Paederia foetida - L.
Skunk Vine
Other English Common Names: Chinese Fevervine, Stinkvine
Other Common Names: Maile pilau, stinkvine
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Paederia foetida L. (TSN 35085)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.139569
Element Code: PDRUB1A010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Madder Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Rubiales Rubiaceae Paederia
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Paederia foetida
Taxonomic Comments: Synonyms (from Puff 1991b) include:

Apocynum foetidum Burm.;

Gentiana scandens Lour.;

Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merrill;

Paederia sessiliflora Poir.;

Paederia foetida L. var. sessiliflora (Poir.) Baker;

Paederia tomentosa Blume;

Hondbesseion tomentosum (Blume) O. Kuntze;

Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merrill var. tomentosum (Blume) Hand.- Mazz.;

Paederia tomentosa Blume var. glabra Kurze;

Hondbesseion tomentosum (Blume) O. Kuntze var. pubescens O. Kuntze;

Paederia tomentosa Blume f. tenuissima Hayata;

Paederia tomentosa Blume var. angustifolia Nakai;

Paederia amboinensis Miq.;

Paederia ovata Miq.;

Paederia scaberula Miq.;

Paederia barbulata Miq.;

Paederia chinensis Hance;

Paederia chinensis Hance var. insularis Nakai;

Paederia chinensis Hance var. maritima Koidzumi;

Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merrill var. maritima (Koidzumi) Hara;

Paederia chinensis Hance f. microphylla Honda;

Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merrill f. microphylla (Honda) Hara;

Paederia chinensis Hance f. tenuissima Masamune;

Paederia chinensis Hance var. megaphylla Koidzumi;

Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merrill f. megaphylla (Koidzumi) Hara;

Paederia chinensis Hance var. velutina (Nakai) Nakai;

Paederia esquirolii Levl.;

Paederia dunniana Levl.;

Paederia wilsonii Hesse;

Paederia mairei Levl.;

Paederia tomentosa Blume var. mairei (Levl.) Levl.;

Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merrill f. mairei (Levl.) Nakai;

Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merrill var. mairei (Levl.) Hara;

Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merrill var. mairei (Levl.) Hara f. rubescens Asai;

Paederia prainii Gandoger;

Paederia uraiensis Hayata;

Paederia villosa Hayata;

Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merrill var. villosa (Hayata) Masamune;

Paederia stenophylla Merrill;

Paederia laxiflora Merrill ex Li;

Paederia longituba Nakai;

Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merrill var. longituba (Nakai) Hara;

Paederia cavaleriei sensu auctt. non Levl.;

Paederia stenobotrya sensu auctt., non Merrill; (and possibly) Paederia magnifica Noronha, nom. nud.; (and possibly) Paederia corymbosa Noronha, nom. nud.

TAXONOMIC NOTES: Considerable confusion has existed as to the identity of P. foetida (cf. Puff 1991b). In the most basic sense, the name P. foetida has been applied to two different species now placed within two different subgenera of Paederia (Puff 1991a, 1991b). In its original sense, P. foetida L. refers to plants with (sub)globose fruits and unwinged diaspores ("seeds") in the subgenus Paederia (Puff 1991b). The second species, P. cruddasiana Prain, in the subgenus Alatopaederia Puff, has laterally compressed-ovoid (-ellipsoid) fruits and distinctly winged diaspores. Herbarium material of P. cruddasiana is often labeled as P. foetida (Puff 1991b), and examples of this have been found at both the University of Florida and Fairchild Tropical Garden herbaria. P. foetida is widely distributed in SE Asia while P. cruddasiana occurs from N India (N of 15 degrees N latitude), Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan eastwards to SW China N of 20 degrees N latitude, and (P. cruddasiana subsp. microcarpa) southwards to Thailand. Both P. foetida and P. cruddasiana ssp. cruddasiana have been introduced to and are naturalized in Florida. All other Paederia in the United States is apparently P. foetida (sensu Puff 1991b).

Prior to the review of the Puff (1991b) monograph, it was thought that all plants of Paederia in Florida were P. foetida. We have now determined that the naturalized plants of Paederia in Dade County are P. cruddasiana (determination of The Montgomery Foundation plants by George Gann-Matzen, verified by Richard A. Howard [The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University, personal communication to Julia Morton, Morton Collectanea], and of the Matheson Hammock plants by Roger Hammer [Natural Areas Supervisor, Metro-Dade County Department of Parks and Recreation, personal communication]). Apparently this is the only introduced and naturalized population of P. cruddasiana in the United States. Following Puff (1991b), no plants of P. foetida are now known from Dade County, Florida.

It should also be noted that Puff (1991b) has included many specific and infraspecific taxa in P. foetida. Some work should be done to determine which of these taxa (if recognized) is/are represented in the United States, as this may provide additional information on the expected habitats, ecology and phenology of the taxon or taxa present. Both the Hawaiian plants (Wagner et al. 1990) and some Florida plants (University of Florida Herbarium) have been refered to as P. scandens, one of the many taxa included in P. foetida by Puff (1991b). Likewise, it may prove fruitful to determine the original genotypes of the introduced plant materials.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNR
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Florida (SNA), Hawaii (SNA), Louisiana (SNA), South Carolina (SNA), Texas (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: P. foetida is a naturalized exotic pest vine that is well-established in central Florida and is present on three of the main islands of Hawaii. It may also be naturalized in Louisiana; it is doubtfully naturalized in South Carolina (John Nelson, University of South Carolina Herbarium, personal communication).

