Palaemonetes cummingi - Chace, 1954
Squirrel Chimney Cave Shrimp
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Palaemonetes cummingi Chace, 1954 (TSN 96404)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.112530
Element Code: ICMAL18010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Crustaceans - Other Crustaceans
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Crustacea Malacostraca Decapoda Palaemonidae Palaemonetes
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Williams, A.B., L.G. Abele, D.L. Felder, H.H. Hobbs, Jr., R.B. Manning, P.A. McLaughlin, and I.P. Farlante. 1989a. A List of Common and scientific names of decapod crustaceans from America north of Mexico. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 17: 77 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B89WIL01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Palaemonetes cummingi
Taxonomic Comments: Only cave shrimp known to occur in Florida.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GH
Global Status Last Reviewed: 04Jun2014
Global Status Last Changed: 04Jun2014
Rounded Global Status: GH - Possibly Extinct
Reasons: This species is (or was) known only from the type locality, which is not secure. Its current status as extant has not been verified since 1973, but sufficient unexplored habitat remains that the species can not be presumed to be extinct. As a cave species, it is (or was) probably quite fragile and sensitive to changes in habitat, especially water quality.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1 (21Aug2002)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Florida (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LT: Listed threatened (21Jun1990)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R4 - Southeast
IUCN Red List Category: CR - Critically endangered

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: <100-250 square km (less than about 40-100 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Known only from the type locality: Squirrel Chimney, Alachua County, Florida, USA.

Area of Occupancy: 0-500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Known from one karst window, but unknown how far the species' occurrence in the surrounding aquifer may have extended.

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5
Number of Occurrences Comments: Only one occurrence is known: Squirrel Chimney, Alachua County, Florida, USA. However, no specimens were observed during an October 1992 survey, and there is speculation that the species may be extinct.

Population Size: Zero to 1000 individuals

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: None to very few (0-3)
Viability/Integrity Comments: Because long-term and quantitative data are minimal or non-existent for most troglobitic crustaceans such as this species, there are no specific criteria by which to define a good element occurrence. In lieu of such measures, an occurrence that is observed persistently across many years, that seems to support a large population based on sightings, and that inhabits a site facing no immediate threats will be considered good. Since no recent survey has found the species, it is likely that no good occurrences exist, although this is difficult to confirm since the species may live in habitats that can not be sampled effectively.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Presumably sensitive to degradation of aquifers (pollution), alteration (especially reduction) of detrital flow, and saltwater intrusion that may accompany excessive water withdrawal (for agriculture, industry, and human consumption) or sea level rise. Owner of only known site is aware, but may not be able to provide protection over a large enough area or long enough time period. The 1992 survey also documented continued presence of the redeye chub, Notropis harperi, a potential predator of the shrimp.

Short-term Trend: Unknown
Short-term Trend Comments: Always rare, but even its status as extant is questionable.

Long-term Trend: Decline of >70%
Long-term Trend Comments: Possibly has been extirpated, but can not be certain.

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Highly vulnerable
Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: As a cave species dependent upon detrital flow as well as the quantity and quality of water in the aquifer, it is presumably delicate. Also vulnerable to fish predation.

Environmental Specificity: Very narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements scarce.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Survey to determine if additional occurrences exist. Resurvey Squirrel Chimney frequently to determine if species is still extant there.

Protection Needs: Legal protection of the only known site by land acquisition, including a buffer zone.

Distribution
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Global Range: (<100-250 square km (less than about 40-100 square miles)) Known only from the type locality: Squirrel Chimney, Alachua County, Florida, USA.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single state or province

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FL

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
FL Alachua (12001)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Oklawaha (03080102)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Florida cave shrimp, Palaemonidae.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Subterranean Habitat(s): Subaquatic
Special Habitat Factors: Subterranean obligate
Habitat Comments: Obligate carvernicole; known only from one water-filled cave contiguous with a deep sinkhole. The sinkhole has vertical walls that lead down to groundwater and two small holes open in the face of the sink slightly above the water and lead into a wide fissure (Deyrup and Franz, 1994).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Biological Research Needs: Most aspects of its biology require study. Studies of life history, fecundity, and precise environmental needs would be valuable. Determine population responses to disturbances such as pollution of groundwater and alterations in surface water and detrital flow.
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability
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Justification: Use the Generic Element Occurrence Rank Specifications (2008).
Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 04Jun2014
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Jackson, D. R. (2014, 2002); J. W. Muller (1995)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 23Jan1991
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): FITZPATRICK, J. F.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Deyrup, M. and R. Franz. 1994. Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida, Volume IV. Invertebrates. University Press of Florida: Gainesville, Florida. 798 pp.

  • Doonan, T.J. 2001. Survey of Squirrel Chimney and other selected caves to determine the status of Squirrel Chimney cave shrimp (Palaemonetes cummingi). Final Performance Report, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Tallahassee, Florida, USA. 44 pp.

  • Franz, R. (ed.) 1982. Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida: Volume Six: Invertebrates. University Press of Florida: Gainesville, Florida. 131 pp.

  • Franz, R., J. Bauer, and T. Morris. 1994. Review of biologically significant caves and their faunas in Florida and south Georgia. Brimleyana 20:1-109.

  • Hobbs, H.H., Jr. H.H. Hobbs III, and M.A. Daniel. 1977. A review of the troglobitic decapod Crustaceans of the Americas. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 244: 1-183.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1989a. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; animal notice of review. Federal Register, Department of the Interior 54(4): 554-579.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1998. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; 90-day finding for a petition to delist the Squirrel Chimney cave shrimp. Fed. Register 63(235):67618-67619.

  • Williams, A.B., L.G. Abele, D.L. Felder, H.H. Hobbs, Jr., R.B. Manning, P.A. McLaughlin, and I.P. Farlante. 1989a. A List of Common and scientific names of decapod crustaceans from America north of Mexico. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 17: 77 pp.

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