109)*, Newton (18111), Noble (18113), Orange (18117), Parke (18121), Posey (18129), St. Joseph (18141), Starke (18149), Steuben (18151), Sullivan (18153), Union (18161), Warrick (18173), Wayne (18177), Whitley (18183)
KY Ballard (21007), Calloway (21035), Greenup (21089), Hopkins (21107), Jefferson (21111), Livingston (21139), Lyon (21143), Marshall (21157), McCracken (21145), Menifee (21165), Muhlenberg (21177), Ohio (21183), Pendleton (21191), Trigg (21221)
LA Grant (22043), Iberville (22047)*, Lafourche (22057), Natchitoches (22069), Plaquemines (22075), Rapides (22079), Red River (22081), St. John the Baptist (22095), St. Martin (22099), St. Tammany (22103), Winn (22127)*
MA Barnstable (25001), Bristol (25005), Dukes (25007), Essex (25009), Nantucket (25019), Plymouth (25023)
MI Alger (26003), Allegan (26005), Alpena (26007), Antrim (26009), Baraga (26013), Barry (26015), Benzie (26019), Berrien (26021), Calhoun (26025), Charlevoix (26029), Cheboygan (26031), Chippewa (26033), Clare (26035)*, Clinton (26037), Crawford (26039), Delta (26041), Dickinson (26043), Emmet (26047), Genesee (26049), Gogebic (26053), Grand Traverse (26055), Gratiot (26057), Hillsdale (26059), Houghton (26061)*, Ionia (26067), Iosco (26069), Iron (26071), Isabella (26073)*, Jackson (26075), Kalamazoo (26077), Kalkaska (26079), Kent (26081), Keweenaw (26083), Lapeer (26087), Lenawee (26091), Livingston (26093), Luce (26095), Mackinac (26097), Macomb (26099), Manistee (26101), Marquette (26103), Mecosta (26107), Menominee (26109)*, Missaukee (26113), Monroe (26115), Montmorency (26119), Muskegon (26121)*, Newaygo (26123), Oakland (26125), Ogemaw (26129), Osceola (26133), Presque Isle (26141)*, Roscommon (26143), Schoolcraft (26153), St. Clair (26147), Washtenaw (26161), Wayne (26163), Wexford (26165)
MO Carter (29035)*, Cedar (29039), Dade (29057), Henry (29083), Polk (29167), Randolph (29175)
MS Alcorn (28003), Bolivar (28011)*, Choctaw (28019)*, Clay (28025), Grenada (28043), Harrison (28047), Issaquena (28055)*, Itawamba (28057), Jackson (28059), Lee (28081)*, Lincoln (28085), Lowndes (28087), Madison (28089)*, Panola (28107), Rankin (28121)*, Sharkey (28125)*, Tishomingo (28141), Warren (28149), Yalobusha (28161)
ND McLean (38055)*, Mercer (38057)*, Walsh (38099)*
NH Belknap (33001), Carroll (33003), Cheshire (33005), Coos (33007), Grafton (33009), Hillsborough (33011), Merrimack (33013), Rockingham (33015), Strafford (33017)
NJ Atlantic (34001), Bergen (34003), Burlington (34005), Cape May (34009), Cumberland (34011), Essex (34013), Gloucester (34015), Hudson (34017), Hunterdon (34019), Mercer (34021), Middlesex (34023), Monmouth (34025), Morris (34027), Ocean (34029), Passaic (34031), Salem (34033), Somerset (34035), Sussex (34037), Warren (34041)
NM Dona Ana (35013), Otero (35035), Socorro (35053)
NV Carson City (32510), Douglas (32005), Washoe (32031)
OH Ashland (39005)*, Ashtabula (39007)*, Butler (39017)*, Carroll (39019)*, Clinton (39027)*, Columbiana (39029)*, Delaware (39041)*, Erie (39043)*, Fayette (39047)*, Franklin (39049)*, Geauga (39055)*, Greene (39057)*, Guernsey (39059)*, Harrison (39067)*, Jefferson (39081)*, Knox (39083)*, Mahoning (39099)*, Marion (39101)*, Medina (39103)*, Meigs (39105)*, Monroe (39111)*, Muskingum (39119)*, Noble (39121)*, Pickaway (39129)*, Portage (39133)*, Stark (39151)*, Summit (39153)*, Trumbull (39155)*, Tuscarawas (39157)*, Warren (39165)*
