Opsopoeodus emiliae - Hay, 1881
Pugnose Minnow
Synonym(s): Notropis emiliae (Hay, 1881)
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Opsopoeodus emiliae Hay, 1881 (TSN 163876)
French Common Names: petit-bec
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.106577
Element Code: AFCJB55010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Minnows and Carps
Image 1149

© Howard L. Jelks

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Opsopoeodus
Genus Size: A - Monotypic genus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Opsopoeodus emiliae
Taxonomic Comments: In recent years this species usually has been placed in the monotypic subgenus Opsopoeodus within the genus Notropis. Retention in the genus Notropis is supported by electrophoretic analyses (Dimmick 1987). Placed in Notropis volucellus species-group by Mayden (1989), who regarded emiliae a close relative of N. maculatus. Chromosomal analyses indicate that emiliae may belong in an assemblage that includes, among others, at least 4 species in the genus Cyprinella (Amemiya and Gold 1990, and Amemiya et al. 1992, who concluded that emiliae may not be closely related to N. maculatus). Breeding behavior suggests a close relationship among Opsopoeodus, Codoma, and Pimephales (Page and Johnson 1990), and osteological evidence (Cavender and Coburn 1992) indicates that this species is a member of a clade that includes Cyprinella, Codoma, and Pimephales; these authors suggest that emiliae should be included in the monotypic genus Opsopoeodus, a conclusion that was followed in the 1991 AFS checklist (Robins, et al. 1991). NOR chromosomal data suggest that the genus Pimephales belongs in a monophyletic assemblage with, among others, the cyprinid genera Cyprinella and Opsopoeodus (Li and Gold 1991).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 25Sep1996
Global Status Last Changed: 25Sep1996
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Large range in lowlands, extending from the southeastern U.S. to the southern Great Lakes region; common but becoming less so in some areas.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N2 (21Dec2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S5), Arkansas (S3S4), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S3), Illinois (S2S3), Indiana (S3), Iowa (S3), Kentucky (S4S5), Louisiana (S5), Michigan (S1), Minnesota (S4), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (S4), Ohio (S1), Oklahoma (S3), Pennsylvania (S1), Tennessee (S5), Texas (S4), West Virginia (SX), Wisconsin (S3)
Canada Ontario (S2)

Other Statuses

Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA) Schedule 1/Annexe 1 Status: SC (05Jun2003)
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Threatened (04May2012)
Comments on COSEWIC: Reason for designation: This fish is a small-bodied species with a restricted and declining distribution that inhabits river, stream and lake habitats. The species is threatened by habitat loss, habitat degradation from nutrient and sediment loading, climate change and several exotic species. The overall level of threat has been assessed as high.

Status history: Designated Special Concern in April 1985. Status re-examined and confirmed in May 2000. Status re-examined and designated Threatened in May 2012.

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Nueces River drainage, southern Texas, to Edisto River drainage, South Carolina; north in Mississippi River and Great Lakes basins to southeastern Kansas, southeastern Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, southern Ontario, Ohio, and West Virginia; common but becoming less so in parts of range (Page and Burr 1991, Lee et al. 1980). Subspecies peninsularis: peninsular Florida. Subspecies emiliae: remainder of range, except areas of intergradation in southern Georgia and northeastern Florida west to Ochlockonee river (Page and Burr 1991, Lee et al. 1980).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of subpopulations and locations.

Population Size: 10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but relatively large.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Localized threats may exist, but on a range-wide scale no major threats are known.

Short-term Trend Comments: Declining in some areas (Page and Burr 1991).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Nueces River drainage, southern Texas, to Edisto River drainage, South Carolina; north in Mississippi River and Great Lakes basins to southeastern Kansas, southeastern Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, southern Ontario, Ohio, and West Virginia; common but becoming less so in parts of range (Page and Burr 1991, Lee et al. 1980). Subspecies peninsularis: peninsular Florida. Subspecies emiliae: remainder of range, except areas of intergradation in southern Georgia and northeastern Florida west to Ochlockonee river (Page and Burr 1991, Lee et al. 1980).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MI, MN, MO, MS, OH, OK, PA, TN, TX, WI, WVextirpated
Canada ON

