Oncorhynchus nerka - (Walbaum, 1792)
Sockeye Salmon
Other English Common Names: Kokanee
Synonym(s): Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum in Artedi, 1792) (TSN 161979)
French Common Names: saumon rouge
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.100974
Element Code: AFCHA02040
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Salmon and Trouts
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Salmoniformes Salmonidae Oncorhynchus
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Oncorhynchus nerka
Taxonomic Comments: Non-anadromous (kokanee) and anadromous (sockeye) forms formerly were considered different subspecies; subsequent studies indicate that the two subspecies (nerka = sockeye; kennerlyi = kokanee) cannot be adequately separated. Sockeye and kokanee salmon in Redfish Lake, Idaho, likely are reproductively isolated (Williams et al. 1992).

Taylor et al. (1996) examined genetic variation among 24 populations ranging from Kamchatka to the Columbia River and identified two major genetic groups: a "northwestern" group (Kamchatka, western Alaska, northwestern British Columbia) and a "southern" group (sockeye and kokanee populations from the Fraser and Columbia river systems). "The populations did not cluster by migratory form, but genetic affinities were organized more strongly by geographic proximity." "Patterns of genetic affinity and allele sharing suggested that kokanee have arisen from sea-run sockeye salmon several times independently in the North Pacific." The authors concluded that "sockeye salmon and kokanee and para- and polyphyletic, respectively, and that the present distribution of the ecotypes results from parallel evolutionary origins of kokanee from sockeye throughout the North Pacific."

Hendry et al. (2000) presented evidence suggesting that reproductive isolation between introduced populations of common origin can evolve after fewer than 13 generations.
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 28Dec2017
Global Status Last Changed: 12Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Sep1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N4N5B,N5N,N5M (28Dec2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alaska (S5), Arizona (SNA), California (SNR), Colorado (SNA), Idaho (SNR), Montana (SNA), Navajo Nation (SNA), Nevada (SNA), New Mexico (SNA), New York (SNA), North Carolina (SNA), Oregon (S4), Pennsylvania (SNA), South Dakota (SNA), Utah (SNA), Washington (S2S3), Wisconsin (SNA), Wyoming (SNA)
Canada British Columbia (S4), Manitoba (SNA), Nunavut (SUB,SNRN,SNRM), Ontario (SNA), Quebec (SNA), Saskatchewan (SNA), Yukon Territory (S2S3)

Other Statuses

Implied Status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): PS
Comments on USESA: Snake River (Idaho) stock is listed under U.S. ESA as Endangered wherever found. Ozette Lake (Washington) ESU is listed under U.S. ESA as Threatened. A 90-day finding to list the Issaquah Creek summer-run kokanee under the ESA did not present substantial scientific or commercial information indicating that it represents a distinct population segment, and therefore a listable entity (Federal Register, 23 October 2007). A 12-month finding to list the Lake Washington/Sammamish Watershed DPS was found to be not warranted (Federal Register, 04 October 2011).
Implied Status under the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC):PS:E,T,SC,NAR
Comments on COSEWIC: The Bowron?ES, Cultus?L, Harrison (U/S)?L, Quesnel?S, Sakinaw, Seton?L, Takla?Trembleur?EStu, Takla?Trembleur?Stuart?S, and Taseko?ES populations are designated Endangered; the North Barriere?ES and Widgeon (River?Type) populations are designated Threatened; the Francois?Fraser?S, Harrison (D/S)?L, Kamloops?ES, Lillooet?Harrison?L, and Nahatlatch?ES populations are designated Special Concern; the Anderson?Seton?ES, Chilko?ES, Chilko?S, Chilliwack?ES, Harrison River (River?Type), Nadina?Francois?ES, Pitt?ES, Shuswap Complex?L, and Shuswap?ES populations are designated Not at Risk.
IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: During oceanic feeding and maturation, this salmon ranges throughout the North Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, and eastern Sea of Okhotsk north of 40 degrees north latitude; there is considerable intermingling of Asian and North American populations, and of North American populations from Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska streams; the range shifts southward for winter, northward during warmer months. Natural lake populations occur in Japan, former USSR, Alaska, Washington, Idaho, Oregon, Yukon, and British Columbia. Anadromous forms occur in Asia from Hokkaido, Japan, to the Anadyr River (spawning mainly on the Kamchatka Peninsula); in North America, anadromous populations range from the Sacramento River, California, north to Point Hope, Alaska (common in north, rare south of Columbia River drainage). Major Alaskan spawning areas are in tributaries and lakes of the Kenai, Chignik, Naknet, Kuichak, Wood, and Kodiak Island river systems. South of Alaska in the Pacific Northwest, the major spawning river is the Fraser River system in British Columbia, with smaller runs in the Baker, Columbia, Cedar, Quinalt, and Ozette rivers in Washington. The Fraser River includes a number of important nursery lakes (Cultus, Adams, Harrison, Horsefly, Shuswap, and Quesnel) and many tributaries that support the major portion of the Pacific Northwest population. In eastern Washington, major nursery lakes for Columbia River are Lake Wenathchee and Osoyoos Lake. In western Washington, major nursery lakes are Quinalt Lake, Ozette Lake, Baker Lake, and Lake Washington. In a 1996 survey of populations in the contiguous U.S., one healthy native stock was identified (Wenatchee River, Washington). The kokanee (lake-stream form) has been introduced in many western states and elsewhere, but most transplants have been unsuccessful in establishing self-sustaining populations.

