Oncorhynchus gorbuscha - (Walbaum, 1792)
Pink Salmon
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum, 1792) (TSN 161975)
French Common Names: saumon rose
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.104110
Element Code: AFCHA02010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Salmon and Trouts
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Salmoniformes Salmonidae Oncorhynchus
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Oncorhynchus gorbuscha
Taxonomic Comments: Because of the fixed two-year life cycle, individuals spawning in a particular river system in odd and even years are reproductively isolated from each other and have developed into genetically different lines; in some river systems, such as the Fraser River in British Columbia, only the odd-year line exists in significant numbers; in Bristol Bay, Alaska, the major runs occur in even years (areas in between have runs in both even and odd years) (Heard 1991). An electrophoretic study by Varnavskaya and Beacham (1992) found that "pink salmon from the Fraser River and southern British Columbia were distinct from more northerly spawning populations in British Columbia, Alaska, and Kamchatka. The concept of a 'fluctuating stock' population structure of pink salmon or ramdom mixing during spawning over a large geographic area was not supported by observed patterns of genetic variation." In Russia, in contrast, lack of distinct stocks in different areas has been inferred from the lack of biochemical genetic differention detected in some surveys (see Varnavskaya and Beacham 1992).

Has hybridized with chinook salmon in the St. Marys River, Michigan (Rosenfield 1998).

Phylogenetic analysis based on mtDNA data indicates a sister relationship between pink salmon and chum salmon (Domanico and Phillips 1995).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 10May2016
Global Status Last Changed: 12Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Still widespread and locally common around the margins of the North Pacific Ocean.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4N5 (05Sep1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5B,N5N,N5M (27Dec2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alaska (S5), California (S1), Michigan (SNA), New York (SNA), Oregon (S4), Pennsylvania (SNA), Washington (S3), Wisconsin (SNA)
Canada British Columbia (S5), Ontario (SNA), Quebec (SNA)

Other Statuses

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Candidate (High) (10Jul2017)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: During ocean feeding and maturation, pink salmon range throughout the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea north of about 40 degrees north latitude. Populations originating from different coastal regions of the North Pacific occupy distinct ocean nursery areas. The range shifts southward for winter, northward in warmer months (Heard 1991).

Spawning occurs in most tributary rivers of northeastern Asia (Korea to Siberia) and in North America from California and Oregon (rare in these states) north to the Aleutian Islands and Mackenzie River delta, Arctic and Pacific drainages. Arctic populations do not appear to be self-sustaining but may be expanding and so warrant monitoring. The species has been introduced in the Great Lakes, Newfoundland, and several European areas.

In the southern part of the range, the most significant runs are in streams tributary to Puget Sound. This salmon has been recorded from various streams in northern California, but spawning in California has been rarely observed and only in the lower Russian River. Many recent sightings of adults in California may be represent strays from rivers to the north (Nehlsen et al. 1991).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: In a survey of populations in the contiguous U.S., Huntington et al. (1996) identified only five healthy native stocks, all in Washington.

Population Size: 10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: The most abundant of the seven species of Pacific salmon (Heard 1991).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: See GTRENDCOM. Tolerates a surprising amount of disturbance in spawning habitat.

Short-term Trend Comments: Of 2169 stocks in British Columbia and Yukon, Slaney et al. (1996) categorized 17 as extirpated, 137 as high risk, 21 as moderate risk, 17 as special concern, 1298 as unthreatened, and 679 as unknown status. At least two stocks in the contiguous U.S. have been extirpated (Nehlsen et al. 1991). In the Puget Sound area, stocks in the Elwha and Skokomish rivers have declined to escapements of 100 or fewer due to dam construction and habitat damage; the Dungeness River population had decreased by 90% of its historical level by 1981, due to insufficient flows and habitat degradation (Nehlsen et al. 1991).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Protection Needs: Protect and provide adequate flows to areas where spawning is observed. See Nehlsen et al. (1991) for general management and protection recommendations for anadromous salmonids. Meffe (1992) gave reasons why the hatchery approach to recovery ultimately will fail, and he emphasized that overharvest and habitat destruction need to be addressed in a major landscape-level effort.