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IA Allamakee (19005)*, Clayton (19043)*, Clinton (19045), Dubuque (19061), Jackson (19097), Muscatine (19139), Scott (19163)*
MI Hillsdale (26059), Monroe (26115), Wayne (26163)*
MN Dakota (27037), Goodhue (27049), Houston (27055), Le Sueur (27079), Rice (27131), Wabasha (27157), Washington (27163), Winona (27169)
MO Barton (29011)*, Bollinger (29017), Butler (29023), Cape Girardeau (29031), Carter (29035), Dunklin (29069), Mississippi (29133), New Madrid (29143), Osage (29151)*, Pemiscot (29155), Perry (29157), Ripley (29181)*, Scott (29201), St. Charles (29183)*, Ste. Genevieve (29186), Stoddard (29207), Wayne (29223)
OH Auglaize (39011), Lake (39085)*, Mercer (39107), Morgan (39115)*, Putnam (39137)*, Summit (39153), Van Wert (39161), Washington (39167)*, Williams (39171)
OK Pushmataha (40127)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 South Fork Edisto (03050204), Four Hole Swamp (03050206), Salkehatchie (03050207), Middle Savannah (03060106), Brier (03060108), Lower Savannah (03060109), Lower Ogeechee (03060202), Canoochee (03060203), Lower Oconee (03070102), Lower Ocmulgee (03070104), Little Ocmulgee (03070105), Altamaha (03070106), Ohoopee (03070107), Satilla (03070201), St. Marys (03070204), Upper St. Johns (03080101), Oklawaha (03080102), Lower St. Johns (03080103), Kissimmee (03090101), Western Okeechobee Inflow (03090103), Lake Okeechobee (03090201), Everglades (03090202), Caloosahatchee (03090205), Peace (03100101), Withlacoochee (03100208), Aucilla (03110103), Upper Suwannee (03110201), Alapaha (03110202), withlacoochee (03110203), Lower Suwannee (03110205), Santa Fe (03110206), Apalachee Bay-St. Marks (03120001), Upper Ochlockonee (03120002), Lower Ochlockonee (03120003), Middle Chattahoochee-Walter F. George Reservoir (03130003), Lower Chattahoochee (03130004), Upper Flint (03130005), Middle Flint (03130006), Kinchafoonee-Muckalee (03130007), Lower Flint (03130008), Ichawaynochaway (03130009), Spring (03130010), Apalachicola (03130011), Chipola (03130012), New (03130013), St. Andrew-St. Joseph Bays (03140101), Choctawhatchee Bay (03140102), Yellow (03140103), Blackwater (03140104), Perdido (03140106), Upper Choctawhatchee (03140201), Pea (03140202), Lower Choctawhatchee (03140203), Upper Conecuh (03140301), Patsaliga (03140302), Sepulga (03140303), Lower Conecuh (03140304), Escambia (03140305), Lower Coosa (03150107), Middle Tallapoosa (03150109), Lower Tallapoosa (03150110), Upper Alabama (03150201), Cahaba (03150202), Middle Alabama (03150203), Lower Alabama (03150204), Upper Tombigbee (03160101), Buttahatchee (03160103), Tibbee (03160104), Luxapallila (03160105), Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub (03160106), Sipsey (03160107), Noxubee (03160108), Mulberry (03160109), Sipsey Fork (03160110), Locust (03160111), Upper Black Warrior (03160112), Lower Black Warrior (03160113), Middle Tombigbee-Chickasaw (03160201), Sucarnoochee (03160202), Lower Tambigbee (03160203), Mobile - Tensaw (03160204), Mobile Bay (03160205), Chunky-Okatibbee (03170001), Upper Chickasawhay (03170002), Lower Chickasawhay (03170003), Upper Leaf (03170004), Lower Leaf (03170005), Pascagoula (03170006), Black (03170007), Escatawpa (03170008), Mississippi Coastal (03170009), Upper Pearl (03180001), Middle Pearl-Strong (03180002), Middle Pearl-Silver (03180003), Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004), Bogue Chitto (03180005)
04 Upper Fox (04030201), Wolf (04030202), Lake Winnebago (04030203), Little Calumet-Galien (04040001), Detroit (04090004)+, Huron (04090005)+, Ottawa-Stony (04100001)+, Raisin (04100002)+, St. Joseph (04100003)+, St. Marys (04100004)+, Upper Maumee (04100005), Auglaize (04100007)*, Blanchard (04100008)+*, Lower Maumee (04100009)*, Cedar-Portage (04100010)*, Sandusky (04100011)*, Huron-Vermilion (04100012)*, Black-Rocky (04110001)*, Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003)+, Lake Erie (04120200)
05 Tuscarawas (05040001)+, Muskingum (05040004)+*, Paint (05060003)*, Upper Great Miami (05080001)*, Upper Green (05110001), Barren (05110002), Middle Green (05110003), Rough (05110004), Lower Green (05110005), Pond (05110006), Upper Wabash (05120101)*, Tippecanoe (05120106), Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108), Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111), Embarras (05120112), Lower Wabash (05120113), Little Wabash (05120114), Skillet (05120115), Lower East Fork White (05120208), Lower Cumberland (05130205), Rolling Fork (05140103), Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201), Highland-Pigeon (05140202), Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203), Tradewater (05140205), Lower Ohio (05140206)
06 Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001), Guntersville Lake (06030001), Wheeler Lake (06030002), Pickwick Lake (06030005), Bear (06030006), Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001), Lower Duck (06040003), Kentucky Lake (06040005), Lower Tennessee (06040006)