Global range (modified from Puff 1991b, except where noted): P. foetida is a wide-ranging species of eastern and southern Asia. Its northern limit is approximately 40 degrees N latitude (approximately equivalent to the Maryland-Pennsylvania border), and its southern limit approximately 10 degrees S latitude. It has been introduced to and is naturalized on the Mascarene (Mauritius, Reunion) and the Hawaiian Islands, and in Florida. It has also been introduced (and potentially naturalized) in Louisiana (Puff 1991b), and South Carolina (Radford et al. 1976). It was historically introduced to but is now absent in Sri Lanka (Ceylon). It was presumably introduced to and naturalized on the Bismark Archipelago (east of New Guinea).

Presumed natural range (from Puff 1991b): P. foetida extends from Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu) to Korea (South), China, Taiwan, Indochina and Thailand, reaching its northwestern limit in Burma, Bangladesh (Chittagong), NE India (Arunachal Pradesh, Agaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalya, Assam, northern West Bengal and Sikkim), S Bhutan and the eastern half of Nepal (westwards to around Kathmandu, up to an altitude of 1830, rarely 3000 m). It also extends south into the tropics: Philippines, Borneo, Indonesian islands (except New Guinea) and Malaysia; it has also been recorded from the Christmas Islands (Australia).

Range in Florida: P. foetida is known from Florida as early as 1933 (Small 1933). It is now naturalized in Alachua, Citrus, Hernando, Hillsborough (labelled as P. scandens in the University of Florida herbarium), Lake, Orange, Pasco, Sumter and Volusia counties (University of Florida Herbarium, Fairchild Tropical Garden Herbarium, Hilsenbeck 1992, Puff 1991b, Pankowski 1992). It is presumably in additional counties. Wunderlin (1982) listed its distribution as northwestern (central Florida) counties south to Hillsborough County. P. foetida was not listed in the Guide to the Vascular Plants of the Florida Panhandle (Clewell 1985). The origin and site of introduction of the Florida plants are uncertain, although two early (1937) records of P. foetida in the Brooksville (Hernando County) area, together with the presence of the U.S.D.A. station there, makes Brooksville the likely introduction site. The morphologically similar P. cruddasiana is naturalized in Dade County, Florida.

Range in Hawaii: P. foetida was introduced as early as 1854 on the island of Oahu (Hillebrand 1888, in Puff 1991b). It is now naturalized on the main islands of Hawaii, Oahu, and Kauai (Puff 1991b, Wagner et al. 1990, Wester 1992). The Hawaiian plants are almost certainly of Japanese origin (cf. Puff 1991b). The main evidence for this is the hexaploid chromosome numbers of Hawaiian P. foetida; central and southern Japan contain the only hexaploid population of P. foetida within its presumed natural range.

Range in Louisiana: An herbarium specimen was collected at the Avery Island Jungle Garden, New Iberia Parish (Pruski 3149, New York Botanical Garden Herbarium, in Puff 1991b). It is not known if this population was/is sexually reproducing. The origin of the Louisiana plants is unknown.

Range in South Carolina: A specimen of P. foetida was collected spreading from site of cultivation in Darlington County (Radford et al. 1976, p. 988). It is not known if this population was sexually reproducing. No additional specimens of P. foetida have been collected in South Carolina, and it may no longer be present in the flora (John Nelson, University of South Carolina Herbarium, personal communication). The origin of the South Carolina plants is unknown.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: P. foetida is a naturalized exotic pest vine that is well-established in central Florida and is present on three of the main islands of Hawaii. It may also be naturalized in Louisiana; it is doubtfully naturalized in South Carolina (John Nelson, University of South Carolina Herbarium, personal communication).

Global range (modified from Puff 1991b, except where noted): P. foetida is a wide-ranging species of eastern and southern Asia. Its northern limit is approximately 40 degrees N latitude (approximately equivalent to the Maryland-Pennsylvania border), and its southern limit approximately 10 degrees S latitude. It has been introduced to and is naturalized on the Mascarene (Mauritius, Reunion) and the Hawaiian Islands, and in Florida. It has also been introduced (and potentially naturalized) in Louisiana (Puff 1991b), and South Carolina (Radford et al. 1976). It was historically introduced to but is now absent in Sri Lanka (Ceylon). It was presumably introduced to and naturalized on the Bismark Archipelago (east of New Guinea).

