Orthilia secunda - (L.) House
One-sided Wintergreen
Other English Common Names: Sidebells Wintergreen
Other Common Names: sidebells wintergreen
Synonym(s): Orthilia secunda var. secunda ;Pyrola secunda L.
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Orthilia secunda (L.) House (TSN 504066)
French Common Names: pyrole unilatérale
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.137427
Element Code: PDPYR03010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Other flowering plants
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Ericales Pyrolaceae Orthilia
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Orthilia secunda
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 28Aug2015
Global Status Last Changed: 29Aug1984
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Very widespread in northern North America, Eurasia, and throughout Mexico to Guatemala.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5?
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (28Aug2015)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alaska (SNR), Arizona (SNR), California (SNR), Colorado (SNR), Connecticut (SH), Delaware (SH), District of Columbia (SH), Idaho (SNR), Indiana (SX), Iowa (S1), Maine (SNR), Maryland (SH), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (SNR), Montana (S5), Nebraska (S1), Nevada (SNR), New Hampshire (SNR), New Jersey (S2), New Mexico (SNR), New York (S5), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (SH), Oregon (SNR), Pennsylvania (SNR), Rhode Island (S1), South Dakota (SNR), Utah (SNR), Vermont (SNR), Virginia (SH), Washington (SNR), Wisconsin (SNR), Wyoming (S4)
Canada Alberta (S5), British Columbia (S5), Labrador (S5), Manitoba (S5), New Brunswick (S5), Newfoundland Island (S5), Northwest Territories (SNR), Nova Scotia (S5), Nunavut (SU), Ontario (S5), Prince Edward Island (S5), Quebec (S5), Saskatchewan (S5), Yukon Territory (S5)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Circumboreal; in North America, Greenland and Newfoundland to Alaska, south to New Jersey, Virginia, Pennsylvania, Indiana, Ohio, northern Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. Historically reported in Virginia, Ohio, and Delaware; extirpated in Indiana. Isolated populations in the Sierra Madre Oriental and in the Flora Neotropica area in Jalisco, the high mountains of south-central Mexico (the Neovolcanic Belt and southern Sierra MAdre Oriental), and south of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in the mountains of Chiapas and western Guatemala at elevations of (1850-) 2000-4038 m.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Circumboreal; in North America, Greenland and Newfoundland to Alaska, south to New Jersey, Virginia, Pennsylvania, Indiana, Ohio, northern Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. Historically reported in Virginia, Ohio, and Delaware; extirpated in Indiana. Isolated populations in the Sierra Madre Oriental and in the Flora Neotropica area in Jalisco, the high mountains of south-central Mexico (the Neovolcanic Belt and southern Sierra MAdre Oriental), and south of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in the mountains of Chiapas and western Guatemala at elevations of (1850-) 2000-4038 m.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, IA, ID, INextirpated, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MT, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OR, PA, RI, SD, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WY
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, NU, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CT Hartford (09003)*, New Haven (09009)*, New London (09011)*, Tolland (09013)*
IA Allamakee (19005), Clayton (19043), Delaware (19055), Emmet (19063)*, Winneshiek (19191)
IN La Porte (18091)*, Lake (18089)*, Porter (18127)*
MD Anne Arundel (24003)*, Calvert (24009)*, Howard (24027)*, Montgomery (24031)*, Prince Georges (24033)*
NE Dawes (31045)*, Sioux (31165)
NJ Sussex (34037), Warren (34041)
RI Kent (44003)*, Providence (44007)*
VA Fairfax (51059)*, Prince William (51153)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Lower Connecticut (01080205)+*, Pawcatuck-Wood (01090005)+*, Quinebaug (01100001)+*, Shetucket (01100002)+*, Quinnipiac (01100004)+*
02 Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105)+, Patuxent (02060006)+*, Middle Potomac-Catoctin (02070008)+*, Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan (02070010)+*, Lower Potomac (02070011)+*
04 Little Calumet-Galien (04040001)+*
07 Root (07040008)+*, Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Upper Iowa (07060002)+, Turkey (07060004)+, Upper Des Moines (07100002)+*, Chicago (07120003)+*
10 Hat (10120108)+, Upper White (10140201)+*, Niobrara Headwaters (10150002)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Low perennial herb with round to oval leaves, green in winter, and greenish or white, 5-petaled flowers on a one-sided stalk.
Technical Description: Caudex forking; basal bracts ciliate, lanceolate, strongly involute, acute, firm; leaves rosulate or somewhat scattered; blade longer than petiole, subcoriaceous, lustrous, elliptic to ovate, narrowed to mucronate tip, or rounded at summit in forma eucycla Fern., crenate-serrate, 1.5-6 cm long; scapes 1-2 dm high, 2-5-bracted; raceme strongly 1-sided, 6-20-flowered, in anthesis 2-5, in fruit up to 8.5 cm long; bracts of raceme ciliate, equaling or shorter than the spreading or reflexed pedicels; calyx-lobes ciliate-serrulate, obtuse, 0.6-1.2 mm long; corolla campanulate, as long as or longer than broad; petals oblong, erose, greenish-yellow, 3.5-5.5 mm long, with 2 small tubercles at base; stamens equally connivent about pistil; style slender, straight, exserted, tipped by the 5-lobed broad peltate stigma, in maturity 5-9 mm long; ovary with 10 small tubercle-like bodies at base; capsule depressed, 3-5 mm broad. Seeds minute, innumerable, with a very loose cellular-reticulated coat. (Fernald 1950) Beyond treeline and in alpine situations is replaced by var. obtusata Turcz. (Porsild & Cody 1980), which is also found south to New York & Colorado in mossy or boggy woods & on wet rocks (Fernald 1950): basal bracts oblong to ovate, only slightly involute, membranaceous, scarcely lustrous, ovate to orbicular, often rounded above, crenate, 0.8-3 cm long; scape 0.5-1.5 dm high; raceme 2-10-flowered, in anthesis 0.5-3, in fruit up to 4 cm long; petals creamy-white; mature style 4-6 mm long (Fernald 1950).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Often included in the genus Pyrola, but distinguished by raceme one-sided (vs. cylindrical); corolla campanulate, longer than broad (vs. subglobose or short-campanulate, broader than long).
Duration: PERENNIAL, Long-lived, WINTERGREEN
Reproduction Comments: Seeds minute, assumed wind-dispersed.
Ecology Comments: Frost and shade tolerances inferred from range & habitat.
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Conifer, Forest - Hardwood, Forest - Mixed, Forest/Woodland, Tundra
Habitat Comments: Canada: frequent in moist thickets and woodland, north beyond the limit of trees (Porsild and Cody 1980). Northeast United States: moist woods and mossy bogs (Gleason and Cronquist 1991); dry or moist woods (Fernald 1950); (var. obtusata) mossy or boggy (often calcareous) woods and on wet rocks (Fernald 1950); Ohio: dry or moist soils in boggy or mossy woods and hemlock slopes (McCance and Burns 1984). Western United States: New Mexico: shaded areas in deep woods (Martin and Hutchins 1981); Colorado: mossy forest floors, cool ravines, montane and subalpine (Weber 1990).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 03Mar1995
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: M.E. Stover, TNC-HO
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 03Mar1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): M.E. STOVER, TNC-HO