07 Lower St. Croix (07030005)+, Rush-Vermillion (07040001)+, Cannon (07040002)+, Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003)+, Trempealeau (07040005), La Crosse-Pine (07040006)+, Black (07040007), Lower Chippewa (07050005), Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Upper Iowa (07060002)+*, Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003)+, Turkey (07060004)+*, Apple-Plum (07060005)+, Lower Wisconsin (07070005)+, Kickapoo (07070006), Copperas-Duck (07080101)+, Lower Cedar (07080206)+*, Upper Rock (07090001), Crawfish (07090002), Lower Rock (07090005)+*, Peruque-Piasa (07110009)+*, Kankakee (07120001), Upper Fox (07120006), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001)*, Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003)*, Lower Illinois (07130011)*, Cahokia-Joachim (07140101)+, Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105)+, Big Muddy (07140106), Whitewater (07140107)+, Cache (07140108)
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100)+, Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201), Obion (08010202), South Fork Obion (08010203), North Fork Forked Deer (08010204), South Fork Forked Deer (08010205), Upper Hatchie (08010207), Lower Hatchie (08010208), Loosahatchie (08010209), Wolf (08010210), Lower Mississippi-Helena (08020100), New Madrid-St. Johns (08020201)+, Upper St. Francis (08020202)+, Lower St. Francis (08020203)+, Little River Ditches (08020204)+, L'anguille (08020205), Lower White-Bayou Des Arc (08020301), Cache (08020302), Lower White (08020303), Big (08020304), Lower Arkansas (08020401), Bayou Meto (08020402), Lower Mississippi-Greenville (08030100), Little Tallahatchie (08030201), Yocona (08030203), Coldwater (08030204), Yalobusha (08030205), Upper Yazoo (08030206), Big Sunflower (08030207), Deer-Steele (08030209)*, Ouachita Headwaters (08040101), Upper Ouachita (08040102), Little Missouri (08040103), Lower Ouachita-Smackover (08040201), Lower Ouachita-Bayou De Loutre (08040202), Upper Saline (08040203), Lower Saline (08040204), Bayou Bartholomew (08040205), Bayou D'arbonne (08040206), Lower Ouachita (08040207), Lower Red (08040301), Castor (08040302), Dugdemona (08040303)*, Little (08040304), Bayou Cocodrie (08040306), Boeuf (08050001), Bayou Macon (08050002), Lower Mississippi-Natchez (08060100), Upper Big Black (08060201), Lower Big Black (08060202), Bayou Pierre (08060203), Homochitto (08060205), Buffalo (08060206), Lower Mississippi-Baton Rouge (08070100)*, Bayou Sara-Thompson (08070201)*, Amite (08070202), Tickfaw (08070203), Lake Maurepas (08070204)*, Tangipahoa (08070205), Atchafalaya (08080101), Bayou Teche (08080102), Mermentau Headwaters (08080201), Upper Calcasieu (08080203), Whisky Chitto (08080204), West Fork Calcasieu (08080205), Lower Calcasieu (08080206), Lower Mississippi-New Orleans (08090100)*, Liberty Bayou-Tchefuncta (08090201)
10 Lower Gasconade (10290203)+*
11 Middle White (11010004)*, Upper Black (11010007)+, Current (11010008)+, Upper White-Village (11010013), Little Red (11010014), Upper Verdigris (11070101), Upper Neosho (11070204), Spring (11070207)+*, Lower Neosho (11070209), Poteau (11110105), Frog-Mulberry (11110201), Dardanelle Reservoir (11110202)*, Lake Conway-Point Remove (11110203), Petit Jean (11110204), Cadron (11110205), Fourche La Fave (11110206), Lower Arkansas-Maumelle (11110207), Bois D'arc-Island (11140101), Kiamichi (11140105)+, Pecan-Waterhole (11140106), Upper Little (11140107), Lower Little (11140109), Mckinney-Posten Bayous (11140201), Loggy Bayou (11140203), Red Chute (11140204), Bodcau Bayou (11140205), Bayou Pierre (11140206), Lower Red-Lake Iatt (11140207), Black Lake Bayou (11140209), Lower Sulphur (11140302), Cross Bayou (11140304), Caddo Lake (11140306)
12 Middle Sabine (12010002), Toledo Bend Reservoir (12010004), Lower Sabine (12010005), Middle Neches (12020002), Lower Neches (12020003), Upper Angelina (12020004), Lower Angelina (12020005), Village (12020006), Pine Island Bayou (12020007), Lower Trinity-Tehuacana (12030201), Lower Trinity-Kickapoo (12030202), West Fork San Jacinto (12040101), Spring (12040102), East Fork San Jacinto (12040103), Buffalo-San Jacinto (12040104), Sabine Lake (12040201), East Galveston Bay (12040202), West Galveston Bay (12040204), Lower Brazos-Little Brazos (12070101), Lower Colorado-Cummins (12090301), Lower Colorado (12090302), Lavaca (12100101), Middle Guadalupe (12100202), Lower Guadalupe (12100204), Middle Nueces (12110105), Lower Frio (12110108), Lower Nueces (12110111)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A two-inch fish (minnow).
Reproduction Comments: Spawns mid-June to mid-July in north, March-September in Florida.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, CREEK, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND
Habitat Comments: Usually in lowlands in clear to turbid, sluggish, often weedy waters of lakes, reservoirs, sloughs, swamps, and streams of all sizes.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats chironomid larvae, copepods, and other invertebrates (Lee et al. 1980).
Length: 5 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Small Cyprinids