Distribution
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Global Range: During ocean feeding and maturation, pink salmon range throughout the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea north of about 40 degrees north latitude. Populations originating from different coastal regions of the North Pacific occupy distinct ocean nursery areas. The range shifts southward for winter, northward in warmer months (Heard 1991).

Spawning occurs in most tributary rivers of northeastern Asia (Korea to Siberia) and in North America from California and Oregon (rare in these states) north to the Aleutian Islands and Mackenzie River delta, Arctic and Pacific drainages. Arctic populations do not appear to be self-sustaining but may be expanding and so warrant monitoring. The species has been introduced in the Great Lakes, Newfoundland, and several European areas.

In the southern part of the range, the most significant runs are in streams tributary to Puget Sound. This salmon has been recorded from various streams in northern California, but spawning in California has been rarely observed and only in the lower Russian River. Many recent sightings of adults in California may be represent strays from rivers to the north (Nehlsen et al. 1991).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, CA, MIexotic, NYexotic, OR, PAexotic, WA, WIexotic
Canada BC, ONexotic, QCexotic

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CA Mendocino (06045)
WA Clallam (53009)+, Jefferson (53031)+, King (53033)+, Mason (53045)+, Pierce (53053)+, Skagit (53057)+, Snohomish (53061)+, Thurston (53067)+, Whatcom (53073)+
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
17 Alsea (17100205), Siuslaw (17100206), Siltcoos (17100207), Nooksack (17110004), Upper Skagit (17110005), Sauk (17110006), Lower Skagit (17110007), Stillaguamish (17110008), Skykomish (17110009), Snoqualmie (17110010), Snohomish (17110011), Puyallup (17110014), Nisqually (17110015), Hood Canal (17110018), Puget Sound (17110019), Dungeness-Elwha (17110020)
18 Smith (18010101)*, Mad-Redwood (18010102)*, Lower Eel (18010105)*, South Fork Eel (18010106)*, Mattole (18010107)*, Big-Navarro-Garcia (18010108)+, Russian (18010110)*, Lower Klamath (18010209)*, Sacramento-Lower Thomes (18020103)*, Sacramento-Stone Corral (18020104)*, Lower Sacramento (18020109)*, Suisun Bay (18050001)*, San Pablo Bay (18050002)*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A salmon, adults averaging about 0.5 meters long; breeding male develops humped back.
General Description: Almost cylindrical body; rounded snout barely projects beyond upper lip when viewed from below; large horizontal mouth; thick lips (lower lip about twice as thick as upper lip); lower lip with deep notch in middle; 0-3 rows of papillae at middle of lower lip, 2-6 rows of papillae on upper lip; fewer than 75 scales in lateral series; brownish to blackish back becomes gold in breeding male, which also often has a scarlet stripe on each side. Juveniles often have three or more dark blotches on their sides (as do some adults). As adults, pink salmon are the smallest of the Pacific salmon. Total length up to 64 cm.
Reproduction Comments: Spawning males defend territories. Spawns usually mid-July to late October (also reported as August-November). Eggs hatch usually from late December-late February, depending on water temperature (Scott and Crossman 1973). Fry usually migrate downstream April-May. Adults die soon after spawning. Two-year life cycle (with rare exceptions). In the Dungeness River in Washington, there is a unique upriver and early spawning stock and a typical lower river late-spawning stock (see Nehlsen et al. 1991). See Stearley (1992) for a discussion of the historical ecology and life history evolution of Pacific salmons and trouts (ONCORHYNCHUS).
Ecology Comments: Abundance of spawning populations may differ greatly between years. For example, in the Fraser River in British Columbia, the odd-year run includes nearly 20 million adults whereas the even-year run is virtually nonexistent (Beacham et al. 1994). However, this pattern is not evident in all river systems.

Young form schools in estuaries before moving out to sea. Predators of young salmon include: cutthroat and rainbow trout, Dolly Varden, kingfishers, mergansers, etc.

Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Anadromous. Prior to spawning most adults return to the river, or tributary, in which they hatched (there is some possibly contradictory evidience from Russia). Adults move into fresh water June-September, depending on latitude. Freshwater migrations generally are less extensive than are those of other Pacific salmon (Heard 1991).
Marine Habitat(s): Near shore, Pelagic
Estuarine Habitat(s): Bay/sound, River mouth/tidal river
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool, Riffle
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Adults spend most of their lives (about 18 months) at sea. Spawning occurs in rivers and tributary streams, in lower tidal areas in some rivers. After juveniles emerge from gravel (in April-May), they immediately move downstream to estuary. Young fish may be found in inshore waters for several months before they move to sea (Scott and Crossman 1973). Introduced population in Great Lakes is unique in completing life cycle entirely in fresh water.

Spawns in gravel of rivers and tributary streams, generally in tidal portion or lower reaches of natal stream (generally within a few kilometers of the sea). Spawning female excavates several redds, or nests, that each may be 3 ft long and 1.5 ft deep in about 1-2 ft of water (Scott and Crossman 1973). Female covers redd after egg deposition.

Adult Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Food Comments: Migratory fry usually do not feed, but if they are traveling long distances they eat aquatic insect larvae. Juveniles schooling in estuaries feed on zooplankton. At sea, juveniles eats small crustaceans and other invertebrates. Adult diet includes mainly fishes, squid, euphausiids, amphipods, and copepods (Moyle et al. 1989).
Length: 61 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Management Requirements: See Beacham et al. (1994) for information on altering the time of reproductive maturation in captives; this method may be useful in developing a run of even-year pink salmon in the rivers such as the Fraser River where presently the odd-year run is large and the even-year run is virtually nonexistent.

Allendorf et al. (1997) proposed criteria for prioritizing Pacific salmon stocks for conservation; data limitations introduce subjectivity into the process, so expert judgment and peer review should be incorporated into the process.

Biological Research Needs: Determine genetic relationships among different spawning populations.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Fishes with Anadromous Populations

Use Class: Freshwater
Subtype(s): Rearing & Migration Area, Spawning & Rearing Area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat. For anadromous populations, occurrences are based on collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more spawning adults, redds, other evidence of spawning, or larvae or juveniles in appropriate spawning/rearing habitat.
Mapping Guidance: Conceptually, the occurrence includes the entire freshwater area used by the population, including spawning, rearing, and migration areas. For anadromous populations, an occurrence should extend from the most upstream spawning areas downstream to the ocean. However, it is desirable (and practical) to subdivide this sometimes very large occurrence, sometimes overlapping with many other spaghetti-like occurrences extending down from the upstream spawning areas to the ocean, into separate source features or sub-occurrences, labeled with a feature label that reflects the life history stage in that area. Moreover, it may make practical sense to treat the areas downstream of spawning and/or rearing areas as a mixed element animal assemblage: Freshwater Salmon Migration Corridor. This negates the need to separately map each occurrence down to the ocean from its upstream spawning location. Information about areas with different life-history uses can be generated by using best professional judgment by district or regional fish biologists and may or may not incorporate specific locational information from spawning surveys or other surveys.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat that is very unlikely to be submerged even during periods of exceptionally high water (e.g., 100-year flood or 1% flood).
Alternate Separation Procedure: For anadromous populations and migratory populations that have distinct and separate spawning and nonspawning areas, the area used by each population whose spawning area is separated by a gap of at least 10 stream-km from other spawning areas within a stream system is potentially mappable as a distinct occurrence that extends down to the ocean (but see mapping guidance), regardless of whether the spawning areas are in the same or different tributaries.

For other (e.g., nonanadromous) populations in streams, separation distance is 10 stream-km for both suitable and unsuitable habitat. However, if it is known that the same population occupies sites separated by more than 10 km (e.g., this may be common for migratory, nonanadromous populations), those sites should be included within the same occurrence. In lakes, occurrences include all suitable habitat that is presumed to be occupied (based on expert judgment), even if documented collection/observation points are more than 10 km apart. Separate sub-occurrences or source features may usefully document locations of critical spawning areas within a lake.

