Osteopilus septentrionalis - (Duméril and Bibron, 1841)
Cuban Treefrog
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Osteopilus septentrionalis (Duméril and Bibron, 1841) (TSN 173538)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.100086
Element Code: AAABC04010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Amphibians - Frogs and Toads
Image 11191

© Larry Master

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Amphibia Anura Hylidae Osteopilus
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Frost, D. R. 1985. Amphibian species of the world. A taxonomic and geographical reference. Allen Press, Inc., and The Association of Systematics Collections, Lawrence, Kansas. v + 732 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B85FRO01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Osteopilus septentrionalis
Taxonomic Comments: Formerly included in genus Hyla.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 21Jun2005
Global Status Last Changed: 18Oct1996
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA (05Nov1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Florida (SNA), Hawaii (SNA)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 20,000-2,500,000 square km (about 8000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Cuba and Isla de la Juventud; Archipielago de los Canarreos, Archipielago de Sabana-Camaguey, Cayos de San Felipe; Cayman Islands; Little and Great Bahama banks, Long Island, Cat Island, Conception Island, Rum Cay, San Salvador, Crooked-Acklins Bank, Great Inagua Island. Introduced in northwestern (Ramey Air Force Base) and northeastern Puerto Rico (Joglar and Rios Lopez 1995, Herpetological Review 26:105-106); St. Croix (see Philibosian and Yntema 1978); St. Thomas; several of the British Virgin Islands (Owen et al., 2005, Herpetol. Rev. 36:76); Florida Keys and mainland Florida, including the panhandle (Meshaka 1996, 2001; Townsend et al., 2002, Herpetol. Rev. 33:75; Johnston, 2004, Herpetol. Rev. 35:184; Welker, 2004, Herpetol. Rev. 35:283; Johnson, 2004, Herpetol. Rev. 35:405; Krysko et al. 2005); Saint Maarten, Netherlands Antilles (Schwartz and Henderson 1988, Schwartz and Henderson 1991, Powell et al. 1992); Anguilla, Lesser Antilles (Townsend et al. 2000); Oahu, Hawaii (McKeown 1996).

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: Represented by many and/or large occurrences throughout most of the range.

Long-term Trend:  
Long-term Trend Comments: Range has expanded through introductions.

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable

Environmental Specificity: Moderate to broad.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (20,000-2,500,000 square km (about 8000-1,000,000 square miles)) Cuba and Isla de la Juventud; Archipielago de los Canarreos, Archipielago de Sabana-Camaguey, Cayos de San Felipe; Cayman Islands; Little and Great Bahama banks, Long Island, Cat Island, Conception Island, Rum Cay, San Salvador, Crooked-Acklins Bank, Great Inagua Island. Introduced in northwestern (Ramey Air Force Base) and northeastern Puerto Rico (Joglar and Rios Lopez 1995, Herpetological Review 26:105-106); St. Croix (see Philibosian and Yntema 1978); St. Thomas; several of the British Virgin Islands (Owen et al., 2005, Herpetol. Rev. 36:76); Florida Keys and mainland Florida, including the panhandle (Meshaka 1996, 2001; Townsend et al., 2002, Herpetol. Rev. 33:75; Johnston, 2004, Herpetol. Rev. 35:184; Welker, 2004, Herpetol. Rev. 35:283; Johnson, 2004, Herpetol. Rev. 35:405; Krysko et al. 2005); Saint Maarten, Netherlands Antilles (Schwartz and Henderson 1988, Schwartz and Henderson 1991, Powell et al. 1992); Anguilla, Lesser Antilles (Townsend et al. 2000); Oahu, Hawaii (McKeown 1996).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States FLexotic, HIexotic

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: IUCN, Conservation International, NatureServe, and collaborators, 2004

Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Calls throughout the year, but choruses most frequent March-September (Schwartz and Henderson 1991). Eggs hatch within 2 days (Ashton and Ashton 1988).
Ecology Comments: In the Virgin Islands, apparently dispersed via cars and trucks (Philibosian and Yntema 1978).
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian, SCRUB-SHRUB WETLAND, TEMPORARY POOL
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Hardwood, Forest - Mixed, Suburban/orchard, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Mixed
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic, Fallen log/debris, Standing snag/hollow tree
Habitat Comments: Primarily in mesic situations; in the Bahamas, often in more xeric areas (pine forest); in banana plantings (Schwartz and Henderson 1991). Daytime retreats include surface objects, hollow logs, burrows of PELTAPHRYNE, high corners or beams of rooms of abandoned houses, nests of birds (grassquit, bananaquit); very occasionally females may be found in sun on tree trunks in wooded areas (Schwartz and Henderson 1991). Florida: suburbs as well as rural areas, including pinelands and mesic-tropical hammocks (Ashton and Ashton 1988). May congregate in swimming pools or cisterns (Philibosian and Yntema 1978). Eggs are laid in rain pools, temporary ponds, TYPHA marshes, flooded pastures, ditches with black mangrove, flooded areas in TERMINALIA stands, standing water in pinewoods and mixed pine-hardwoods; sometimes in brackish water (Ashton and Ashton 1988). Larvae aquatic. Males call from leaves, branches, limbs, and stems of saplings, and from vertical walls adjacent to pools (often small) of rain water (Schwartz and Henderson 1991).
Adult Food Habits: Carnivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: Diet includes beetles, roaches, crickets, bugs, moths, caterpillars, mayflies, small crustaceans, and other frogs (Schwartz and Henderson 1991). Larvae at least sometimes cannibalistic.
Length: 14 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Species Impacts: In Florida, may be having negative effect on populations of native treefrogs, HYLA CINEREA and H. SQUIRELLA (Wilson and Porras 1983).
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Hylid Frogs (Treefrogs)

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including larvae or eggs) in or near appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Barriers: Busy major highway such that frogs rarely if ever cross successfully; intensive urban development dominated by buildings and pavement and lacking suitable vegetated frog refuges.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Available information is limited but indicates that hylids generally exhibit limited movements on a short-term basis. In New Jersey, Freda and Morin (1984) and Freda and Gonzalez (1986) demonstrated that individual Hyla andersonii often travel distances of 100 m from breeding ponds during the nonbreeding season. In montane Colorado, Spencer (1964) found that Pseudacris triseriata range into wet meadows usually within about 700 m of their breeding sites and sometimes cross a few hundred meters of upland habitat. Kay (1989) determined that most Pseudacris cadaverina individuals range over small segments of streamcourse; 83 percent of movements were less than 25 m in a 1-year study. In Michigan, nonbreeding home range diameters of Pseudacris crucifer, established around forest debris and vegetation, ranged from 1.2 to 5.5 m (Delzell 1958).

Based on this information it appears that 1 km is an appropriate separation distance for unsuitable habitat. Despite limited data suggesting restricted movements, dispersal data are scant, and these frogs are clearly physically capable of long moves. It seems unlikely that occupied locations separated by a gap of less than several kilometers of suitable habitat would represent independent occurrences over the long term.

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .5 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Inferred extent distance pertains to distance from breeding sites.
Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 21Jun2005
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 16May1996
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Ashton, R. E., Jr., and P. S. Ashton. 1988. Handbook of reptiles and amphibians of Florida. Part Three. The amphibians. Windward Publ. Co., Miami.

  • Breuil, M. 2002. Histoire naturelle des amphibiens et reptiles terrestres de l'archipel Guadeloupeen. Guadeloupe, Saint-Martin, Saint-Barthelemy. Patrimoines Naturels. 54:1-339.

  • Breuil, M. 2004. Amphibiens et Reptiles des Antilles. PLB Editions. Guadeloupe.

  • Conant, R., and J. T. Collins. 1998. A field guide to reptiles and amphibians: eastern and central North America. Third edition, expanded. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Massachusetts. 616 pp.

  • Duellman, W. E., and R. I. Crombie. 1970. HYLA SEPTENTRIONALIS. Cat. Am. Amph. Rep. 92.1-92.4.

  • Frost, D. R. 1985. Amphibian species of the world. A taxonomic and geographical reference. Allen Press, Inc., and The Association of Systematics Collections, Lawrence, Kansas. v + 732 pp.