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat. For some species (e.g., slender chub), an impoundment may constitute a barrier. For others (e.g., flame chub) a stream larger than 4th order may be a barrier.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. In some species, individuals may migrate variable distances between spawning areas and nonspawning habitats.

Separation distances (in aquatic kilometers) for cyprinids are arbitrary but reflect the presumption that movements and appropriate separation distances generally should increase with fish size. Hence small, medium, and large cyprinids, respectively, have increasingly large separation distances. Separation distance reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Occupied locations that are separated by a gap of 10 km or more of any aquatic habitat that is not known to be occupied represent different occurrences. However, it is important to evaluate seasonal changes in habitat to ensure that an occupied habitat occurrence for a particular population does not artificially separate spawning areas and nonspawning areas as different occurrences simply because there have been no collections/observations in an intervening area that may exceed the separation distance.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 12Dec1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • Amemiya, C. T., P. K. Powers, and J. R. Gold. 1992. Chromosomal evolution in North American cyprinids. Pages 515--533 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Amemiya, C. T., and J. R. Gold. 1990. Chromosome NOR phenotypes of seven species of North American Cyprinidae, with comments on cytosystematic relationships of the Notropis volucellus nspecies-group, Opsopoeodus emiliae, and the genus Pteronotropis. Copeia 1990:68-78.

  • Anderson, Allison A., C. Hubbs, K. O. Winemiller, and R. J. Edwards. 1995. Texas freshwater fish assemblages following three decades of environmental change. The Southwest Naturalist 40(3):314-321.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. Univ. Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1052 pp.

  • Coburn, M. M., and T. M. Cavender. 1992. Interrelationships of North American cyprinid fishes. Pages 328-373 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Cudmore, B. and E. Holm. 1997. Updated Status of the Pugose Minnow, Opsopoeodus emiliae, in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), Ottawa, Ontario. unnumbered pp.

  • Dextrase, A.J. 1997. COSSARO Candidate V,T,E, Species Evaluation Form for Pugnose Minnow (Opsopoeodus emiliae). Unpublished report prepared for Committee on the Status of Species at Risk in Ontario (COSSARO), Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 3 pp.

