Ophiogomphus arizonicus - Kennedy, 1917
Arizona Snaketail
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Ophiogomphus arizonicus Kennedy, 1917 (TSN 101752)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.117587
Element Code: IIODO12030
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Insects - Dragonflies and Damselflies
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Insecta Odonata Gomphidae Ophiogomphus
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Paulson, D.R. and S.W. Dunkle. 1999. A Checklist of North American Odonata. Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound Occasional Paper, 56: 86 pp. Available: http://www.ups.edu/x7015.xml.
Concept Reference Code: A99PAU01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Ophiogomphus arizonicus
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 07May2007
Global Status Last Changed: 07May2007
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Limited range, susceptibility of larvae to degradation of water quality or alterations of stream flow. Suspected, but apparently not actually known, that there are a few dozen occurrences in a small range.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2N3 (07May2007)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Arizona (S3S4), New Mexico (SNR)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 20,000-2,500,000 square km (about 8000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Eastern Arizona and westernmost New Mexico. Not in far north or south of either state.

Number of Occurrences: 6 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: As presently known, quite restricted in range, but may occur widely in northern Mexico, which is unsampled.

Population Size: 10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Probably hundreds on each stream.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Unknown

Overall Threat Impact: High - medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Lumbering, overgrazing, and fires all destabilize stream flow. However, sites in National Forests have some level of protection from some disturbances.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Described from Huachuca Mountains of Arizona, not recently seen there but probably extant; otherwise no declines suspected.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Survey for EOs, including in Mexico.

Distribution
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Global Range: (20,000-2,500,000 square km (about 8000-1,000,000 square miles)) Eastern Arizona and westernmost New Mexico. Not in far north or south of either state.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AZ, NM

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NM Catron (35003)*, Grant (35017)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
15 Upper Gila (15040001)+*, San Francisco (15040004)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A fairly large, mostly green clubtail dragonfly.
General Description: Thorax all green except for reduced black shoulder stripes, abdomen striped lengthwise. (Kennedy, 1917; Needham & Westfall, 1955). Larva flat, brown with an oval abdomen.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Nearly identical to O. SEVERUS, but male epiproct is only half length of cerci (3/4 in SEVERUS), and female has a straight post-ocellar ridge on vertex (strongly undulate in SEVERUS). Larva has higher dorsal abdominal spines than SEVERUS. (Dunkle, 1976).
Ecology Comments: Habitat rocky mountain streams with silt bottomed pools.
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, High gradient, Moderate gradient
Habitat Comments: Found in fairly swift rocky mountain streams in pine woodland with silt for larval habitat. The adults forage Males perch on rocks near pools of stream to wait for females. Females perch on a rock until they accumulate a ball of eggs, then fly out to deposit them in water. from ground in open forest.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Phenology Comments: Larvae overwinter, flight season early June to early September.
Length: 5.5 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: River-breeding Dragonfly Odonates

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on some evidence of historical or current presence of single or multiple specimens ideally with evidence of on-site breeding (teneral adults, mating pairs, territorial males, ovipositing females, larvae, or exuviae) at a given location with potential breeding habitat. Although oviposition may not necessarily yield progeny that survive to adulthood (Fincke, 1992) and movements resembling oviposition may not necessarily result in egg deposition (Okazawa and Ubukata, 1978; Martens, 1992; 1994), presence of on-site oviposition is here accepted as an indicator of a minimum element occurrence because the time and effort involved in determining success of emergence is beyond the scope of the general survey. As adults of some species might disperse moderate distances (see below), only sites with available larval habitat can be considered appropriate for a minimum occurrence. Single, non-breeding adults captured away from potential suitable breeding habitat should not be treated as element occurrences. Evidence is derived from reliable published observation or collection data; unpublished, though documented (i.e. government or agency reports, web sites, etc.) observation or collection data; or museum specimen information. A photograph may be accepted as documentation of an element occurrence for adults only (nymphs and subimagos are too difficult to identify in this manner) provided that the photograph shows diagnostic features that clearly delineate the species from other species with similar features. Sight records, though valuable, should not be accepted as the basis for new element occurrences. Instead, such records should be utilized to further study an area to verify the element occurrence in that area.
Separation Barriers: Within catchments there are likely no significant barriers to movement of sexually mature adults between microhabitats, with even extensive sections of inappropriate waterway or major obstructions to flow being readily traversed by adults within the flight season. Dams large enough to cause extensive pooling may serve as separation barriers.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: None
Separation Justification: Odonate dispersal capability has been poorly documented with long-range movements inferred from observations in transit and analogy with other insects (Conrad et al., 1999; Corbet, 1999). Adults are known to wander, some over great distances (not so for damselflies). Mass migration over great distances is not herein considered when drafting separation distances as such behavior is limited to few species (e.g. Anax junius, Libellula quadrimaculata and other Libellula spp., Sympetrum spp.), occurs unpredictably and infrequently (10 year cycles for L. quadrimaculata), are unidirectional or intergenerational (Freeland et al., 2003), or occurs under unusual circumstances such as irritation by trematode parasites (Dumont and Hinnekint, 1973) or during major weather events (Moskowitz et al., 2001; Russell et al., 1998).