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Douglas, G.W., D. Meidinger, and J. Pojar, editors. 1999. The Illustrated Flora of British Columbia. Volume 4. Dicotyledons (Orobanchaceae through Rubiaceae). British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks and British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Victoria.

  • Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. Corrected printing (1970). D. Van Nostrand Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2009. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 8. Magnoliophyta: Paeoniaceae to Ericaceae. Oxford University Press, New York. xxiv + 585 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1963. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. D. Van Nostrand Company, New York, NY. 810 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Kartesz, J. T. 1991. Synonym names from 1991 checklist, as extracted by Larry Morse, TNC, June 1991.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Luteyn, J.L. 1995. Ericaceae part II: The superior-ovaried genera. Flora Neotropica monograph 66: 1-560. The New York Botanical Garden, New York.

  • Martin, W.C., and C.R. Hutchins. 1980-1981. A flora of New Mexico. 1980, Vol. 1; 1981, Vol. 2. J. Cramer, in der A.R. Gantner Verlag, K.G., Vaduz, Liechtenstein. 2591 pp.

  • McCance, R.M., Jr., and J.F. Burns, eds. 1984. Ohio endangered and threatened vascular plants: Abstracts of state-listed taxa. Division Natural Areas and Preserves, Ohio Dept. Natural Resources, Columbus. 635 pp.

  • Meades, S.J. & Hay, S.G; Brouillet, L. 2000. Annotated Checklist of Vascular Plants of Newfoundland and Labrador. Memorial University Botanical Gardens, St John's NF. 237pp.

  • Porsild, A.E., and W.J. Cody. 1980. Vascular plants of continental Northwest Territories, Canada. National Museum Natural Sciences, National Museums Canada, Ottawa. 667 pp.

  • Weber, W.A. 1990. Colorado Flora: eastern slope. Univ. Press Colorado, Niwot. 396 pp.

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