PA Armstrong (42005)*, Beaver (42007), Bucks (42017), Butler (42019), Carbon (42025), Chester (42029)*, Clarion (42031)*, Clearfield (42033), Crawford (42039), Dauphin (42043), Delaware (42045), Elk (42047), Lancaster (42071), Luzerne (42079), McKean (42083), Mercer (42085), Monroe (42089), Northampton (42095), Philadelphia (42101), Pike (42103), Somerset (42111), Tioga (42117), Venango (42121), Wayne (42127), Westmoreland (42129), Wyoming (42131)*, York (42133)
SD Custer (46033), Fall River (46047), Grant (46051), Lawrence (46081), Pennington (46103), Roberts (46109)
TN Blount (47009), Cocke (47029), Greene (47059)*, Hamilton (47065), Hawkins (47073), Humphreys (47085), Knox (47093), Lake (47095)*, Loudon (47105), Marion (47115), Meigs (47121), Monroe (47123), Obion (47131)*, Rhea (47143), Roane (47145), Stewart (47161), Sullivan (47163), Sumner (47165), Wilson (47189)
UT Box Elder (49003), Cache (49005), Daggett (49009), Duchesne (49013), Garfield (49017)*, Kane (49025), Morgan (49029), Salt Lake (49035), Sevier (49041)*, Summit (49043), Uintah (49047), Utah (49049), Wasatch (49051), Weber (49057)
WA Asotin (53003), Benton (53005), Chelan (53007), Clallam (53009), Clark (53011), Cowlitz (53015), Douglas (53017), Ferry (53019), Franklin (53021), Grant (53025), Grays Harbor (53027), Island (53029), Jefferson (53031), King (53033), Kitsap (53035), Kittitas (53037), Klickitat (53039), Lewis (53041), Lincoln (53043), Mason (53045), Okanogan (53047), Pacific (53049), Pend Oreille (53051), Pierce (53053), San Juan (53055), Skagit (53057), Skamania (53059), Snohomish (53061), Spokane (53063), Stevens (53065), Thurston (53067), Wahkiakum (53069), Walla Walla (53071), Whatcom (53073), Yakima (53077)
WV Berkeley (54003), Cabell (54011)*, Hancock (54029)*, Jefferson (54037), Lewis (54041), Marshall (54051)*, Mason (54053), Pleasants (54073), Taylor (54091)*, Tyler (54095), Upshur (54097)*, Wayne (54099)*, Wood (54107)
WY Albany (56001), Big Horn (56003), Campbell (56005), Carbon (56007), Converse (56009), Crook (56011), Fremont (56013), Goshen (56015), Hot Springs (56017), Johnson (56019), Laramie (56021), Lincoln (56023), Natrona (56025), Niobrara (56027), Park (56029), Platte (56031), Sheridan (56033), Sublette (56035), Sweetwater (56037), Teton (56039), Uinta (56041), Washakie (56043), Weston (56045)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Upper Androscoggin (01040001)+, Piscataqua-Salmon Falls (01060003)+, Pemigewasset (01070001)+, Merrimack (01070002)+, Contoocook (01070003)+, Nashua (01070004)+, Merrimack (01070006)+, Upper Connecticut (01080101)+, Waits (01080103)+, Lower Connecticut (01080205)+, Charles (01090001)+, Cape Cod (01090002)+, Narragansett (01090004)+, Quinebaug (01100001)+, Thames (01100003)+, Quinnipiac (01100004)+
02 Rondout (02020007)+, Lower Hudson (02030101)+, Hackensack-Passaic (02030103)+, Sandy Hook-Staten Island (02030104)+, Raritan (02030105)+, Long Island Sound (02030203)+, Lackawaxen (02040103)+, Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead (02040104)+, Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105)+, Lehigh (02040106)+, Crosswicks-Neshaminy (02040201)+, Lower Delaware (02040202)+, Schuylkill (02040203)+, Brandywine-Christina (02040205)+*, Cohansey-Maurice (02040206)+, Mullica-Toms (02040301)+, Great Egg Harbor (02040302)+, Tioga (02050104)+, Upper Susquehanna-Tunkhannock (02050106)+*, Upper West Branch Susquehanna (02050201)+, Sinnemahoning (02050202)+, Lower Susquehanna-Swatara (02050305)+, Lower Susquehanna (02050306)+, Conococheague-Opequon (02070004)+, Shenandoah (02070007)+