  • Hedges, S.B. 1993. Global amphibian declines: a perspective from the Caribbean. Biodiversity and Conservation. 2:290-303.

  • Hedges, S.B. 1999. Distribution of amphibians in the West Indies. Patterns of Distribution of Amphibians. A Global Perspective. Duellman, W.E.,editor. The Johns Hopkins Press. Baltimore, Maryland.

  • Hedges, S.B. 2001. Caribherp: database of West Indian amphibians and reptiles (http://www.caribherp.net). Pennsylvania State University. University Park, PA.

  • Henderson, R.W. and Powell, R 1999. West Indian herpetoecology. Caribbean Amphibians and Reptiles. Crother, B.I.,editor. 223-226. Academic Press. San Diego, California.

  • Henderson, R.W. and Powell, R. 2001. Responses by the West Indian herpetofauna to human-influenced resources. Caribbean Journal of Science. 37:41-54.

  • Joglar, R.L. 1999. Que Cante el Coquí Ensayos, Cartas y Otros Documentos Sobre la Conservación de la Biodiversidad en Puerto Rico (1987-1999). Proyecto Coquí. Puerto Rico.

  • Joglar, R.L. and Rios, N. 1995. Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban Tree Frog, Rana Platanera) in Trujillo Alto, Puerto Rico. Herpetological Review. 26:105-106.

  • Joglar, R.L., Rios, N. and Cardona, M. 1998. Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban Tree Frog, Rana Platanera) in Coamo, Puerto Rico. Herpetological Review. 29:107.

  • Kaiser, H. and Henderson, R.W. 1994. The conservation status of Lesser Antillean frogs. Herpetological Natural History. 2(2):41-56.

  • Krysko, K. L., K. M. Enge, J. H. Townsend, E. M. Langan, S. A. Johnson, and T. S. Campbell. 2005. New county records of amphibians and reptiles from Florida. Herpetological Review 36:85-87.

  • McKeown, S. 1996. A field guide to reptiles and amphibians in the Hawaiian Islands. Diamond Head Publishing. Los Osos, California.

  • Meshaka Jr, W.E. 2001. The Cuban Treefrog in Florida: Life History of a Successful Colonizing Species. University Press of Florida. Gainesville, Florida.

  • Meshaka, W. E., Jr. 1996. Vagility and the Florida distribution of the Cuban treefrog (OSTEOPILUS SEPTENTRIOALIS). Herpetological Review 27:37-40.

  • Meshaka, W. E., Jr. 2001. The Cuban treefrog in Florida: life history of a successful colonizing species. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

  • Philibosian, R., and J. A. Yntema. 1978. Records and status of some reptiles and amphibians in the Virgin Islands. II. 1975-1976. Herpetologica 34:47-51.

  • Powell, R., R. J. Passaro, and R. W. Henderson. 1992. Noteworthy herpetological records from Saint Maarten, Netherlands Antilles. Caribbean J. Sci. 28(3-4):234-235.

  • Rivero, J. A. 1978a. Los anphibios y reptiles de Puerto Rico. (The amphibians and reptiles of Puerto Rico.) Universidad de Puerto Rico, Editorial Universitaria. Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. 148 p. + plates.

  • Rivero, J.A. 1998. Los Anfibios y Reptiles de Puerto Rico (The Amphibians and Reptiles of Puerto Rico). Second edition. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, San Juan.

  • Savage, J. M. 2002. The amphibians and reptiles of Costa Rica. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.

  • Schwartz, A., and R. W. Henderson. 1988. West Indian amphibians and reptiles: a check-list. Milwaukee Pub. Mus., Contrib. Biological Geology No. 74:1-264.

  • Schwartz, A., and R. W. Henderson. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies: Descriptions, Distributions, and Natural History. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, Florida. xvi + 720 pp.

  • Townsend, J. H., J. M. Eaton, R. Powell, J. S. Parmerlee, Jr., and R. W. Henderson. 2000. Cuban treefrogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis) in Anguilla, Lesser Antilles. Caribbean Journal of Science 36:326-328.

  • Wilson, L. D., and L. Porras. 1983. The ecological impact of man on the South Florida herpetofauna. Univ. Kansas Mus.Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ. 9:1-89.

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