Separation Justification: The separation distance is arbitrary but was selected to ensure that occurrences are of manageable size but not too small. Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

"Restricted movement is the norm in populations of stream salmonids during nonmigratory periods," but there is considerable variation in movements within and among species (Rodriguez 2002). Redband trout in Montana had October-December home ranges of 5-377 m, consistent with small movements observed for radio-tagged brook trout and cutthroat trout during fall and winter (Muhlfeld et al. 2001). For nonanadromous populations, little is known about juvenile dispersal (e.g., how far fishes may move between between their embryonic developmental habitat and eventual spawning site).

In summer and fall, radio-tagged cutthroat trout in Strawberry Reservoir in Utah had single-month home ranges that were usually about 3-4 km in maximum length (Baldwin et al. 2002). In the Blackfoot River drainage, Montana, radio-tagged westslope cutthroat trout moved 3-72 km (mean 31 km) to access spawning tributaries (Schmetterling 2001). This indicates that migratory but nonanadromous populations may use extensive areas and that one should not invoke the 10-km separation distance without considering the full extent of the population.

Date: 25Nov2009
Author: Hammerson, G., and L. Master
Notes: This Specs Group comprises fish species that include anadromous populations (may also include nonanadromous populations), such as lampreys, sturgeons, herrings, shads, salmonids, and smelts.

Criteria for marine occurrences (Location Use Class: Marine) have not yet been established. These may not be needed for marine occurrences of species that likely will be dealt with as mixed element assemblages (e.g., Salmonid Marine Concentration Area).

Feature Descriptor Definitions:

Spawning Area: area used for spawning but not for rearing or migration.

Rearing Area: area used for larval/juvenile development but not for spawning or migration.

Migration Corridor: area used for migration but not for rearing or spawning.

Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 21Jan2010
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: T. Hopkins, P. Moyle, and G. Hammerson
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 21Jan2010
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Allendorf, F. W., D. Bayles, D. L. Bottom, K. P. Currens, C. A. Frissell, D. Hankin, J. A. Lichatowich, W. Nehlsen, P. C. Trotter, and T. H. Williams. 1997. Prioritizing Pacific salmon stocks for conservation. Conservation Biology 11:140-152.

  • Beacham, T. D., C. B. Murray, and L. W. Barner. 1994. Influence of photoperiod on the timing of reproductive maturation in pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and its application to genetic transfers between odd- and even-year spawning populations. Canadian Journal of Zoology 72:826-833.

  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. Univ. Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1052 pp.

  • Berg, D. R. 1995. Riparian silvicultural system design and assessment in the Pacific Northwest Cascade Mountains, USA. Ecological Applications 5:87-96.

  • Cooper, E.L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania. Penn State Univ. Press, University Park, PA.

  • Domanico, M. J., and R. B. Phillips. 1995. Phylogenetic analysis of Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 4:366-371.

  • Hard, J. J., R. G. Kope, W. S. Grant, F. W. Waknitz, L. T. Parker, and R. S. Waples. 1996. Status review of pink salmon from Washington, Oregon, and California. U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NWFSC-25. 131 pp.

  • Hard, J.J., R.G. Kope, W.S. Grant, F.W. Waknitz, L.T. Parker, and R.S. Waples. 1996. Status review of pink salmon from Washington, Oregon, and California. U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-NWFSC-25, 131 p. 

  • Heard, W. R. 1991. Life history of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). Pages 120-230 in C. Groot and L. Margolis, editors. Pacific salmon life histories. University of British Columbia Press, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. xv + 564 pp.

  • Huntington, C., W. Nehlsen, and J. Bowers. 1996. A survey of healthy native stocks of anadromous salmonids in the Pacific Northwest and California. Fisheries 21(3):6-14.

  • Kope, R., T. Wainwright. 1998. Trends in status of Pacific salmon populations in Washington, Oregon, Caliornia, and Idaho. North Pacific Anadaromous Fish Commission. Bull. No. 1:1-12.

  • Lee, D. C., and J. Hyman. 1992. The stochastic life-cycle model (SLCM): simulating the population dynamics of anadromous salmonids. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Paper INT-459, Ogden, Utah. 30 pp.