  • Dextrase, A.J. 2000. COSSARO Candidate V,T,E Species Evaluation Form for Pugnose Minnow (Opsopoeodus emiliae). Unpublished report prepared by Natural Heritage Information Centre for Committee on the Status of Species at Risk in Ontario (COSSARO), Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 3 pp.

  • Dimmick, W. W. 1987. Phylogenetic relationships of Notopris hubbsi, N. welaka, and N. emiliae (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae). Copeia 1987:316-325.

  • Douglas, Neil H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's publ. div. Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, David A. and Wayne C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.

  • GILBERT, C.R. AND R.M. BAILEY. 1972. SYSTEMATICS AND ZOOGEOGRAPHY OF THE AMERICAN CYPRINID FISH NOTROPIS (OPSOPOEODUS) EMILIAE. OCCAS. PAP. MUS. ZOOL. UNIV. MICHIGAN (664):1035

  • Gerking, Shelby D. 1945. Distribution of Fishes of Indiana. In Investigations of Indiana Lakes and Streams. 3(1): 1-137. Indiana Department of Conservation, Division of Fish and Game, Indianapolis and Department of Zoology, Indiana University, Bloomington.

  • Gilbert, C. R. and R. M. Bailey. 1972. Systematics and zoogeography of the American cyprinid fish Notropis (Opsopoeodus) emiliae. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan No. 664. 35 pp.

  • HUBBS, CLARK, EDIE MARSH-MATTHEWS, WILLIAM J. MATTHEWS, AND ALLISON A. ANDERSON. 1997. CHANGES IN FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN EAST TEXAS STREAMS FROM 1953 TO 1986. TEXAS J. SCI. 49(3)SUPPL.:67-84.

  • Li, Y., and J. R. Gold. 1991. Cytogenetic studies in North American minnows (Cyprinidae): XXII. Chromosomal nucleolar organizer regions in the genus Pimephales. Canadian Journal of Zoology 69:2826-2830.

  • Li, Y., and J. R. Gold. 1991. Cytogenetic studies in North American minnows (Cyprinidae): XXII. Chromosomal nucleolar organizer regions in the genus PIMEPHALES. Can. J. Zool. 69:2826-2830.

  • MORIARTY, LOREN J. AND KIRK O. WINEMILLER. 1997. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIATION IN FISH ASSEMBLAGE STRUCTURE IN VILLAGE CREEK, HARDIN COUNTY, TEXAS. TEXAS J. SCI. 49(3)SUPPL.: 85-110.

  • Mayden, R. L. 1989. Phylogenetic studies of North American minnows, with emphasis on the genus Cyprinella (Teleostei: Cypriniformes). University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Miscellaneous Publication (80):1-189.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and C. E. Johnson. 1990. The breeding behavior of Opsopoeodus emiliae (Cyprinidae) and its phylogenetic implications. Copeia 1990:1176-1180.

  • Page, LM, H.Espinoza-Perez, L.Findley, C.Gilbert, R. Lea, N. Mandrak, R.Mayden and J.Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico, 7th edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Parker, B., P. McKee and R.R. Campbell. 1987. Status of the Pugnose Minnow, Notropis emiliae, in Canada. Canadian Field- Naturalist 101(2): 208-212.

  • ROSS, STEPHEN T. 1996. INLAND FISHES OF MISSISSIPPI. SELECTED SPECIES ACCOUNTS. COAUTHORED WITH W.M. BRENNEMAM, W.T. SLACK, M.T. O'CONNELL, AND T.L. PETERSON. ILLUSTRATED BY D.G. ROSS. DRAFT COPY.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Simon, Thomas P. 2011. Fishes of Indiana. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, 345 pp.

  • WINEMILLER, KIRK O. 1991. ECOMORPHOLOGICAL DIVERSIFICATION IN LOWLAND FRESHWATER FISH ASSEMBLAGES FROM FIVE BIOTIC REGIONS. ECOL. MONOGR. 61(4):345-365.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Douglas, N. H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Marcy, B. C., Jr., D. E. Fletcher, F. D. Martin, M. H. Paller, and M.J.M. Reichert. 2005. Fishes of the middle Savannah River basin. University of Georgia Press, Athens. xiv + 460 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

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