Puma concolor couguar - (Kerr, 1792)
Eastern Cougar
Other English Common Names: Eastern Puma, eastern cougar
Synonym(s): Felis concolor couguar
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Puma concolor couguar (Kerr, 1792) (TSN 622093)
French Common Names: cougar de l'Est
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.103622
Element Code: AMAJH04012
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Mammals - Carnivores
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Mammalia Carnivora Felidae Puma
Genus Size: A - Monotypic genus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Hall, E. R. 1981a. The Mammals of North America, second edition. Vols. I & II. John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York. 1181 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B81HAL01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Puma concolor couguar
Taxonomic Comments: The few available skulls indicate that this was a well-marked form; coloration is imperfectly known due to few specimens and exposure of those to light (Young and Goldman 1946). However, an analysis of mtDNA by Culver et al. (2000) found that cougars across North America were genetically homogeneous in overall variation relative to central and South American populations.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5TXQ
Global Status Last Reviewed: 04Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 27Apr2016
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: TX - Presumed Extinct
Reasons: Native to the eastern United States and southeastern Canada; now regarded as extinct due to habitat loss, killing by humans, and former scarcity of prey. Reported sightings are regarded as not pertaining to indigenous populations of this subspecies. Taxonomic validity of P. c. couguar as a subspecies confined to northeastern North America is questionable.
Nation: United States
National Status: NX (27Apr2016)
Nation: Canada
National Status: NX (01Dec2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Connecticut (SX), Delaware (SX), District of Columbia (SX), Georgia (SH), Indiana (SX), Kentucky (SX), Maine (SH), Maryland (SH), Massachusetts (SX), Michigan (SX), Missouri (SX), New Hampshire (SH), New Jersey (SX), New York (SX), North Carolina (SX), Ohio (SX), Pennsylvania (SX), Rhode Island (SH), South Carolina (SX), Vermont (SH), Virginia (SX), West Virginia (SX)
Canada New Brunswick (SU,SH), Nova Scotia (SH), Ontario (SH), Quebec (SH)

Other Statuses

Implied Status under the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC):PS:DD
Comments on COSEWIC: Eastern population of Puma concolor couguar as defined by COSEWIC is considered as Data Deficient.
IUCN Red List Category: CR - Critically endangered
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species Protection Status (CITES): Appendix I

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: Zero (no occurrences believed extant)
Range Extent Comments: Range formerly included the eastern U.S. and southern Canada, from Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, southern Ontario, and Michigan to Tennessee and South Carolina (Handley 1991). This subspecies, as defined by USFWS, is now regarded as extinct (McCollough 2011).

Number of Occurrences: 0 (zero)

Population Size: Zero, no individuals known extant

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Believed to be extinct (USFWS 1990, McCollough 2011), due to predation by humans, habitat loss, and low deer populations in the 1800s.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (Zero (no occurrences believed extant)) Range formerly included the eastern U.S. and southern Canada, from Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, southern Ontario, and Michigan to Tennessee and South Carolina (Handley 1991). This subspecies, as defined by USFWS, is now regarded as extinct (McCollough 2011).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.

Map unavailable!:
Distribution data for U.S. states and Canadian provinces is known to be incomplete or has not been reviewed for this taxon.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CTextirpated, DCextirpated, DEextirpated, GA, INextirpated, KYextirpated, MAextirpated, MD, ME, MIextirpated, MOextirpated, NCextirpated, NH, NJextirpated, NYextirpated, OHextirpated, PAextirpated, RI, SCextirpated, VAextirpated, VT, WVextirpated
Canada NB, NS, ON, QC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CT Hartford (09003)*, Middlesex (09007)*, New Haven (09009)*, Windham (09015)*
RI Kent (44003)*
SC Greenville (45045)*, Pickens (45077)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Lower Connecticut (01080205)+*, Farmington (01080207)+*, Quinebaug (01100001)+*, Shetucket (01100002)+*, Quinnipiac (01100004)+*
03 Saluda (03050109)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A large cat.
General Description: A large cat with an elongate body, powerful limbs, small head, short face, short rounded ears, and long neck and tail; adult dorsal pelage evidently was uniform tawny or fulvous; sides of muzzle and backs of ears black; end of tail dark brown or blackish; adult total length reportedly to 274 cm in males (Young and Goldman 1946).
Diagnostic Characteristics: A medium-sized or rather large, dark subspecies. Differs from subspecies CORYI in having anteriorly more convergent zygomata and narrower, flatter nasals; differs from subspecies HIPPOLESTES of Wyoming in being smaller and having slightly different cranial characteristics (Young and Goldman 1946).
Ecology Comments: Primarily solitary.
Habitat Type: Terrestrial
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest/Woodland, Shrubland/chaparral
Habitat Comments: Occupied a wide variety of habitats: swamps, riparian woodlands, mountainous country with good cover of brush or woodland, etc.
Adult Food Habits: Carnivore
Immature Food Habits: Carnivore
Food Comments: Undoubtedly was highly opportunistic and ate mainly various large and small mammals (deer, livestock, coyote, squirrels, rabbits, mice, etc.), insects, and reptiles.
Adult Phenology: Circadian, Crepuscular
Immature Phenology: Circadian, Crepuscular
Length: 274 centimeters
Weight: 125000 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 27Apr2016
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 26May1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Aquin, P. 1999. Évaluation de la situation des groupes taxonomiques des mammifères du Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune. 5 pages.