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: In a survey of populations in the contiguous U.S., Huntington et al. (1996) identified one healthy native stock (Wenatchee River, Washington).

Population Size Comments: This is the third most abundant of the seven species of Pacific salmon (Burgner 1991).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Decline is due to dams that blocked migration, mainstem passage mortality at Columbia and Snake river dams, overutilization in commercial fisheries, and habitat modification (see Nehlsen et al. 1991). Sockeye in the Deschutes River (Oregon) were largely eradicated by dam construction (small anadromous run is maintained by incidental passage of smolts from a resident kokanee population) (Nehlsen et al. 1991). In the Puget Sound area, decline of the Baker River sockeye population has been attributed to upstream and downstream passage problems as a result of dam construction (Nehlsen et al. 1991). Lake Ozette sockeye run on the Washington coast declined because of logging and overfishing in the 1940s and 1950s (Nehlsen et al. 1991).

The decline and persistent low abundance of the Rivers Inlet population in British Columbia apparently was due to poor marine survival, and not due to a decline in juvenile abundance (McKinnell et al. 2001).

Short-term Trend Comments: Of 917 stocks in British Columbia and Yukon, Slaney et al. (1996) categorized 20 as extirpated, 61 as high risk, 2 as moderate risk, 1 as special concern, 463 as unthreatened, and 370 as unknown status. At least 9 stocks in the contiguous U.S. have been extirpated; an estimated 96% of the habitat has been lost in the Columbia River basin (Nehlsen et al. 1991). In the Puget Sound area, the Baker River sockeye population declined from an average escapement of about 3000 in 1967-78 to an average of about 650 since 1979. The Lake Ozette sockeye run on the Washington coast declined from 30,000 historically to about 1000 in 1990.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Protection Needs: See Nehlsen et al. (1991) for general protection and management recommendations for anadromous salmonids. See Thomas et al. (1993) for information on habitat management for this and other at-risk fish species in the Pacific Northwest. Waples and Teel (1990) emphasized the importance of monitoring the genetic consequences of the large-scale artificial propagation programs involving Pacific salmon (see also Waples 1990). Meffe (1992) gave reasons why the hatchery approach to recovery ultimately will fail, and he emphasized that overharvest and habitat destruction need to be addressed in a major landscape-level effort.

