Oreohelix haydeni - (Gabb, 1869)
Lyrate Mountainsnail
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Oreohelix haydeni (Gabb, 1869) (TSN 77675)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.116891
Element Code: IMGASB5140
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Mollusks - Terrestrial Snails
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mollusca Gastropoda Stylommatophora Oreohelicidae Oreohelix
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn, Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione, and J.D. Williams. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks. 2nd Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26, Bethesda, Maryland: 526 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B98TUR01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Oreohelix haydeni
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 19Dec2017
Global Status Last Changed: 19Dec2017
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Species is restricted to relatively few sites, may be declining, and is facing a diversity of threats related to habitat change and loss.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2N3 (08Oct2002)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Colorado (SNR), Idaho (S1), Montana (S1S3), New Mexico (SNR), Utah (S2)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 20,000-200,000 square km (about 8000-80,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Occurs in scattered isolated regions over several states; occurrences contained within polygons of about 3500 sq km in Montana, about 200 sq km in Idaho, about 20,125 sq km in Utah, perhaps 200 sq km in Colorado. Total estimated range extent = about 25,000 sq km. 

Area of Occupancy: 26-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Based on about 8 occurrences (8 occupied 4 sq. km. grid cells) in Montana, about 7 occurrences in Idaho, about 21 occurrences in Utah, about 3 occurrences in Colorado. Total = about 39-40 occurrences (occupied 4 sq km grid cells).

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: Based on about 8 occurrences (8 occupied 4 sq. km. grid cells) in Montana, about 7 occurrences in Idaho, about 21 occurrences in Utah, about 3 occurrences in Colorado. Total = about 39-40 occurrences (occupied 4 sq km grid cells).

Population Size: Unknown

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Some (13-40)
Viability/Integrity Comments: Some occurrences probably with good viability, but perhaps 50% are for shells only, and lack report of live animals present 

Overall Threat Impact: High
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threatened at many occurrences by past, recent, and current grazing, wildfire, limited logging, and warming and drier climate.

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend probably significantly downward in recent decades based on accumulated threats from fire and grazing, and lack of live animals reported at many occurrences.

Long-term Trend: Decline of 30-50%
Long-term Trend Comments: Trend over last century likely substantially downward due to negative impacts of fire and grazing

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (20,000-200,000 square km (about 8000-80,000 square miles)) Occurs in scattered isolated regions over several states; occurrences contained within polygons of about 3500 sq km in Montana, about 200 sq km in Idaho, about 20,125 sq km in Utah, perhaps 200 sq km in Colorado. Total estimated range extent = about 25,000 sq km. 

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CO, ID, MT, NM, UT

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
ID Bear Lake (16007)*, Franklin (16041)*, Idaho (16049)
MT Granite (30039), Mineral (30061), Missoula (30063)*
UT Box Elder (49003)*, Cache (49005)*, Morgan (49029)*, Rich (49033)*, Salt Lake (49035)*, Tooele (49045)*, Weber (49057)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
16 Bear Lake (16010201)+*, Middle Bear (16010202)+*, Little Bear-Logan (16010203)+*, Lower Bear-Malad (16010204)+*, Upper Weber (16020101)+*, Lower Weber (16020102)+*, Jordan (16020204)+*, Rush-Tooele Valleys (16020304)+*, Skull Valley (16020305)+*, Great Salt Lake (16020310)+*
17 Flint-Rock (17010202)+, Middle Clark Fork (17010204)+, Bitterroot (17010205)+*, Lower Salmon (17060209)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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General Description: A distinctive medium to large-sized shell, to 22 mm diameter and 13 mm in height but usually smaller; flattened-heliciform, depressed somewhat in profile, with up to 5 3/4 whorls. Late whorls have coarse irregular striae and prominent raised spiral cords or lirae on both upper and lower surfaces (up to 5 above and 11 below the periphery). The umbilicus is narrow and deep (contained about 5 times in the diameter). The aperture is oval, periphery with a keel. Shell opaque and chalky, color is brownish-gray (dead shells to pearly white); Montana shells lack reddish-brown spiral bands often present in most other species of Oreohelix. Head, neck and tentacles dull ashy gray, darker than the shell.
Habitat Type: Terrestrial
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Bare rock/talus/scree, Forest - Mixed
Special Habitat Factors: Burrowing in or using soil, Fallen log/debris
Habitat Comments: Often associated with limestone talus and outcrops, sometimes with minimal tree canopy cover on steep south-facing slopes, although at least one site is north-facing. Primary canopy species include Douglas-fir, ponderosa pine, mountain maple; secondary canopy cover may include aspen, ninebark, and serviceberry. Live animals mostly under rocks and in duff or soil accumulations under rocks, sun-bleached shells may be found on the surface (Hendricks 2012).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: Continue to monitor known populations for status of threats, site condition, and assess indices of abundance. Survey potential habitat for new populations. Seek long term protection for exceptional sites, particularly those without federal wilderness designation. Review forest management practices and other actions that may threaten populations by soil moisture levels, as well as temperature and humidity regimes of occupied areas. Consider the feasibility of removal or mitigation of threats and how their this will impact the quality of habitat for the species, as well as other taxa of interest.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Terrestrial Snails