Presumed natural range (from Puff 1991b): P. foetida extends from Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu) to Korea (South), China, Taiwan, Indochina and Thailand, reaching its northwestern limit in Burma, Bangladesh (Chittagong), NE India (Arunachal Pradesh, Agaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalya, Assam, northern West Bengal and Sikkim), S Bhutan and the eastern half of Nepal (westwards to around Kathmandu, up to an altitude of 1830, rarely 3000 m). It also extends south into the tropics: Philippines, Borneo, Indonesian islands (except New Guinea) and Malaysia; it has also been recorded from the Christmas Islands (Australia).

Range in Florida: P. foetida is known from Florida as early as 1933 (Small 1933). It is now naturalized in Alachua, Citrus, Hernando, Hillsborough (labelled as P. scandens in the University of Florida herbarium), Lake, Orange, Pasco, Sumter and Volusia counties (University of Florida Herbarium, Fairchild Tropical Garden Herbarium, Hilsenbeck 1992, Puff 1991b, Pankowski 1992). It is presumably in additional counties. Wunderlin (1982) listed its distribution as northwestern (central Florida) counties south to Hillsborough County. P. foetida was not listed in the Guide to the Vascular Plants of the Florida Panhandle (Clewell 1985). The origin and site of introduction of the Florida plants are uncertain, although two early (1937) records of P. foetida in the Brooksville (Hernando County) area, together with the presence of the U.S.D.A. station there, makes Brooksville the likely introduction site. The morphologically similar P. cruddasiana is naturalized in Dade County, Florida.

Range in Hawaii: P. foetida was introduced as early as 1854 on the island of Oahu (Hillebrand 1888, in Puff 1991b). It is now naturalized on the main islands of Hawaii, Oahu, and Kauai (Puff 1991b, Wagner et al. 1990, Wester 1992). The Hawaiian plants are almost certainly of Japanese origin (cf. Puff 1991b). The main evidence for this is the hexaploid chromosome numbers of Hawaiian P. foetida; central and southern Japan contain the only hexaploid population of P. foetida within its presumed natural range.

Range in Louisiana: An herbarium specimen was collected at the Avery Island Jungle Garden, New Iberia Parish (Pruski 3149, New York Botanical Garden Herbarium, in Puff 1991b). It is not known if this population was/is sexually reproducing. The origin of the Louisiana plants is unknown.

Range in South Carolina: A specimen of P. foetida was collected spreading from site of cultivation in Darlington County (Radford et al. 1976, p. 988). It is not known if this population was sexually reproducing. No additional specimens of P. foetida have been collected in South Carolina, and it may no longer be present in the flora (John Nelson, University of South Carolina Herbarium, personal communication). The origin of the South Carolina plants is unknown.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FLexotic, HIexotic, LAexotic, SCexotic, TXexotic

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History
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General Description: Woody, perennial vine, which roots readily at the nodes when in contact with the substrate (Puff 1991b). Each individual typically has both climbing and prostrate stems. Prostrate stems are often hidden under leaf litter and are therefore difficult to detect. Populations of this plant appear to be concentrated and therefore mappable. It is, however, difficult to distinguish individuals because of its clonal growth form.

Woody, perennial vine in the Dicotyledonae, Rubiaceae, Paederieae. Paederia foetida L. (s.str.) is the type species of the subgenus Paederia sensu Puff (1991a). Plants now classified as P. foetida L. (s.str.) have historically been placed in genera in the families Apocynaceae (Apocynum), Gentianaceae (Gentiana) and Convolvulaceae (Convolvulus) (Puff, 1991b). This is an extremely variable species. Field identification: Vine with opposite leaves which emits a disagreeable odor, especially when crushed.

Technical Description: All diagnostic characteristics below are from Puff (1991b).

Stems: 1.5-7 m long, c. 1.5-5 mm in diameter in the mid-stem region; aerial shoots often arising from the +/- distinctly woody rootstocks; young stems purplish- or reddish-brown, greyish or yellowish, glabrous to +/- densely hairy;

Mid-stem leaves: simple, opposite, decussate, or very rarely in whorls of 3; blades (10)20-210 x 7-90 mm, (broadly) ovate to linear-lanceolate or occasionally +/- linear, upper surfaces entirely glabrous to sparsely hairy and lower surfaces +/- densely curly hairy,

Inflorescences: Usu. terminal on lateral branches or axillary, extremely variable, from widely branched and to over 1 m long to rather reduced and hardly 10 cm long; inflorescences often leafy (i.e. foliage leaf-like bracts), flowers most frequently arranged in rather lax cymes with often quite elongated cyme branches (particularly conspicuous after anthesis and in fruiting stage);

Flowers: (4)5(6)-merous;

Calyx lobes: 0.4-1 x 0.4-0.6 mm,

Corolla: dirty pink to greyish-lilac or -purplish and densely covered with very short, +/- hairs, lobes pinkish to whitish inside and throat dark purple, throat and inside of tube densely covered with long +/- monifiliform hairs;

Anthers: c. 2-2.5 mm long,

Style and stigmas: c. 4-15 mm long, joined part of style (+/-0)0.75-2 mm long.

Ovary: 2-locular, 0.8-2 x 0.7-1.2 mm, elliptic to +/- roundish,

Fruits: (sub)globose, 4-6(7) mm in diameter, yellowish to , reddish brown or brown, crowned by persistent calyx lobes.