Distribution
Help
Global Range: During oceanic feeding and maturation, this salmon ranges throughout the North Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, and eastern Sea of Okhotsk north of 40 degrees north latitude; there is considerable intermingling of Asian and North American populations, and of North American populations from Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska streams; the range shifts southward for winter, northward during warmer months. Natural lake populations occur in Japan, former USSR, Alaska, Washington, Idaho, Oregon, Yukon, and British Columbia. Anadromous forms occur in Asia from Hokkaido, Japan, to the Anadyr River (spawning mainly on the Kamchatka Peninsula); in North America, anadromous populations range from the Sacramento River, California, north to Point Hope, Alaska (common in north, rare south of Columbia River drainage). Major Alaskan spawning areas are in tributaries and lakes of the Kenai, Chignik, Naknet, Kuichak, Wood, and Kodiak Island river systems. South of Alaska in the Pacific Northwest, the major spawning river is the Fraser River system in British Columbia, with smaller runs in the Baker, Columbia, Cedar, Quinalt, and Ozette rivers in Washington. The Fraser River includes a number of important nursery lakes (Cultus, Adams, Harrison, Horsefly, Shuswap, and Quesnel) and many tributaries that support the major portion of the Pacific Northwest population. In eastern Washington, major nursery lakes for Columbia River are Lake Wenathchee and Osoyoos Lake. In western Washington, major nursery lakes are Quinalt Lake, Ozette Lake, Baker Lake, and Lake Washington. In a 1996 survey of populations in the contiguous U.S., one healthy native stock was identified (Wenatchee River, Washington). The kokanee (lake-stream form) has been introduced in many western states and elsewhere, but most transplants have been unsuccessful in establishing self-sustaining populations.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AZexotic, CA, COexotic, ID, MTexotic, NCexotic, NMexotic, NNexotic, NVexotic, NYexotic, OR, PAexotic, SDexotic, UTexotic, WA, WIexotic, WYexotic
Canada BCnative and exotic, MBexotic, NU, ONexotic, QCexotic, SKexotic, YT

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County (based on available natural heritage records unless otherwise indicated) Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
WA Chelan (53007)+, Clallam (53009)+, Douglas (53017)+, Grays Harbor (53027)+, Jefferson (53031)+, King (53033)+, Okanogan (53047)+, Skagit (53057)+, Snohomish (53061)+, Whatcom (53073)+
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
17 Pend Oreille (17010216), Little Spokane (17010308), Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake (17020001), Kettle (17020002), Colville (17020003), Chief Joseph (17020005), Okanogan (17020006), Similkameen (17020007), Methow (17020008), Lake Chelan (17020009), Upper Columbia-Entiat (17020010), Wenatchee (17020011), Moses Coulee (17020012), Banks Lake (17020014), Lower Crab (17020015), Upper Columbia-Priest Rapids (17020016), Upper Yakima (17030001), Naches (17030002), Hells Canyon (17060101), Imnaha (17060102), Lower Snake-Asotin (17060103), Wallowa (17060105), Lower Snake-Tucannon (17060107), Lower Snake (17060110), Middle Columbia-Lake Wallula (17070101), Walla Walla (17070102), Umatilla (17070103), Willow (17070104), Middle Columbia-Hood (17070105), Klickitat (17070106), Lower John Day (17070204), Upper Deschutes (17070301), Little Deschutes (17070302), Lower Crooked (17070305), Lower Deschutes (17070306), Trout (17070307), Lower Columbia-Sandy (17080001), Lower Columbia-Clatskanie (17080003), Upper Cowlitz (17080004), Lower Cowlitz (17080005), Lower Columbia (17080006), Clackamas (17090011), Lower Willamette (17090012), Hoh-Quillayute (17100101), Queets-Quinault (17100102), Upper Chehalis (17100103), Lower Chehalis (17100104), Fraser (17110001), Strait of Georgia (17110002), San Juan Islands (17110003), Nooksack (17110004), Upper Skagit (17110005), Sauk (17110006), Lower Skagit (17110007), Stillaguamish (17110008), Skykomish (17110009), Snoqualmie (17110010), Snohomish (17110011), Lake Washington (17110012), Duwamish (17110013), Puyallup (17110014), Nisqually (17110015), Puget Sound (17110019)
18 Cottonwood headwaters (18020113)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
Help
General Description: Sockeye salmon have numerous small scale, one dorsal fin plus one adipose fin, and no spines in the fins. The upper surface and tail fin of adults lack distinct dark spots. The first gill arch has 28-40 long slender gill rakers. The ocean stage is blue-green on top, silvery below. Spawning adults have a green head and bright red body, with the colors most intense in males. Maximum length is about 33 inches (84 cm). Young have 8-14 elliptical to oval parr marks on each side.
Reproduction Comments: Anadromous forms migrate from ocean waters up coastal streams and rivers to spawn in natal waters. They spend 1-4 years (usually 2 years) in the ocean before ascending streams (mainly in summer but some stocks as early as winter). Many stocks spawn in fall (peak often in October or November), but spawning extends into winter in some areas. Spawning sites often are in gravel riffles, sometimes along gravelly shores of lakes where seepage outflows, springs, or wind-induced waves occur. Eggs hatch in 6-9 weeks, depending on temperature, and larvae emerge 2-3 weeks later. Sockeye fry move upstream or downstream to nursery lakes, where the young spend 1-2 years (up to 3 or rarely 4 years in some areas of Alaska; usually 1 year in British Columbia) before going to sea, usually in spring; some populations use stream areas for rearing and may migrate to the sea soon after emergence.