  • Legendre, V. et J.F. Bergeron. 1977. Liste des poissons d' eau douce du Québec. MLCP, Service Aménage. Expl. Faune. Rap. dact. 6

  • McPhail, J.D. and C.C. Lindsey. 1970. Freshwater fishes of northwestern Canada and Alaska. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 173, Ottawa.

  • Meffe, G. K. 1992. Techno-arrogance and halfway technologies: salmon hatcheries on the Pacific coast of North America. Conservation Biology 6:350-354.

  • Morrow, J.E. 1980. The freshwater fishes of Alaska. Alaska Northwest Publishing Company, Anchorage, AK. 248 pp.

  • Moyle, P. B. 1976a. Inland fishes of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, California. 405 pp.

  • Moyle, P. B. 2002. Inland fishes of California. Revised and expanded. University of California Press, Berkeley. xv + 502 pp.

  • Moyle, P. B., J. E. Williams, and E. D. Wikramanayake. 1989. Fish species of special concern of California. Final report submitted to California Dept. of Fish and Game, Inland Fisheries Division, Rancho Cordova. 222 pp.

  • Nehlsen, W., J. E. Williams, and J. A. Lichatowich. 1991. Pacific salmon at the crossroads: stocks at risk from California, Oregon, Idaho, and Washington. Fisheries 16(2):4-21.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Nielsen, J. L., editor. 1995. Evolution and the aquatic ecosystem: defining unique units in population conservation. American Fisheries Society Symposium 17, Bethesda, Maryland. xii + 435 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Paulsen, C.M., R.A. Hinrichsen, T.R. Fisher. 2007. Measure twice, estimate once: Pacific salmon population viability analysis for highly variable populations. Trans. of the American Fisheries Society. 136:346-364.

  • Radchenko, V.I. 2012. Abundance dynamics of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) as a structured process determined by many factors. North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission Technical Report No. 8: 14-18.

  • Radchenko, V.I., O.S. Temnykh, V.V. Lapko. 2007. Trends in abundance and biological characteristics of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuska) in the North Pacific Ocean. North Pacific Anadramous Fish Commission Bull. No. 4. 7-12.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Rodriguez, M. A. 2002. Restricted movement in stream fish: the paradigm is complete, not lost. Ecology 83(1):1-13.

  • Rosenfield, J. A. 1998. Detection of natural hybridization between pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Laurentian Great Lakes using meristic, morphological, and color evidence. Copeia 1998:706-714.

  • Scott, W. B., and E. J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184. 966 pp.

  • Slaney, T. L., K. D. Hyatt, T. G. Northcote, and R. J. Fielden. 1996. Status of anadromous salmon and trout in British Columbia and Yukon. Fisheries 21(10):20-35.

  • Smith, C.L. 1985. The Inland Fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY. 522pp.

  • Stearley, R. F. 1992. Historical ecology of Salmoninae, with special reference to Oncorhynchus. Pages 622-658 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Thomas, J. W., Ward, J., Raphael, M.G., Anthony, R.G., Forsman, E.D., Gunderson, A.G., Holthausen, R.S., Marcot, B.G., Reeves, G.H., Sedell, J.R. and Solis, D.M. 1993. Viability assessments and management considerations for species associated with late-successional and old-growth forests of the Pacific Northwest. The report of the Scientific Analysis Team. USDA Forest Service, Spotted Owl EIS Team, Portland Oregon. 530 pp.

  • Varnavskaya, N. V., and T. D. Beacham. 1992. Biochemical genetic variation in odd-year pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) from Kamchatka. Canadian Journal of Zoology 70:2115-2120.

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References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Master, L. L. 1996. Synoptic national assessment of comparative risks to biological diversity and landscape types: species distributions. Summary Progress Report submitted to Environmental Protection Agency. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia. 60 pp.

  • Master, L. L. and A. L. Stock. 1998. Synoptic national assessment of comparative risks to biological diversity and landscape types: species distributions. Summary Report submitted to Environmental Protection Agency. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA. 36 pp.

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Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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