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on some evidence of historical or current presence of single or multiple specimens, including live specimens or recently dead shells (i.e., soft tissue still attached without signs of external weathering or staining), at a given location with potentially recurring existence. Weathered shells constitute a historic occurrence. Evidence is derived from reliable published observation or collection data; unpublished, though documented (i.e. government or agency reports, web sites, etc.) observation or collection data; or museum specimen information.
Separation Barriers: Barriers include barriers to dispersal such as the presence of permanent water bodies greater than 30 m in width, permanently frozen areas (e.g. mountaintop glaciers) which generally lack land snails (Frest and Johannes, 1995), or dry, xeric areas with less than six inches precipitation annually, as moisture is required for respiration and often hatching of eggs. For the various slugs and slug-like species (families Arionidae, Philomycidae, Limacidae, Milacidae, Testacellidae, Veronicellidae), absence of suitable moisture, except for the most ubiquitous of species such as Deroceras reticulatum (Müller, 1774), can serve as a barrier to movement (Frest and Johannes, 1995). Members of these groups tend to have greater difficulty crossing areas of little moisture than other pulmonates. For tree snails (family Bulimulidae [= Orthalicidae]), lack of appropriate arboreal habitat (e.g. distance of greater than 500 m) also serves as a separation barrier.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 1 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: None
Separation Justification: Burch and Pearce (1990) suggest refuges may be the most important factor limiting terrestrial snail abundance, although the greatest richness of species among carbonate cliff habitats (one of the most diverse in North America) is associated with calcareous, as opposed to acidic, substrates (Nekola, 1999; Nekola and Smith, 1999). The panmictic unit (a local population in which matings are random) is small relative to those of other animal groups because terrestrial snails tend to be more sedentary. Baker (1958) claimed, "long-distance dispersal of terrestrial gastropods is undoubtedly passive" although short distance dispersal is active involving slow, short distance migration under favorable conditions. Long-distance passive migration is not considered when assigning separation distances, as otherwise separation distances for many animals and plants would be made impracticably large. Passive migration of snails on terrestrial mammals, birds, or insects may occur over longer distances may occur across barriers. Passive migration also may occur by wind or by rafting on floating objects (Vagvolgyi, 1975). A third form of passive migration may occur through human activity such as transport as food, with consumed goods, or for biological control of other organisms.

Terrestrial gastropods do not move much usually only to find food or reproduce. Olfaction is the primary sensory behavior utilized to find and move toward a food item (on the scale of cm to m) although Atkinson (2003) found that Anguispira alternata was capable of switching foraging behavior when snails encountered a physical barrier to movement. Fisher et al (1980) reported maximum movement rate of Rumina decollata (Linnaeus, 1758), an introduced pest species in California spreading relatively rapidly (for a snail), to be 20 m in three months (= 6.67 m/month) in an irrigated orchard. Tupen and Roth (2001) reported the movement rate for the same species in an un-irrigated native scrub on San Nicolas Island to be 0.4 km in 12 years (= 33.33 m/month). South (1965) found in dispersal studies of the slug, Deroceras reticulatum, that slugs traveled a mean distance of 1.13 m in seven days indicating this species disperses little throughout its life. Giokas and Mylonas (2004) found mean dispersal and minimal movement distances were very small (16.2 and 5.4 m, respectively) for Albinaria coerulea, with few individuals dispersing longer distances. Even the most extreme dispersal distances, such as 500 m for the giant African land snail Achatina fulica (Tomiyama and Nakane, 1993), do not approach the scale of km. Viable land snail populations generally occupy small areas. Frest and Johannes (1995) report the largest Oreohelix colony they observed was one mile (1.67 km) long and 0.25 miles (0.41 km) wide while the smallest was six feet (183 cm) long and two feet (61 cm) wide.