Corbet (1999) estimated the average distance traveled for a commuting flight (between reproductive and roosting or foraging sites) to be less than 200 m but sometimes greater than one km. Distance traveled is generally greatest for river-breeding odonates, but can vary considerably between taxa (Corbet, 1999). Both D. Paulson and S. Valley (personal communication, 1998) suggest a population should be defined by the river drainage in which it is found, but drainages or catchments vary by orders of magnitude in size and isolation so it is not obvious how to effect this recommendation.

The combination of breeding dispersal in the range of a few km with the potential for periodic long distance dispersal providing landscapes are not fragmented has led to the somewhat arbitrary assignment of separation distances at 10 km (unsuitable and suitable).

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .5 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: The few studies determining area of adult foraging habitat surrounding breeding sites have indicated a range of 30 meters to 300 meters [see Briggs (1993) for Enallagma laterale; Corbet (1999) for Nesciothemis nigeriensis and Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis; Beukeman (2002) for Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis; and Samways and Steytler (1996) for Chorolestes tessalatus]. As a result, an element occurrence should include the breeding site and surrounding pond or upland habitat extending 500 m in a radius from the breeding site.
Date: 02Jun2004
Author: Cordeiro, J.
Notes: River breeding dragonflies:
ANISOPTERA: Aeshnidae: Aeshna dugesi, A. persephone, A. walkeri, Anax strenuus, A. walsinghami, Basiaeschna, Boyeria, Oplonaeschna; Cordulegastridae: Cordulegaster diadema, C. dorsalis, C. maculata; Corduliidae: Helocordulia, Somatochlora elongata, S. ensigera, S. filosa, S. forcipata, S. georgiana, S. linearis, S. margarita, S. minor, S. ozarkensis, S. tenebrosa, S. walshii; Gomphidae: Dromogomphus, Erpetogomphus, Gomphus (Gomphurus): all species, Gomphus (Gomphus): all species, Gomphus (Hylogomphus): all species, Gomphus (Stenogomphus): all species, Gomphus (Phanogomphus) borealis, G. descriptus, G. hodgesi, G. lividus, G. minutus, G. quadricolor, Hagenius, Lanthus, Neurocordulia, Octogomphus, Ophiogomphus, Phyllogomphoides albrighti, Progomphus borealis, P. obscurus, Remartina, Stylogomphus, Stylurus; Libellulidae: Brechmorhoga, Dythemis, Macrothemis, Nesogonia, Paltothemis, Pseudoleon; Macromiidae: Macromia

Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 07May2007
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Dunkle, S.W.; Paulson, Dennis R. [1998], Schweitzer, D.F. (2007)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 08May2007
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): DUNKLE, S. W. (1991 original), reviewed but not change by Schweitzer, D.F. in 2007.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Bick, G.H. 1983. Odonata at risk in conterminous United States and Canada. Odonatologica 12(3):209-226.

  • Dunkle, S.W., 1976. Larva of the dragonfly, Ophiogomphus arizonicus (Odonata: Gomphidae). The Florida Entomologist 59(3):317-320.

  • Kennedy, C.H. 1915. Notes on the Life History and Ecology of the Dragonflies (Odonata) of Central California and Nevada. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 52, no. 2192. pp. 483-635.

  • Needham, J.G. and M.J. Westfall, Jr. 1954. A Manual of the Dragonflies of North America (Anisoptera). University of California Press, Berkeley, California. 615 pp.

  • Needham, J.G., M.J. Westfall, Jr., and M.L. May. 2000. Dragonflies of North America. Revised edition. Scientific Publishers: Gainesville, Florida. 939 pp.

  • Paulson, D.R. and S.W. Dunkle. 1999. A Checklist of North American Odonata. Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound Occasional Paper, 56: 86 pp. Available: http://www.ups.edu/x7015.xml.

  • Paulson, D.R., and S.W. Dunkle. 2009. A checklist of North American Odonata including English name, etymology, type locality, and distribution. Originally published as Occasional Paper No. 56, Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound, June 1999; completely revised March 2009. Online. Available: http://www.odonatacentral.org/docs/NA_Odonata_Checklist_2009.pdf.

  • Stevens, L.E., and R.A. Bailowitz. 2009. Odonata biogeography in the Grand Canyon ecoregion, southwestern USA. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 102(2):261-274.

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