03 St. Marys (03070204)+, Nassau (03070205)+, Upper St. Johns (03080101)+, Oklawaha (03080102)+, Lower St. Johns (03080103)+, Daytona - St. Augustine (03080201)+, Cape Canaveral (03080202)+, Vero Beach (03080203)+, Kissimmee (03090101)+, Florida Bay-Florida Keys (03090203)+, Big Cypress Swamp (03090204)+, Florida Southeast Coast (03090206)+, Peace (03100101)+, Myakka (03100102)+, Charlotte Harbor (03100103)+, Sarasota Bay (03100201)+, Alafia (03100204)+, Hillsborough (03100205)+, Tampa Bay (03100206)+, Crystal-Pithlachascotee (03100207)+, Withlacoochee (03100208)+, Waccasassa (03110101)+, Econfina-Steinhatchee (03110102)+, Santa Fe (03110206)+, Apalachee Bay-St. Marks (03120001)+, Lower Ochlockonee (03120003)+, Apalachicola (03130011)+, New (03130013)+, Apalachicola Bay (03130014)+, St. Andrew-St. Joseph Bays (03140101)+, Choctawhatchee Bay (03140102)+, Yellow (03140103)+, Pensacola Bay (03140105)+, Perdido Bay (03140107)+, Upper Alabama (03150201)+, Upper Tombigbee (03160101)+, Town (03160102)+*, Tibbee (03160104)+, Noxubee (03160108)+*, Mobile - Tensaw (03160204)+, Mobile Bay (03160205)+, Pascagoula (03170006)+, Escatawpa (03170008)+, Mississippi Coastal (03170009)+, Middle Pearl-Strong (03180002)+*, Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004)+
04 Black-Presque Isle (04020101)+, Ontonagon (04020102)+, Keweenaw Peninsula (04020103)+*, Sturgeon (04020104)+, Dead-Kelsey (04020105)+*, Betsy-Chocolay (04020201)+, Tahquamenon (04020202)+, Waiska (04020203)+, Lake Superior (04020300)+, Brule (04030106)+, Michigamme (04030107)+, Menominee (04030108)+, Cedar-Ford (04030109)+*, Escanaba (04030110)+, Tacoosh-Whitefish (04030111)+, Fishdam-Sturgeon (04030112)+, Little Calumet-Galien (04040001)+, St. Joseph (04050001)+, Kalamazoo (04050003)+, Upper Grand (04050004)+, Maple (04050005)+, Lower Grand (04050006)+, Thornapple (04050007)+, Muskegon (04060102)+, Manistee (04060103)+, Betsie-Platte (04060104)+, Boardman-Charlevoix (04060105)+, Manistique (04060106)+, Brevoort-Millecoquins (04060107)+*, St. Marys (04070001)+, Carp-Pine (04070002)+*, Lone Lake-Ocqueoc (04070003)+, Cheboygan (04070004)+, Black (04070005)+, Thunder Bay (04070006)+, Au Sable (04070007)+, Au Gres-Rifle (04080101)+, Birch-Willow (04080104)+, Tittabawassee (04080201)+*, Pine (04080202)+, Shiawassee (04080203)+, Flint (04080204)+, Lake Huron (04080300)+, St. Clair (04090001)+, Clinton (04090003)+, Detroit (04090004)+, Huron (04090005)+, Ottawa-Stony (04100001)+, Raisin (04100002)+, St. Joseph (04100003)+, Sandusky (04100011)+*, Cuyahoga (04110002)+*, Grand (04110004)+*, Lake Erie (04120200)+
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001)+, Middle Allegheny-Tionesta (05010003)+, French (05010004)+, Clarion (05010005)+, Conemaugh (05010007)+, Kiskiminetas (05010008)+, Tygart Valley (05020001)+*, West Fork (05020002)+, Youghiogheny (05020006)+, Upper Ohio (05030101)+, Shenango (05030102)+, Mahoning (05030103)+*, Connoquenessing (05030105)+, Upper Ohio-Wheeling (05030106)+*, Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201)+, Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202)+, Tuscarawas (05040001)+*, Mohican (05040002)+*, Walhonding (05040003)+*, Muskingum (05040004)+*, Wills (05040005)+*, Upper Scioto (05060001)+*, Lower Scioto (05060002)+*, Paint (05060003)+*, Lower Great Miami (05080002)+*, Whitewater (05080003)+, Raccoon-Symmes (05090101)+*, Twelvepole (05090102)+*, Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103)+, Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201)+, Little Miami (05090202)+*, Licking (05100101)+, Middle Green (05110003)+, Pond (05110006)+, Eel (05120104)+, Tippecanoe (05120106)+, Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108)+, Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111)+, Upper White (05120201)+, Lower White (05120202)+, Driftwood (05120204)+, Upper East Fork White (05120206)+, Muscatatuck (05120207)+, Patoka (05120209)+, Lower Cumberland-Old Hickory Lake (05130201)+, Lower Cumberland (05130205)+, Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101)+, Highland-Pigeon (05140202)+, Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203)+, Tradewater (05140205)+, Lower Ohio (05140206)+
06 South Fork Holston (06010102)+, Holston (06010104)+, Lower French Broad (06010107)+, Nolichucky (06010108)+*, Watts Bar Lake (06010201)+, Lower Little Tennessee (06010204)+, Lower Clinch (06010207)+, Emory (06010208)+, Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001)+, Hiwassee (06020002)+, Guntersville Lake (06030001)+, Pickwick Lake (06030005)+, Kentucky Lake (06040005)+, Lower Tennessee (06040006)+
07 Upper Minnesota (07020001)+, Flambeau (07050002)+*, Upper Wisconsin (07070001)+*, Lower Rock (07090005)+, Bear-Wyaconda (07110001)+*, South Fork Salt (07110006)+, Kankakee (07120001)+, Iroquois (07120002)+, Chicago (07120003)+, Des Plaines (07120004)+, Upper Fox (07120006)+, Lower Fox (07120007)+, Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001)+, Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003)+, Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105)+, Big Muddy (07140106)+, Upper Kaskaskia (07140201)+, Middle Kaskaskia (07140202)+
08 Obion (08010202)+*, Upper Hatchie (08010207)+, Lower Mississippi-Helena (08020100)+*, Lower Mississippi-Greenville (08030100)+, Little Tallahatchie (08030201)+, Tallahatchie (08030202)+, Yalobusha (08030205)+, Big Sunflower (08030207)+*, Deer-Steele (08030209)+, Lower Big Black (08060202)+*, Bayou Pierre (08060203)+, Atchafalaya (08080101)+, Bayou Teche (08080102)+, Lower Mississippi-New Orleans (08090100)+, Liberty Bayou-Tchefuncta (08090201)+, Lake Pontchartrain (08090202)+, East Central Louisiana Coastal (08090301)+, West Central Louisiana Coastal (08090302)+
09 Park (09020310)+*
10 Madison (10020007)+, Yellowstone Headwaters (10070001)+, Clarks Fork Yellowstone (10070006)+, Upper Wind (10080001)+, Little Wind (10080002)+, Popo Agie (10080003)+, Lower Wind (10080005)+, Badwater (10080006)+, Upper Bighorn (10080007)+, Nowood (10080008)+, Greybull (10080009)+, Big Horn Lake (10080010)+, Dry (10080011)+, North Fork Shoshone (10080012)+, South Fork Shoshone (10080013)+, Shoshone (10080014)+, Little Bighorn (10080016)+, Upper Tongue (10090101)+, Middle Fork Powder (10090201)+, Upper Powder (10090202)+, South Fork Powder (10090203)+, Salt (10090204)+, Crazy Woman (10090205)+, Clear (10090206)+, Middle Powder (10090207)+, Little Powder (10090208)+, Upper Little Missouri (10110201)+, Dry Fork Cheyenne (10120102)+, Lance (10120104)+, Lightning (10120105)+, Beaver (10120107)+, Middle Cheyenne-Spring (10120109)+, Rapid (10120110)+, Middle Cheyenne-Elk (10120111)+, Upper Belle Fourche (10120201)+, Lower Belle Fourche (10120202)+, Redwater (10120203)+, Painted Woods-Square Butte (10130101)+*, Upper North Platte (10180002)+, Pathfinder-Seminoe Reservoirs (10180003)+, Medicine Bow (10180004)+, Sweetwater (10180006)+, Middle North Platte-Casper (10180007)+, Glendo Reservoir (10180008)+, Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff (10180009)+, Upper Laramie (10180010)+, Lower Laramie (10180011)+, Horse (10180012)+, Crow (10190009)+, Upper Lodgepole (10190015)+, Little Chariton (10280203)+, Sac (10290106)+, South Grand (10290108)+
