Orobanche minor - Sm.
Clover Broomrape
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Orobanche minor Sm. (TSN 34292)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.152005
Element Code: PDORO04080
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Broom-Rape Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Scrophulariales Orobanchaceae Orobanche
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Orobanche minor
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNR
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Delaware (SNA), District of Columbia (SNA), Florida (SNA), Georgia (SNR), Maryland (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New York (SNA), North Carolina (SNA), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), South Carolina (SNA), Virginia (SNA), Washington (SNA), West Virginia (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States DCexotic, DEexotic, FLexotic, GA, MDexotic, NCexotic, NJexotic, NYexotic, ORexotic, PAexotic, SCexotic, VAexotic, WAexotic, WVexotic

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
Help
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
Help
Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: Low/Insignificant
Rounded I-Rank: Low
I-Rank Reasons Summary: Orobanche minor, small broomrape, is a parasitic plant that is mainly an agricultural weed, however, it does occur along roadsides in the southeastern United States. It does not appear to have infiltrated rare species habitat, however, it does have the ability to spread long distances given its tiny, wind-dispersed seeds. In addition to occurring the southeastern United States, it is also known north to New York and it also occurs in the Pacific Northwest in Washington and Oregon. In these western states, this non-native has infested red clover fields. While this species does represent a threat to agricultural crops, it isn't clear if it threatens native species.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Insignificant
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: Low
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: Medium/Low
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: Unknown
I-Rank Review Date: 19Apr2006
Evaluator: Oliver, L.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: Orobanche minor is native to Africa, Asia, and Europe (GRIN).

Download "An Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: Evaluating Non-Native Plants for their Impact on Biodiversity". (PDF, 1.03MB)
Provide feedback on the information presented in this assessment

Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: Small broomrape is scattered from New York south to Florida. It also known in Oregon and Washington (Kartesz 1999).

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes
Comments: This species is known mostly as an agricultural weed, however, it does occur along roadsides in Georgia (Miller et al.).

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Insignificant

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: It is assumed that this species has little or no impact on the abiotic ecosystem processes given that it usually occurs along roadsides.

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:Low significance
Comments: Given that this species is a parasitic herb (Mitich) it affects at least the herbaceous layer.

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: No documentation was found that explicitly states that this species is impacting the community composition of native species, however, given that it is parasitic and has the ability to spread via it's tiny seeds, it probably does affect the vegetation composition, at least minimally, where it occurs.

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:Insignificant
Comments: No information was found suggesting that this non-native species disproportionately affects any one particular native species.

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:Insignificant
Comments: Small broomrape is known to occur mainly along highway rights-of-ways in Georgia and other southeastern states (Miller et al.). In the Pacific Northwest, Oregon and Washington, small broomrape is known to infest red clover fields (Ross et al. 2004). No mention of this species occurring in rare species habitat or high-quality ecological communities was found. It appears to be limited to human-disturbed habitats.

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: Low

6. Current Range Size in Nation:Moderate significance
Comments: Hellroot is known from New York south to Florida, however, throughout this range it is spotty throughout. It is also in a few locations in Oregon and Washington (PLANTS).

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:Insignificant
Comments: It isn't clear that this species is impacting biodiversity, since it occurs in human-disturbed habitats.

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Small broomrape is distributed in one to a few counties between New York and Florida, as well as Washington and Oregon, and is present in a few biogeographic regions (TNC 1999).

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:Insignificant
Comments: This species is only reported from highway rights-of-ways, roadsides, or crop fields (Miller et al., Evans et al. 2005).

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: Medium/Low

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:Medium/Low significance
Comments: It isn't clear if the generalized range of this species is widening. It may be and isn't detected yet. This species produces tiny seeds which can contaminate seed used for agriculture, and has been known to persist in soil for 13 years until germination (Mitich). The point being that it may be spreading, given its seeds are tiny and wind dispersed and that it can remain viable in the seed bank for many years.

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:High significance
Comments: Given the very broad range this species already occurs across (Kartesz 1999), but the spottiness of its area of occupancy (PLANTS), the porportion of its potential range it currently occupies is low.

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Long distance dispersal can occur given that the seeds of this species are tiny (0.2-0.3 mm) and are dispersed by wind, contaminated seed, soil, equipment, shoes, water, animals and clothing (Evans et al. 2005, Lins et al. 2005).

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:Medium/Low significance
Comments: 'Heavy infestations' was only found to refer to legume and leafy green vegetable crops (Evans et al. 2005, Lins et al. 2005) and not in natural areas or roadsides. This species is spreading rapidly in clover fields in Oregon (Lins et al. 2005). This species is probably spreading locally in other areas, but the lack of reports in areas outside of Oregon suggests that local spread might be a) unrealized yet or b) slow-moderate.

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:Low significance
Comments: Reports only mention that this species has parasitized roadside weeds or crop plants, such as clover (Miller et al.), and not rare native species.

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:Not ranked

16. Reproductive Characteristics:Moderate significance
Comments: The small broomrape produces tiny seeds (0.2-0.3mm) in prolific quantities (Mitich, Miller et al.). As mentioned before, this species is a parasite, meaning as a seedling it invades a host plant by producing a root that penetrates a root of a host plant. Further, it doesn't produce chlorophyll and relies on the host plant for nutrients and water (Mitich).

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: Unknown

17. General Management Difficulty:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Studies on how to best manage this species have been conducted and one study determined that using preemergent herbicides along with other treatments will reduce, but not eliminate the species (Lins et al. 2005).

18. Minimum Time Commitment:Not ranked

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:Not ranked

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:Not ranked
Authors/Contributors
Help

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Evans, C. W., C. T. Bargeron, D. J. Moorhead, and G. K. Douce. 2005. Invasive Weeds in Georgia. The Bugwood Network, The University of Georgia. Accessed online on April 14, 2006 at: http://www.georgiainvasives.org/weeds.broomrape.html.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Lins, R. D., J. B. Colquhoun, C. M. Cole, C. A. Mallory-Smith. 2005. Postemergence small broomrape (Orobanche minor) control in red clover. Weed Technology 19: 411-415.

  • Miller, A. E., G. K. Douce, T. R. Murphy, B. T. Watson, T. J. English. Small broomrape Orobanche minor Smith. Accessed on April 14, 2006 online at: http://www.bugwood.caes.uga.edu

  • Mitich, L. W. Orobanche - The Broomrapes. Accessed online on April 14, 2006 at: http://www-aes.tamu.edu/mary/brmrape/Br-iwwb.htm

  • Ross, K. C., J. B. Colquhoun, and C. A. Mallory-Smith. 2005. Small broomrape (Orobanche minor) germination and early development in response to plant species. Weed Science 52: 260-266.

  • The Nature Conservancy. 1999. Map: TNC Ecoregions of the United States. Modification of Bailey Ecoregions, January 1999.

  • USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. 2005. December 9 last update. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) Online Database. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Available: http://www.ars-grin.gov2/cgi-bin/npgs/html/index.pl (Accessed 2006).

  • USDA, NRCS. 2006. The PLANTS Database. Data compiled from various sources by Mark W. Skinner. National Plant Data Center (http://npdc.usda.gov), Baton Rouge, LA. Online. Available: http://plants.usda.gov (Accessed 2006).

  • Wunderlin, R. P. and B.F. Hansen. 2011. Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida, Third Edition. Unisersity Press of FLorida, Gainesville.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2019.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2019 NatureServe, 2511 Richmond (Jefferson Davis) Highway, Suite 930, Arlington, VA 22202, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2019. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.