Diagnostic Characteristics: Considerable confusion has existed as to the identity of P. foetida (cf. Puff 1991b). In the most basic sense, the name P. foetida has been applied to two different species now placed within two different subgenera of Paederia (Puff 1991a, 1991b). In its original sense, P. foetida L. refers to plants with (sub)globose fruits and unwinged diaspores ("seeds") in the subgenus Paederia (Puff 1991b). The second species, P. cruddasiana Prain, in the subgenus Alatopaederia Puff, has laterally compressed-ovoid (-ellipsoid) fruits and distinctly winged diaspores. Herbarium material of P. cruddasiana is often labeled as P. foetida (Puff 1991b), and examples of this have been found at both the University of Florida and Fairchild Tropical Garden herbaria. P. foetida is widely distributed in SE Asia while P. cruddasiana occurs from N India (N of 15 degrees N latitude), Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan eastwards to SW China N of 20 degrees N latitude, and (P. cruddasiana subsp. microcarpa) southwards to Thailand. Both P. foetida and P. cruddasiana ssp. cruddasiana have been introduced to and are naturalized in Florida. All other Paederia in the United States is apparently P. foetida (sensu Puff 1991b).

Prior to the review of the Puff (1991b) monograph, it was thought that all plants of Paederia in Florida were P. foetida. We have now determined that the naturalized plants of Paederia in Dade County are P. cruddasiana (determination of The Montgomery Foundation plants by George Gann-Matzen, verified by Richard A. Howard [The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University, personal communication to Julia Morton, Morton Collectanea], and of the Matheson Hammock plants by Roger Hammer [Natural Areas Supervisor, Metro-Dade County Department of Parks and Recreation, personal communication]). Apparently this is the only introduced and naturalized population of P. cruddasiana in the United States. Following Puff (1991b), no plants of P. foetida are now known from Dade County, Florida.

It should also be noted that Puff (1991b) has included many specific and infraspecific taxa in P. foetida. Some work should be done to determine which of these taxa (if recognized) is/are represented in the United States, as this may provide additional information on the expected habitats, ecology and phenology of the taxon or taxa present. Both the Hawaiian plants (Wagner et al. 1990) and some Florida plants (University of Florida Herbarium)have been refered to as P. scandens, one of the many taxa included in P. foetida by Puff (1991b). Likewise, it may prove fruitful to determine the original genotypes of the introduced plant materials.

Ecology Comments: Little is known about the precise ecological requirements of P. foetida, although it appears to be primarily a ruderal ("weedy") species. From the distribution figures and discussion presented in Puff (1991b), it would appear that P. foetida can tolerate a wide range of climatic, hydrologic and soil conditions.

Growth: P. foetida appears to be a relatively fast-growing vine, but no work has been done to measure its growth rate. It generally produces both climbing and prostrate stems. Climbing stems scale and cover trees and shrubs, and may eventually cause mortality of the "host". Prostrate stems radiate out from the main base, root at the nodes, and eventually scale trees and shrubs. In Florida, P. foetida has been known to create and dominate tree-fall gaps.

Reproduction: Methods of pollination of P. foetida are unknown, although ruby-throated hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris) have been observed visiting the flowers of P. cruddasiana in Dade County, Florida (Scott Zona, Palm Biologist, Fairchild Tropical Garden, personal communication). Hillebrand (1888, in Puff 1991b) argued that P. foetida was first introduced by humans onto the island of Oahu in Hawaii around 1854, and was then spread to other Hawaiian island by birds. Puff (1991b) does not confirm or deny this argument. Methods of seed dispersal in Florida are unknown, but bird dispersal of fruit seems likely.

Predation and diseases: No significant predators or diseases affecting P. foetida are known. Evidence of cattle grazing on P. foetida has been observed in the Pineolas Grotto area (Citrus County, Florida), but the effects of this grazing on P. foetida growth and reproduction are unknown (George Gann-Matzen, Ecohorizons, Inc., personal observation).

Phenology: P. foetida flowers and fruits from all year round in tropical and subtropical areas; in extratropical areas it flowers primarily from early summer to early autumn (c. May, June - September, October) and fruits from c. July to December (Puff 1991b).

In Florida, plants appear to follow the extratropical pattern of flowering and fruiting described above. In addition, some discoloration of leaves (toward yellow or red) may occur following cold weather. Leaf-drop may occur following temperatures below 30 degrees Fahrenheit (Gordon Greger, Landscape Manager, City of Winter Park, personal communication). The phenology of plants in Hawaii, Louisiana, and South Carolina is unknown.

Habitat Comments: Within its natural range (modified from Puff 1991b): P. foetida is known from openings or on the edges of wet, evergreen, semi-deciduous or dry, deciduous forests; in woodland and open vegetation types with scattered shrubs and trees; in montane vegetation, on steep wooded slopes, sometimes growing in cracks of rocks; in sandy or rocky sea coasts, sometimes even directly in the salt spray zone. Most commonly, however, it is "weedy" and found in sunny, disturbed places and secondary vegetation such as hedges or thickets, in waste places, roadsides, on fences, in the cracks of walls, etc. It grows at elevations from sea level to 3000 m.