11 Current (11010008)+*, Lower Little (11140109)+, Lower Red-Lake Iatt (11140207)+, Saline Bayou (11140208)+*, Black Lake Bayou (11140209)+
13 Jornada Del Muerto (13020210)+, El Paso-Las Cruces (13030102)+, Jornada Draw (13030103)+, Tularosa Valley (13050003)+
14 Upper Green (14040101)+, New Fork (14040102)+, Upper Green-Slate (14040103)+, Big Sandy (14040104)+, Bitter (14040105)+, Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir (14040106)+, Blacks Fork (14040107)+, Muddy (14040108)+, Vermilion (14040109)+, Great Divide closed basin (14040200)+, Little Snake (14050003)+, Muddy (14050004)+, Lower Green-Diamond (14060001)+, Ashley-Brush (14060002)+, Duchesne (14060003)+, Strawberry (14060004)+, Upper Lake Powell (14070001)+, Fremont (14070003)+*
15 Havasu Canyon (15010004)+, Little Colorado headwaters (15020001)+, Silver (15020005)+, Middle Little Colorado (15020008)+, Chevelon Canyon (15020010)+, Canyon Diablo (15020015)+, Middle Gila (15050100)+, Upper Santa Cruz (15050301)+, Brawley Wash (15050304)+, Black (15060101)+, Upper Salt (15060103)+, Tonto (15060105)+, Lower Salt (15060106)+, Upper Verde (15060202)+
16 Upper Bear (16010101)+, Central Bear (16010102)+, Bear Lake (16010201)+, Middle Bear (16010202)+, Little Bear-Logan (16010203)+, Upper Weber (16020101)+, Lower Weber (16020102)+, Utah Lake (16020201)+, Spanish Fork (16020202)+, Provo (16020203)+, Jordan (16020204)+, Upper Sevier (16030001)+*, East Fork Sevier (16030002)+*, Lake Tahoe (16050101)+, Truckee (16050102)+
17 Lower Kootenai (17010104)+, Moyie (17010105)+, Lower Clark Fork (17010213)+, Pend Oreille Lake (17010214)+, Priest (17010215)+, Pend Oreille (17010216)+, Upper Coeur D'alene (17010301)+, South Fork Coeur D'alene (17010302)+, Coeur D'alene Lake (17010303)+, St. Joe (17010304)+, Upper Spokane (17010305)+, Hangman (17010306)+, Lower Spokane (17010307)+, Little Spokane (17010308)+, Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake (17020001)+, Kettle (17020002)+, Colville (17020003)+, Sanpoil (17020004)+, Chief Joseph (17020005)+, Okanogan (17020006)+, Methow (17020008)+, Lake Chelan (17020009)+, Upper Columbia-Entiat (17020010)+, Wenatchee (17020011)+, Upper Crab (17020013)+, Lower Crab (17020015)+, Upper Yakima (17030001)+, Naches (17030002)+, Lower Yakima, Washington (17030003)+, Snake headwaters (17040101)+, Gros Ventre (17040102)+, Greys-Hobock (17040103)+, Palisades (17040104)+, Salt (17040105)+, Idaho Falls (17040201)+, Upper Henrys (17040202)+, Lower Henrys (17040203)+, Teton (17040204)+, Willow (17040205)+, American Falls (17040206)+, Blackfoot (17040207)+, Portneuf (17040208)+, Lake Walcott (17040209)+, Upper Snake-Rock (17040212)+, Salmon Falls (17040213)+, Beaver-Camas (17040214)+, Birch (17040216)+, Big Lost (17040218)+, Big Wood (17040219)+, Camas (17040220)+, Little Wood (17040221)+, C. J. Idaho (17050101)+, Bruneau (17050102)+, Middle Snake-Succor (17050103)+, Middle Owyhee (17050107)+, Jordan (17050108)+, Boise-Mores (17050112)+, South Fork Boise (17050113)+, Lower Boise (17050114)+, Middle Snake-Payette (17050115)+, South Fork Payette (17050120)+, Middle Fork Payette (17050121)+, Payette (17050122)+, North Fork Payette (17050123)+, Weiser (17050124)+, Brownlee Reservoir (17050201)+, Hells Canyon (17060101)+, Lower Snake-Asotin (17060103)+, Lower Snake-Tucannon (17060107)+, Palouse (17060108)+, Rock (17060109)+, Lower Snake (17060110)+, Upper Salmon (17060201)+, Middle Salmon-Panther (17060203)+, Lemhi (17060204)+, Upper Middle Fork Salmon (17060205)+, Lower Middle Fork Salmon (17060206)+, Middle