  • Beaudin, L. et M. Quintin. 1991. Mammifères terrestres du Québec, de l'Ontario et des Maritimes. Éditions Michel Quintin. 301 p.

  • Brown, Larry. 1984. Memo to Bob Sanford of November 21, 1984 concerning spruce grouse at Bog Lake.

  • Brown, W.S. 1983. Timber rattlesnake - background information for protection as a threatened species in New York State. Department of Biology., Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY 12866.

  • Culver, M., W. E. Johnson, J. Pecon-Slattery, and S. J. O'Brien. 2000. Genomic ancestry of the American puma (PUMA CONCOLOR). Journal of Heredity 91:186-197.

  • DOWNING, R. NO DATE. THE CURRENT STATUS OF THE COUGAR IN THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN. BOOK: UNKNOWN TITLE. PAGES 142-151.

  • DUCATEL, J.T. 1837. OUTLINES OF THE PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF MARYLAND, EMBRACING ITS PROMINENT GEOLOGIC FEATURES. TRANS. OF MD. ACAD. SCI. AND LIT. 1:24-54.

  • Durgala, J., D. Smith and C. Springer. 1979. On the feasibility of introducing extirpated predator species into the central Adirondack region. Federal Aid Project report E-1-4, 1979-80 to Endangered Species Unit, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Delmar, NY.

  • Evers, D. C. 1992. A guide to Michigan's endangered wildlife. Univ. Michigan Press, Ann Arbor. viii + 103 pp.

  • Hall, E. R. 1981a. The Mammals of North America, second edition. Vols. I & II. John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York. 1181 pp.

  • Hamilton, W.J., Jr. and J.O. Whitaker, Jr. 1979. Mammals of the eastern United States. Cornell University Press. Ithaca, New York. 346 pp.

  • Handley, C. O., Jr. 1991. Mammals. Pages 539-616 in K. Terwilliger, coordinator. Virginia's endangered species: proceedings of a symposium. McDonald and Woodward Publishing Company, Blacksburg, Virginia.

  • LINDZEY, F.G. 1987. MOUNTAIN LION. PP. 657-688 IN WILD FURBEARER MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION IN NORTH AMERICA (M. NOVAK, ET AL., EDS.). MIN. OF NATURAL RESOURCES, ONT. CAN.

  • McCollough, M. 2011. Eastern puma (=cougar) (Puma concolor couguar). 5-year review: summary and evaluation. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Maine Field Office, Orono, Maine.

  • New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Checklist of the amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals of New York State, including their protective status. Nongame Unit, Wildlife Resources Center, Delmar, NY.

  • Prescott, J. et P. Richard. 1996. Mammifères du Québec et de l'Est du Canada. Éditions Michel Quintin. 399 p.

  • REMBER, J. 1990. COUGAR, THE ALL-AMERICAN PREDATOR. WILDLF. CONSERV. 93(2):60-79.

  • Service canadien de la faune et la Fédération canadienne de la faune 2004. Faune et flore du pays[en ligne]. Disponible sur le site internet. -Accès : «http://www.ffdp.ca/index_f.asp». [Réf. 22 janv. 2004]. .

  • Société de la faune et des parcs du Québec. 2003. Les espèces menacées [en ligne]. Disponible sur le site Internet. - Accès :«http://www.fapaq.gouv.qc.ca/fr/etu_rec/esp_mena_vuln/index.htm». La société, 2003 [Réf. 3 novembre 2003] .

  • Stocek, R. F. 1995. The cougar, FELIS CONCOLOR, in the Maritime Provinces. Canadian Field-Naturalist 109:19-22.

  • Tischendorf, J. W., and S. J. Ropski, editors. 1996. Proceedings of the eastern cougar conference, 1994. American Ecological Research Institute. 245 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1990. Endangered and threatened species recovery program: report to Congress. 406 pp.

  • Young, S. P. and E. A. Goldman. 1946. The Puma, mysterious American cat. Part I (by Young). History, life habits, economic status, and control. Part II (by Goldman). Classification of the races of the puma. American Wildlife Institute (also Dover Publ., Inc., New York). 358 PP.

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Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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