In Florida: P. foetida is known from fire-excluded Sandhill, temperate Rockland Hammock, and Upland Mixed Forest (for community descriptions cf. Florida Natural Areas Inventory and Florida Department of Natural Resources 1990). At Mead Gardens (City of Winter Park, Orange County), it is naturalized in relatively wet areas dominated by Ilex cassine (dahoon holly), Acer rubrum var. trilobum (southern red maple) and other wetland species (Gordon Greger, Landscape Manager, City of Winter Park, personal communication). Presumably, it is found in other natural communities and is capable of naturalizing in all mesic natural communities in Florida, as well as in some xeric and hydric systems. Wunderlin (1982) listed its habitats as disturbed woods and thickets. Small (1933) listed its habitats as thickets and fencerows. The morphologically similar P. cruddasiana is naturalized in both Pine Rockland and Rockland Hammock natural communities in Dade County.

In Hawaii: P. foetida is naturalized and often locally common in disturbed mesic forest, coastal sites, dry forest, and subalpine woodland at elevations from 0 to 1,830 m (Wagner et al. 1990).

In Louisiana: The habitats of P. foetida in Louisiana (if naturalized) are unknown.

In South Carolina: The habitats of P. foetida in South Carolina (if naturalized) are unknown.

Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: In Florida, Paederia foetida sensu auctt., non L. (including P. cruddasiana Prain) is listed as a Category I species (most invasive; Exotic Pest Plant Council, 1993). The species is not on the List of Plant Species Designated as Noxious Weeds for Eradication or Control Purposes by the Hawaii Department of Agriculture (Hawaii Department of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry, June 18, 1992).

P. foetida (and P. cruddasiana) has the capacity to cause damage or death to native vegetation and effectively alter natural community structure and function. Based on life form, natural range, and broad ecological tolerances, this species poses a threat to natural communities throughout Florida, Hawaii and beyond. The species should be controlled wherever it is found.

Control techniques have been developed for P. cruddasiana, while little work has been done on P. foetida. Preliminary research indicates that prescribed fire may be effective in slowing or perhaps reversing the spread of P. foetida in fire-adapted natural communities (George Gann-Matzen, Ecohorizons, Inc., Goulds, Florida and Doria Gordon, State Ecologist, The Nature Conservancy, Gainesville, Florida, personal observations). At Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, one 2-ha colony of P. foetida was eradicated or nearly eradicated by broadcasting 5% Tordon 22K (Tunison and Zimmer 1992). Additional research on control of this species, especially in moist habitats, is necessary.

Ten percent Garlon 4 (triclopyr) in diesel fuel or Penevator Basal Oil on basal stems has been found to be effective in killing P. cruddasiana. A complete kill, however, may not be achieved if the plant is well-rooted at several nodes along the stem. Fifty percent Garlon 3A in water on the surface of cut basal stems has also been found to be effective in killing P. cruddasiana. Three percent Roundup (glyphosate) in water has been found to be effective in causing leaf-drop of P. cruddasiana, thus allowing for more effective targeting of stems with Garlon 4 or 3A. Control techniques developed for P. cruddasiana are expected to be effective in the control of P. foetida.

Species Impacts: Paederia foetida is a fast-growing exotic pest vine capable of establishing large populations with significant impacts on native vegetation in (hydric-)mesic(-xeric) areas. It may cause damage or death to canopy and subcanopy trees as well as to understory vegetation. P. foetida will possibly form effective monocultures, thereby altering natural community structure and function.

In Florida, P. foetida is considered a Category One exotic pest species (Exotic Pest Plant Council 1993). This listing, however, is based on the inclusion of P. cruddasiana in P. foetida.

At the present time, P. foetida is not considered to be a major pest weed in Hawaii (Smith 1985; Joan Yoshioka, The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii, personal communication). It was, however, included on a table of the weeds listed for control by four Division of Forestry and Wildlife Field Offices, 1975-1992 (Tanimoto and Char 1992). At Hawaii Volcanoes National Park P. foetida is listed as an important alien plant species (Tunison 1992), but only one colony has been located during exotic species surveys beginning in 1985 (Tunison and Zimmer 1992). This colony was approximately 2-ha in size and has apparently been eliminated.

Preserve Selection & Design Considerations: Paederia foetida is a fast-growing exotic pest vine capable of causing mortality of canopy trees and understory vegetation and disrupting community structure and function. Preserves located within the known range of this species should be surveyed to determine if it is present. If so, an eradication program should be initiated as soon as possible to prevent the destruction of native species and communities. In assessing areas for potential acquisition, the presence of P. foetida should be considered in evaluating desirability of acquisition, and in developing management plans.
Management Requirements: 1. Erradication programs should be designed and implemented for this species on all conservation lands where it is present.

2. In fire-adapted communities (e.g. Sandhill), prescribed fire should be used to reduce the density and cover of Paederia foetida, and follow-up herbicide treatments should be employed.

