Oncorhynchus mykiss gilberti - (Jordan, 1894)
Kern River Golden Trout
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Oncorhynchus mykiss gilberti (Jordan, 1894) (TSN 553420)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.104739
Element Code: AFCHA02093
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Salmon and Trouts
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Salmoniformes Salmonidae Oncorhynchus
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Smith, G. R., and R. F. Stearley. 1989. The classification and scientific names of rainbow and cutthroat trouts. Fisheries (Bethesda) 14(1):4-10.
Concept Reference Code: A89SMI01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Oncorhynchus mykiss gilberti
Taxonomic Comments: This subspecies formerly was listed as a population of golden trout (taxon aguabonita) (Schreck and Behnke 1971), then was shown to be effectively isolated genetically and physically (Gold and Gall 1975). It is sufficiently distinct genetically (Berg 1987) and meristically (Gold and Gall 1975) to warrant subspecies status. Subspecies gilberti is genetically intermediate between coastal rainbow trout (subspecies gairdneri) and the Little Kern River golden trout (subspecies whitei) (closer to the former) (Berg 1987), and it may have originated through hybridization and introgression between subspecies gairdneri and whitei, followed by isolation (Berg 1987). Behnke (1992) grouped the Kern and Little Kern golden trout as one subspecies (gilberti) of O. mykiss. He stated that they could be recognized as separate subspecies (gilberti and whitei, respectively) provided they are kept together in the same species (O. mykiss). Behnke indicated that whitei may be indistinguishable from gilberti. Behnke (2002) treated these forms as three subspecies: Golden Trout Creek golden trout or California golden trout (O. mykiss aguabonita), Kern River rainbow trout (O. mykiss gilberti), and Little Kern River golden trout (O. mykiss whitei).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5T1Q
Global Status Last Reviewed: 16Nov2005
Global Status Last Changed: 14Jul2003
Rounded Global Status: T1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Small range in southern California; threatened by hybridization/introgression with non-native rainbow trout and by poor watershed management.
Nation: United States
National Status: N1 (14Jul2003)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States California (S1)

Other Statuses

American Fisheries Society Status: Threatened (01Aug2008)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Once widely distributed in the Kern River system, California; now occurs in the Kern River from Durrwood Creek upstream to Junction Meadow; populations established through transplantation occur in Rattlesnake Creek and Osa Creek and possibly upper Peppermint Creek and others (Moyle 2002).

Area of Occupancy: 21-500 1-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5
Number of Occurrences Comments: Very few if any genetically pure populations are extant.

Population Size: Unknown
Population Size Comments: Uncommon in native range. No population estimates exist (1990).

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - high
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Primary threats include continued introgression with introduced rainbow trouts (genetically distinctive fishes that can be assigned to this taxon no longer exist in most areas), habitat losses from poor watershed management (grazing, logging, roading building), and unpredictable events such as floods, drought, and fire (Moyle et al. 1989, Moyle 2002). Negatively impacted as a result of the Flat Fire of 1976; subsequent landslides filled in pools and silted spawning areas (Moyle et al. 1989). Introduced beavers have significantly altered the river in Sequoia National Park, reducing habitat availability for trout (see Moyle 2002). Populations can withstand rafting, swimming, and catch-and-release fishing.

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Populations have not stabilized.

Long-term Trend: Decline of >70%

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Determine streams that are inhabited; determine population size. Assess habitat and identify areas in need of restoration or improvement.

Protection Needs: Protect sites that still contain this species.

Distribution
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Global Range: Once widely distributed in the Kern River system, California; now occurs in the Kern River from Durrwood Creek upstream to Junction Meadow; populations established through transplantation occur in Rattlesnake Creek and Osa Creek and possibly upper Peppermint Creek and others (Moyle 2002).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.

Map unavailable!:
Distribution data for U.S. states and Canadian provinces is known to be incomplete or has not been reviewed for this taxon.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CA

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A rainbow trout.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, High gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool, Riffle
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Clear, cold mountain streams of moderate to large size and high water quality.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Biological Research Needs: Determine life history requirements.
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 16Nov2005
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: T. Hopkins, P. Moyle, and G. Hammerson
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 07Feb1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Behnke, R. J. 1992. Native trout of western North America. American Fisheries Society Monograph 6. xx + 275 pp.

  • Berg, W. J. 1987. Evolutionary genetics of rainbow trout, PARASALMO GAIRDNERII (Richardson). Ph.D. Diss., Univ. California, Davis.

  • Gold, J. R., and G. A. E. Gall. 1975. The taxonomic structure of six California high Sierra golden trout (SALMO AQUABONITA) populations. Proc. California Acad. Sci. 40:243-263.

  • Jelks, H. L., S. J. Walsh, N. M. Burkhead, S. Contreras-Balderas, E. Díaz-Pardo, D. A. Hendrickson, J. Lyons, N. E. Mandrak, F. McCormick, J. S. Nelson, S. P. Platania, B. A. Porter, C. B. Renaud, J. Jacobo Schmitter-Soto, E. B. Taylor, and M.L. Warren, Jr. 2008. Conservation status of imperiled North American freshwater and diadromous fishes. Fisheries 33(8):372-407.

  • Moyle, P. B., J. E. Williams, and E. D. Wikramanayake. 1989. Fish species of special concern of California. Final report submitted to California Dept. of Fish and Game, Inland Fisheries Division, Rancho Cordova. 222 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Schreck, C. B., and R. J. Behnke. 1971. Trouts of the upper Kern River basin, California, with reference to systematics and evolution of western North American SALMO. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 28:987-998.

  • Smith, G. R., and R. F. Stearley. 1989. The classification and scientific names of rainbow and cutthroat trouts. Fisheries (Bethesda) 14(1):4-10.

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