Salmon-Chamberlain (17060207)+, South Fork Salmon (17060208)+, Lower Salmon (17060209)+, Little Salmon (17060210)+, Upper Selway (17060301)+, Lower Selway (17060302)+, Lochsa (17060303)+, Middle Fork Clearwater (17060304)+, South Fork Clearwater (17060305)+, Clearwater (17060306)+, Upper North Fork Clearwater (17060307)+, Lower North Fork Clearwater (17060308)+, Middle Columbia-Lake Wallula (17070101)+, Walla Walla (17070102)+, Middle Columbia-Hood (17070105)+, Klickitat (17070106)+, Lower Columbia-Sandy (17080001)+, Lewis (17080002)+, Lower Columbia-Clatskanie (17080003)+, Upper Cowlitz (17080004)+, Lower Cowlitz (17080005)+, Lower Willamette (17090012)+, Hoh-Quillayute (17100101)+, Queets-Quinault (17100102)+, Upper Chehalis (17100103)+, Lower Chehalis (17100104)+, Grays Harbor (17100105)+, Willapa Bay (17100106)+, Strait of Georgia (17110002)+, San Juan Islands (17110003)+, Nooksack (17110004)+, Upper Skagit (17110005)+, Sauk (17110006)+, Lower Skagit (17110007)+, Stillaguamish (17110008)+, Skykomish (17110009)+, Snoqualmie (17110010)+, Snohomish (17110011)+, Lake Washington (17110012)+, Duwamish (17110013)+, Puyallup (17110014)+, Nisqually (17110015)+, Deschutes (17110016)+, Skokomish (17110017)+, Hood Canal (17110018)+, Puget Sound (17110019)+, Dungeness-Elwha (17110020)+, Crescent-Hoko (17110021)+
18 Smith (18010101)+, Mad-Redwood (18010102)+, Upper Eel (18010103)+, Lower Eel (18010105)+, South Fork Eel (18010106)+, Big-Navarro-Garcia (18010108)+*, Gualala-Salmon (18010109)+*, Russian (18010110)+, Lost (18010204)+, Upper Klamath (18010206)+, Scott (18010208)+, Lower Klamath (18010209)+, Trinity (18010211)+, South Fork Trinity (18010212)+, Goose Lake (18020001)+, Upper Pit (18020002)+, Lower Pit (18020003)+, Sacramento headwaters (18020005)+, Sacramento-Stone Corral (18020104)+, Upper Stony (18020115)+, Upper Cache (18020116)+, North Fork Feather (18020121)+, East Branch North Fork Feather (18020122)+, Middle Fork Feather (18020123)+, North Fork American (18020128)+, Cottonwood Creek (18020152)+, Battle Creek (18020153)+, Clear Creek-Sacramento River (18020154)+, Paynes Creek-Sacramento River (18020155)+, Thomes Creek-Sacramento River (18020156)+, Big Chico Creek-Sacramento River (18020157)+, Butte Creek (18020158)+, Honcut Headwaters-Lower Feather (18020159)+, Upper Coon-Upper Auburn (18020161)+, Upper Putah (18020162)+, Upper San Joaquin (18040006)+, Upper Merced (18040008)+, Upper Tuolumne (18040009)+, Upper Stanislaus (18040010)+, Upper Mokelumne (18040012)+, San Pablo Bay (18050002)+, Coyote (18050003)+, Tomales-Drake Bays (18050005)+*, San Lorenzo-Soquel (18060001)+, Santa Ana (18070203)+, Newport Bay (18070204)+, San Diego (18070304)+, Madeline Plains (18080002)+*, Honey-Eagle Lakes (18080003)+, Mono Lake (18090101)+, Crowley Lake (18090102)+, Mojave (18090208)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
General Description: Ospreys have long narrow wings, dark brown upperparts, white underparts, a white head with a prominent dark eye streak, and dark wrist patches (visible in flight) on the underside of the wings. Immatures have pale buff edging on the dark feathers of the upper surface. Females are more likely than males to have a necklace of dark streaking. Average length 56-64 cm, wingspan 147-183 cm.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Differs from other hawks in having all of the following characteristics: white belly, dark wrist patches, and a white head with a prominent dark eye streak. Other hawks do not habitually plunge feet-first into water to obtain prey.
