Opuntia basilaris var. treleasei - (Coult.) Coult. ex Toumey
Bakersfield Beavertail Cactus
Synonym(s): Opuntia treleasei Coult.
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Opuntia basilaris var. treleasei (Coult.) Coult. ex Toumey (TSN 195263)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.156336
Element Code: PDCAC0D055
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Cactus Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Caryophyllales Cactaceae Opuntia
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Opuntia basilaris var. treleasei
Taxonomic Comments: USFWS treats as Opuntia treleasei (8/93).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5T1
Global Status Last Reviewed: 11Dec2012
Global Status Last Changed: 11Dec2012
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: T1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Historically, this taxon occurred in populations that were more or less continuous east of Bakersfield, California. It is now restricted to a limited area of central Kern County near the Southern San Joaquin Valley. About one-third of the historical occurrences have been extirpated due to the conversion of habitat into agriculture and urban development. The remaining populations are small and highly fragmented, concentrated into about 11 areas. Only four core areas contain populations of greater than 1,000 clumps. Remaining populations are threatened by loss of habitat from agricultural, urbanizing, mining and energy developments, off-road vehicle traffic, trash dumping, grazing, and competition with non-native invasive species.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States California (S1)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (19Jul1990)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R8 - California-Nevada

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: California: San Joaquin Valley (central Kern County). Other reports are no longer considered to be this taxon (cf. Munz 1974; Benson 1982; Brown and Cypher 1997).

Area of Occupancy: 26-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: Twenty-nine occurrences are presumed extant; about half have not been surveyed for over 20 years (USFWS 2011; CNDDB 2012).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Few (4-12)
Viability/Integrity Comments: Ten occurrences ranked A or B (CNDDB 2012).

Overall Threat Impact: Very high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Primarily threatened by habitat loss due to urban and agricultural development. Specific threats from urban development include expansion of residential areas, roads, an airport, and a landfill. Additional threats include mining and energy development, off-road vehicle traffic, trash dumping, grazing, competition with non-native invasive species, and climate change.

Short-term Trend: Decline of 30-50%
Short-term Trend Comments: Population numbers appear to be declining at the Sand Ridge Preserve, the only site that has been recently monitored (USFWS 2011).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: California: San Joaquin Valley (central Kern County). Other reports are no longer considered to be this taxon (cf. Munz 1974; Benson 1982; Brown and Cypher 1997).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CA Kern (06029)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
18 Middle Kern-Upper Tehachapi- (18030003)+, Upper Poso (18030004)+, Tulare-Buena Vista Lakes (18030012)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A flat-padded (beavertail) opuntia cactus, with the eye-spots (which are not sunken) having spines as well as bristles. Typically flowers in May.
Palustrine Habitat(s): Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest/Woodland, Grassland/herbaceous, Shrubland/chaparral
Habitat Comments: Sandy soils or sand flats and low hills mostly in grassland at 120-550 m (Benson 1982; Brown and Cypher 1997). Characteristic in Sierra-Tehachapi Saltbush Scrub community, but also in Blue Oak Woodland and a riparian woodland.
Economic Attributes
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Economically Important Genus: Y
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 11Dec2012
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Lambert, A., 2/88; rev. R. Bittman 10/98, B. MacBryde 9/2000, A. Frances 12/2012.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 25Sep2000
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): LAMBERT, A., 2/88; REV., B. MACBRYDE, 9/2000.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Benson, L. 1982. The Cacti of the United States and Canada. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. 1044 pp.

  • Brown, N.L., and E.A. Cypher. 1997. Bakersfield cactus: Opuntia basilaris var. treleasei. 3 pp. Http://arnica/csustan.edu/esrpp/bcp.htm, 9/22/2000.

  • California Natural Diversity Database (CNDDB). 2012. RareFind Version 4 with dataset 12/2/2012 downloaded from http://www.dfg.ca.gov/biogeodata/cnddb/rf_ftpinfo.asp. California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Munz, P.A. 1974. A flora of southern California. Univ. California Press, Berkeley. 1086 pp.

  • Skinner, M.W., and B.M. Pavlik, eds. 1994. California Native Plant Society's Inventory of rare and endangered vascular plants of California. 5th edition. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento. 338 pp.

  • Twisselmann, E.C. 1967. A flora of Kern County, California. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento. 395 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1998. Recovery plan for upland species of the San Joaquin Valley, California. Region 1, Portland, OR. 319 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2011. Bakersfield cactus (Opuntia treleasei=Opuntia basilaris var. treleasei) 5-year review: Summary and evaluation. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Sacramento, California. 41 pp.

  • USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service, PLANTS Database [USDA PLANTS]. http://plants.usda.gov/. Accessed 2015.

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