As a whole, pulmonates (previously Subclass Pulmonata) are better dispersers than prosobranchs (previously Subclass Prosobranchia) possibly due to their hermaphroditic reproduction increasing the chance of new colonization (Pilsbry, 1948). When compared with prosobranch families, pulmonates generally reproduce at smaller sizes and sooner, produce greater numbers of eggs/young, have larger clutch sizes, greater growth rates, and shorter life cycles (Brown, 1991). Further, prosobranchs' requirement of constant moisture for oxygen exchange limits their ability to colonize drier habitats. Suitable habitat for pulmonate groups tends to be more varied and less restrictive than for prosobranch groups. All of these factors contribute to pulmonates greater dispersal capability over prosobranchs, as evidenced by the wider and more varied distribution of pulmonates over prosobranchs. Despite this, separation distance for both groups is set at the minimum one km as most movements are well within this suggested minimum separation distance.

Date: 26May2004
Author: Cordeiro, J.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 19Dec2017
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: rev. P. Hendricks (2017)
Management Information Edition Date: 12Jan2018
Management Information Edition Author: Bachen, D.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Binney, W. G. 1886. A second supplement to the fifth volume of the terrestrial air-breathing mollusks of the United States and adjacent territories. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard College 13(2): 23-48 + 3 plates.

  • Bosworth, W. 2012. Terrestrial gastropods of USFS Northern Region: materials developed for Idaho field guide. Idaho Fish and Game, Boise, Idaho. 110 pages (unnumbered)

  • Burke, T.E. 2013. Land snails and slugs of the Pacific Northwest. Oregon State University Press. 352 pp

  • Chamberlin, R. V., and D. T. Jones. 1929. A descriptive catalog of the Mollusca of Utah. Bull. Univ. Utah 19(4): x + 203 pp.

  • Clarke, A. H. 1993. Status survey of fifteen species and subspecies of aquatic and terrestrial mollusks from Utah, Colorado, and Montana. Unpublished report prepared for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service by ECOSEARCH, Inc., Portland, Texas. 87 pp. + 102 unnumbered sheets.

  • Clarke, A. H. 1993. Status survey of fifteen species and subspecies of aquatic and terrestrial mollusks from Utah, Colorado, and Montana. Unpublished report prepared for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service by ECOSEARCH, Inc., Portland, Texas. 87 pp. + 102 unnumbered sheets.

  • Frest, T. J. and E. J. Johannes. 1995a. Interior Columbia Basin mollusk species of special concern. Final report to the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project, Walla Walla, WA. Contract #43-0E00-4-9112. 274 pp. plus appendices

  • Frest, T.J. and E.J. Johannes. 1997. Land snail survey of the lower Salmon River drainage, Idaho. Idaho Bureau of Land Management Technical Bulletin 97-18. 142 pp. plus appendices

  • Henderson, J. 1936. Mollusca of Colorado, Utah, Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming, supplement. University of Colorado Studies, 23(2): 81-145.

  • Henderson, J. B., and L. E. Daniels. 1916. Hunting Mollusca in Utah and Idaho. Proc. Acad. Natur. Sci. Philadelphia 68: 315-339.

  • Henderson, J., and L. E. Daniels. 1917. Hunting Mollusca in Utah and Idaho in 1916. Proc. Acad. Natur. Sci. Philadelphia 69: 48-81.

  • Hendricks, P. 2012. A guide to the land snails and slugs of Montana. A report to the U.S. Forest Service ? Region 1. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT. 187 pages + appendices.

  • Oliver, G.V. and W.R. Bosworth, III. 1999. Rare, imperiled, and recently extinct or extirpated mollusks of Utah. Report ot the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, Publication Number 99-29, Salt Lake City, Utah. 231 pp.

  • Pilsbry, H. A. 1916. Notes on the anatomy of Oreohelix with a catalogue of the species. Proc. Acad. Natur. Sci. Philadelphia 68: 340-359 + 4 plates.

  • Pilsbry, H. A. 1939. Land Mollusca of North America (north of Mexico). Vol. 1, Pt. 1. Acad. Natur. Sci. Philadelphia Monographs, No. 3. XVII + 573 + ix pp.

  • Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn, Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione, and J.D. Williams. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks. 2nd Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26, Bethesda, Maryland: 526 pp.

  • Vanatta, E. G. 1921. Shells of Zion National Park, Utah. Nautilus 34: 140-141.

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