3. In relatively non-fire adapted communities, the primary management goal should be to prevent the mortality of canopy and sub-canopy trees through hand-cutting of aerial stems. Herbicide treatments of basal and prostrate stems should follow.

4. Preserve managers should work with adjacent land-owners to eradicate P. foetida where possible.

5. Ensure that neither P. foetida nor P. cruddasiana are commercially available through the nursery trade.

Monitoring Requirements: 1. Determine the actual distribution of this species in Florida, Hawaii, Louisiana, and South Carolina.

2. Survey preserves within the known range of P. foetida for presence of this species.

3. In preserves where P. foetida is present, map locations of Paederia, and estimate density or percent cover. Indicate locations of any tree-fall gaps and/or large (>.1 ha) monospecific colonies of P. foetida.

4. Monitor progress of management activities.


Management Programs: In Florida, no significant control programs of P. foetida are known. One management research project utilizing prescribed fire to control P. foetida has been initiated in Hernando County, Florida, and is described below. The City of Winter Park (Orange County, Florida) has also conducted a test treatment of P. foetida utilizing 1.54 percent Roundup (glyphosate) in water at Mead Gardens (Gordon Greger, Landscape Manager, City of Winter Park, personal communication). This treatment has been found to be effective in killing stems immediately adjacent to the treated leaves, but it is unknown if the treatment causes death of individual plants. P. foetida is one of 41 species listed for control at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park; a 2-ha colony of P. foetida was eradicated or nearly eradicated there by broadcasting 5% Tordon 22K (Tunison 1992).

Significant control programs of P. cruddasiana in Dade County, Florida, however, have been initiated by the Metro-Dade County Department of Parks and Recreation (Metro-Dade Parks) at the R. Hardy Matheson Preserve (formerly the Snapper Creek Hammock Preserve) and at Matheson Hammock Park, and by Ecohorizons, Inc. at The Montgomery Foundation property in Coral Gables. Ecohorizons, Inc. has utilized 10 percent Garlon 4 (tryclopyr) in diesel fuel and Metro-Dade Parks has utilized 10 percent Garlon 4 in Penevator Basal Oil on basal stems to cause mortality of P. cruddasiana. A complete kill, however, may not be accomplished if the treated plant is well-rooted at several nodes, and follow-up treatments of individual rooted stems may be necessary. Ecohorizons, Inc. has also utilized 50 percent Garlon 3A in water on the surface of cut basal stems to cause mortality of P. cruddasiana. One percent Roundup (glyphosate) in water applied to leaves resprouting from cut basal stems has also been successfully utilized by Ecohorizons, Inc. to cause mortality of smaller individuals of P. cruddasiana. Metro-Dade Parks has successfully utilized three percent Roundup to cause leaf-drop of P. cruddasiana, thus allowing for better targeting of stems with Garlon 4 or 3A (Laura Flynn, Biologist, Metro-Dade Parks, personal communication). This technique should not be used, however, unless the cover of Paederia is effectively 100 percent in order to prevent off-target damage to native vegetation. Unlike some vines (e.g., Cissus sicyoides), the aerial portions of P. cruddasiana may be killed by severing the aerial stem from the rooted portions of the plant. This may be an effective short-term measure to prevent the mortality of trees and shrubs in infested areas. Seedlings of P. cruddasiana are easily hand-pulled.

Control treatments developed for P. cruddasiana are expected to be effective on P. foetida.

Monitoring Programs: In Florida, no significant programs monitoring the distribution, density, cover, spread, or impacts of P. foetida are known. In Hawaii, there is a program to monitor for presence of P. foetida at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park as part of an overall exotic species control program (Tunison and Zimmer 1992). Surveys for exotic weed species are made every three months along roadsides, annually in Special Ecological Areas, and twice yearly in developed areas and along trails.
Management Research Programs: Florida: Doria Gordon (The Nature Conservancy, Gainesville, Florida) and George Gann-Matzen (Ecohorizons, Inc., Goulds, Florida) have initiated a research project on the effects of prescribed burning on P. foetida in historically fire-excluded Sandhill at the Janet Butterfield Brooks Preserve in Hernando County, Florida (Gordon and Gann-Matzen 1993). Preliminary results indicate that prescribed fire is effective in controlling P. foetida in this natural community. Twenty-five plots were established in which the number of Paederia stems climbing on individual trees at DBH level were measured. In the initial sample a mean of 13.2 stems per tree was recorded. The site was burned March 3, 1992; one month post-burn no surviving Paederia stems were recorded. The site was sampled again approximately one year post-burn, and a mean of 0.61 stems per tree was recorded (a 95% decrease). This was a statistically significant change (p<0.05) using a paired t-test. Changes in Paederia stems on control trees during the same period were not found to be statistically significant. Five macroplots within the burned plot area were also sampled during 1992-1993 to determine the number of free-standing vine "ladders" reaching into the canopy. One-month post-burn showed no survival, and one-year post-burn showed a reduction in the mean density of ladders in the macroplots. The site was burned a second time March 12, 1993. All plots were re-monitored approximately one year post-burn. During this monitoring event a further 52% decrease in P. foetida stem numbers per tree was recorded (Doria Gordon, State Ecologist, The Nature Conservancy, personal communication).