Reproduction Comments: Nesting phenology varies throughout the range. For example, in Florida, eggs are laid from late November to early March, with a peak from December to mid-January. In the Chesapeake Bay region, ospreys first arrive at nests early to mid-March, lay eggs from late March to mid-May, with a peak in April. In southern New England, ospreys arrive beginning in mid- to late March, and eggs are laid between early April to early June, with a peak in mid- to late April. In east-central Labrador, ospreys arrive around early May, and eggs are laid from mid-May to mid-June.In southeastern British Columbia, ospreys arrive in mid- to late April, with egg laying from early May (peak) to late May.

Clutch size is 1-4 (most often 3). Incubation, usually mainly by the female (male provides food), lasts 5-6 weeks. Young fledge in around 50-60 days and thereafter are dependent on their parents for up to several additional weeks. Individuals first breed usually at 3 years, sometimes at 4-5 years.

Delays in clutch initiation, such as caused when Canada geese occupy nest sites, may cause a reduction in reproductive output (Steeger and Ydenberg, 1993, Can. J. Zool. 71:2141-2146). Number of young fledged increases with increased abundance of food resources. Large numbers may nest in a relatively small area when food resources are adequate and nesting sites are plentiful.

Ecology Comments: Raccoons can be a major source of nesting failure in some areas.
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Breeding populations in northern North America are migratory. They arrive in northern breeding areas March-May, begin southward migration in August, and are generally gone from the north by September-November

In Costa Rica, migration occurs mainly September-October and March-April (Stiles and Skutch 1989). Eastern and midwestern populations winter in northern South America, Caribbean, Central America, U.S.; western populations winter in Mexico, Central America, and northwestern South America (Ewins and Houston 1992).

Marine Habitat(s): Near shore
Estuarine Habitat(s): Bay/sound, Herbaceous wetland, Lagoon, River mouth/tidal river
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, MEDIUM RIVER
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Cliff
Special Habitat Factors: Standing snag/hollow tree
Habitat Comments: Ospreys occur primarily along rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and seacoasts. They often cross land between bodies of water. They typically build large stick nests on living or dead trees and also use numerous man-made structures such as utility poles, wharf pilings, windmills, microwave towers, chimneys, and channel markers (Henny, in Palmer 1988, Campbell et al. 1990). Nests are usually near or above water.

Adult Food Habits: Piscivore
Immature Food Habits: Piscivore
Food Comments: Ospreys eat almost exclusively fishes (see Palmer 1988 for detailed account of food). Species composition of diet may vary greatly from one area to another. Sometimes ospreys eat rodents, birds, other small vertebrates, or crustaceans.

Ospreys capture prey with a feet-first plunge into shallow water, usually by flight hunting, sometimes from perch. Rarely they have been photographed capturing two fishes at once, one in each foot.

Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Length: 64 centimeters
Weight: 1568 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Management Summary
Management Requirements: Management mainly involves erection of nesting platforms, creation of osprey management areas, and/or reintroduction via hacking (reviewed in Henny 1986); also protection of nesting sites in areas subject to logging (see Palmer 1988). See Vahle et al. (1988) and Lefranc and Glinski (1988) for information on research and management needs in the southwestern U.S. See Martin et al. (1986) for specifications for the construction and placement of nesting platforms.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Use Class: Breeding
Subtype(s): Nest site, Foraging Area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of breeding (including historical); and potential recurring breeding at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs with occupied nests in appropriate habitat. Occurrence includes not only the nest sites, but also the surrounding areas used for feeding during the nesting season.
Mapping Guidance: Although separations are based on nest sites, occurrences include nesting areas as well as foraging areas. Foraging areas for different occurrences may overlap.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 20 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 20 km
Separation Justification: Occurrences represent relatively distinct clusters of one or more nest sites and do not necessarily represent demographically distinct populations. Occurrence separation is based on nest sites; nest sites separated by a gap greater than the separation distance represent different occurrences, regardless of foraging areas, which may overlap (individuals may forage up to 8-10 km from the nest) (Garber 1972, French and Koplin 1977).
Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 5 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: A conservative foraging range. See Separation Justification.
Date: 09Sep2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson
Population/Occurrence Viability
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 29Jan2010
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 29Jan2010
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

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