Hawaii: No scientific research from Hawaii is known.

Louisiana: No scientific research from Louisiana is known.

South Carolina: No scientific research from South Carolina is known.

Management Research Needs: 1. Determine if methods used to eradicate P. cruddasiana will be effective on P. foetida.

2. Conduct research on the basic biology of P. foetida including methods of pollination, seed dispersal, growth rates, sensitivity to cold, etc.

3. Conduct basic ecological research on the effects of P. foetida on impacted vegetation (by leaves interfering with photosynthesis as well as through root competition), and wildlife.

4. Conduct research to determine origin, infraspecific taxon classification, and genetic makeup of P. foetida in Florida, Hawaii, Louisiana, and South Carolina.

Additional topics: The foetid smell of P. foetida (presumably sensu auctt., non L., including P. cruddasiana Prain) is due to the presence of methyl mercaptan (Bose et al. 1953-55, in Shukula et al. 1976), and the leaves possess both tonic and astringent properties (C.S.I.R. 1966). Folk medicine attributes a variety of curative properties to P. foetida and it is prescribed for toothache, chest pains, piles, inflammation of the spleen, herpes, and as a diuretic and emetic (C.S.I.R. 1966).

Paederia foetida is and has been cultivated for both its attractive flowers and for its medicinal properties in tropical and subtropical regions, as well as in extratropical areas (Puff 1991b), although it was not included in Hortus Third (Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium 1976). In Florida, it is apparently not currently in the nursery trade (cf. Betrock Information Systems 1993). It is unknown if it is in the nursery trade in Hawaii, Louisiana, or South Carolina
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
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Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: Medium
Rounded I-Rank: Medium
I-Rank Reasons Summary: This aggressive smothering vine can tolerate a broad range of environmental conditions, form a canopy that displaces native vegetation underneath it, and can change the fire regime of a natural community. Its current range is only in southern US and Hawaii, but it has the potential to spread north of Delaware. Management is difficult, since removal of this climbing vine will probably cause damage to the native vegetation underneath it.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Medium
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: Medium
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: High/Medium
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: Medium/Low
I-Rank Review Date: 14Mar2004
Evaluator: Lu, S.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: Native to eastern Asia (Starr et al. 2003) from India to Malaysia (PIER 2003).

Download "An Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: Evaluating Non-Native Plants for their Impact on Biodiversity". (PDF, 1.03MB)
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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: This species is a non-native that is established outside of cultivation (Kartesz 1999).

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes
Comments: Occurs in natural areas in Hawaii (Starr et al. 2003).

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Medium

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Direct damage to overstory plants usually forms gaps and may alter the impact of fire, which occurrs in many of the invaded communities (Van Driesche et al. 2002).

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:High significance
Comments: Can create dense canopies that lead to damage or death of native vegetation (Langeland and Craddock Burks 1999). Prostrate growth can develop a dense layer of overlapping vines across the soil surface that smothers understory plants (Van Driesche et al. 2002).

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:Moderate significance
Comments: Vines climb up desirable shrubs and trees, weigh them down, and impede regeneration below the dense shade. In Hilo, it can attain a dense growth that climbs high up in the trees and oftne forms a blanket on the vegetation it covers. (Starr et al. 2003)

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:Insignificant
Comments: No reported impacts.

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:Moderate significance
Comments: This species inhabits many climax systems such as xeric uplands, rockland hammocks, mesic uplands, and floodplain wetlands, which harbor many threatened and endangered species. It is charged with displacing one of the few remaining populations of the federally endangered Justicia cooleyi. (Van Driesche et al. 2002).

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: Medium

6. Current Range Size in Nation:Low significance
Comments: Is found on four islands in Hawaii, in central and northern Florida, as well as in Texas, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Mississippi, and Alabama (Starr et al. 2003). Karetsz (1999) acknowledges that it is established outide of cultivation only in Florida, Hawaii, Louisiana, Texas, and South Carolina.

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:High significance
Comments: Invasive in southern US and Hawaii. Not present in natural areas on Maui yet. Declared a noxious weed in Alabama and Florida. (Starr et al. 2003)

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Occurs in at least 3 TNC ecoregions and in at most 16 TNC ecoregions (Inference using data from Kartesz 1999 and TNC Ecoregion 2001 map).

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:Moderate significance
Comments: Invades forests and forest edges, woodlands, and tropical hammocks (Weber 2003). Found in Hawaii in disturbed mesic forest, coastal sites, dry forest, and subalpine woodland (PIER 2003). Thrives in a variety of habitats. Found in both wet lowland areas and dry mid-elevation sites (Starr et al. 2003). In Florida, it invades sandhill, floodplain, and upland mixed forest plant communities (Langeland and Craddock Burks 1999), as well as rockland hammock and swamps (Langeland et al. 2003).

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: High/Medium

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:Moderate significance
Comments: Was introduced to Florida in 1897 as a potential fiber crop. Was first recorded on Oahu in 1854. Now is naturalized on four islands, Kauai, Oahu, Maui, and Hawaii, and is foud in the central and northern regions of Florida. (Starr et al. 2003) It is expanding north and south in southern US. (Van Driesche et al. 2002).

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:High significance
Comments: Appears to have the potential to spread well beyond the South to the northeastern states. The northern range limits of this plant have yet to be realized. In Japan, this plant's northern limit has minimum temperatures of -10 to -20 degrees C, which suggests that it is hardy to zone 6 in the US. This means that it may be able to spread north to 40 degree latitude, which is north of Delaware, Maryland, and the Virginias. (Van Driesche et al. 2002)

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:Moderate significance
Comments: Dispersed widely by humans by cultivation. Dispersed locally by fruit-eating birds. (Starr et al. 2003)

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:High/Moderate significance
Comments: It is expanding north and south in southern US. (Van Driesche et al. 2002). Not yet widespread on Maui (Starr et al. 2003).

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:High/Moderate significance
Comments: On Maui, it seems to spread vegetatively from nearby plantings (Starr et al. 2003). In Florida, it invades disturbed areas and undisturbed native plant communities (Langeland et al. 2003).

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:High/Low significance
Comments: An aggressive weed on Christmans Island, Mauritius (Starr et al. 2003; PIER 2003), Brazil (Langeland and Craddock Burks 1999), and Reunion (Van Driesche et al. 2002).

16. Reproductive Characteristics:Moderate significance
Comments: Spreads by vegetative means. Has agressive growth. (Starr et al. 2003). Roots at nodes (Langeland and Craddock Burks 1999). Spreads by transport of rooted fragment (Langeland et al. 2003).

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: Medium/Low

17. General Management Difficulty:Low significance
Comments: Chemical control is an effective way of controlling this species. Although follow-up treatment is necessary. (Langeland et al. 2003) Estimates for herbicidal treatment were $430-$645 per hectare (Van Driesche et al. 2002).

18. Minimum Time Commitment:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Chemical control is an effective way of controlling this species. Although follow-up treatment is necessary. (Langeland et al. 2003)

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:High significance
Comments: Control by mechanical or chemical means damages the native vegetation that support the vine (Van Driesche et al. 2002).

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:Unknown
Authors/Contributors
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Management Information Edition Date: 10Jun1994
Management Information Edition Author: George Gann-Matzen
Management Information Acknowledgments: Laura Flynn, Biologist, Department of Parks and Recreation, Metro-Dade County, 22200 S.W. 137 Avenue, Miami, Florida, 33170. (305) 257-0933. George Gann-Matzen, President, Ecohorizons, Inc., 22601 S.W. 152 Avenue, Goulds, Florida, 33170. (305) 248-0038. Doria Gordon, State Ecologist, The Nature Conservancy, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 32611. (904) 392-5949. Gordon Greger, Landscape Manager, Department of Parks and Recreation, City of Winter Park, 401 Park Avenue South, Winter Park, Florida, 32789. (407) 623-3334. John Nelson, University of South Carolina Herbarium. (803) 777-8196. Roger Hammer, Natural Areas Supervisor, Department of Parks and Recreation, Metro-Dade County, 22200 S.W. 137 Avenue, Miami, Florida, 33170. (305) 257-0904. Richard A. Howard, The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University, 22 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 02138. Joan Yoshioka, The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii, 1116 Smith Street, Suite 201, Honolulu, Hawaii, 96817. (808) 537-4508. Scott Zona, Palm Biologist, Fairchild Tropical Garden, 11935 Old Cutler Road, Miami, Florida, 33156. (305) 666-1539.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Langeland, K.A. and K.C. Burks. 1998. Identification and Biology of Non-Native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas. University of Florida. 165 pp. [http://aquat1.ifas.ufl.edu/identif.html]

  • Langeland, K.A., R.K. Stocker, and D.M. Brazis. 2003. Natural area weeds: Skunkvine (Paederia foetida). University of Florida, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Document SS-AGR-80. Available: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/WG208. (Accessed 2004).

  • Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk Project (PIER). 2003. Plant threats to Pacific ecosystems - species of environmental concern. Last updated 20 December 2003. Online. Available: http://www.hear.org/pier/threats.htm. (Accessed 2004).

  • Starr, F., K. Starr, and L. Loope. 2003. Plants of Hawaii Reports. USGS - Biological Resources Division, Haleakala Field Station. Available: http://www.hear.org/starr/hiplants/reports/. (Accessed 2004).

  • The Nature Conservancy. 2001. Map: TNC Ecoregions of the United States. Modification of Bailey Ecoregions. Online . Accessed May 2003.

  • Van Driesche, R., S. Lyon, B. Blossey, M. Hoddle, and R. Reardon. 2002. Biological control of invasive plants in the eastern United States. USDA Forest Service Publication FHTET-2002-04. Available: http://www.invasive.org/eastern/biocontrol/. (Accessed 2004).

  • Weber, E. 2003. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds. CABI Publishing, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 548 pp.

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