Many non-anadromous (kokanee) populations move from lakes into tributary streams to spawn, though some remain in lakes. They enter spawning streams from late spring to midsummer, depending on the population. Kokanee spawn in different areas from August to February, at temperatures of 40-55 F.

Ecology Comments: Life cycle of sockeye similar to kokanee except sockeye matures in the ocean rather than lakes. Kokanee often travels in large schools. (Sigler and Sigler 1987). Two studies each reported survival rate of 4-20% for marine portion of life cycle (see Pauley et al. 1989). Northern squawfish and rainbow trout may be important predators on young in some lakes. Schools of young in lakes disperse as dusk approaches, reform after dawn (Pauley et al. 1989). In Montana, the introduction of opossum shrimp (MYSIS RELICTA) was followed by an abrupt decline in the kokanee population, apparently due to zooplankton decline caused by shrimp predation (Spencer et al. 1991).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Anadromous forms migrate from ocean waters up coastal streams and rivers to spawn in natal waters; spend 1-4 years (usually 2 years) in ocean, 2 years in freshwater; ascend river, spend 1-8 months in lake, then move to natal spawning area. Many non-anadromous populations move from lakes into tributary streams to spawn, some remain in lakes. Enters spawning rivers from late spring to midsummer, depending on the population.
Marine Habitat(s): Near shore, Pelagic
Estuarine Habitat(s): Bay/sound, River mouth/tidal river
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, CREEK, High gradient, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool, Riffle
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Nonbreeding adult sockeye salmon are oceanic, with many occurring in nutrient-rich waters of Alaska and the arctic. Kokanee do best in large, cold, mountain lakes (Sigler and Sigler 1987), where the presence of well-oxygenated water is essential (Sublette et al. 1990).. Water temperatures above 60 degrees F (about 15.5 C) lead to significant mortality, especially among the young (see Sublette et al. 1990). Young are not often found in estuarine or inshore waters after reaching the marine environment (Pauley et al. 1989).

Kokanee usually spawn in tributary stream of lake, often in riffle over gravel substrate; sometimes along gravelly shore of lake where seepage outflows, springs, or wind-induced waves occur. Sockeye move up coastal rivers and spawn in streams. Female constructs a redd (several nesting pockets) in gravel (usually) or sand bottom.

Adult Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Food Comments: Kokanee feed on zooplankton. Young sockeye eat primarily planktonic crustaceans. At sea, young sockeye feed on zooplankton, small fishes and insects; as they grow they eat more fish.
Phenology Comments: Kokanee: feeding generally heaviest from sundown to dark (Sigler and Sigler 1987). Young sockeye feeding heaviest in afternoon, lightest at night and early morning (Pauley et al. 1989).
Length: 71 centimeters
Economic Attributes
Help
Economic Comments: Important commercial and sport fish; commercially important from Columbia River to Bristol Bay, Alaska; most valuable commercial fishery in both Alaska and British Columbia; important as subsistence and ceremonial fish to indigenous peoples of Alaska, British Columbia, and Washington. See Pauley et al. 1989 for many details on commercial fishery. Has been used in carcinogen testing (Metcalfe 1989).
Management Summary
Help
Management Requirements: Allendorf et al. (1997) proposed criteria for prioritizing Pacific salmon stocks for conservation; data limitations introduce subjectivity into the process, so expert judgment and peer review should be incorporated into the process.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
Help
Group Name: Fishes with Anadromous Populations

Use Class: Freshwater
Subtype(s): Rearing & Migration Area, Spawning & Rearing Area
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat. For anadromous populations, occurrences are based on collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more spawning adults, redds, other evidence of spawning, or larvae or juveniles in appropriate spawning/rearing habitat.
Mapping Guidance: Conceptually, the occurrence includes the entire freshwater area used by the population, including spawning, rearing, and migration areas. For anadromous populations, an occurrence should extend from the most upstream spawning areas downstream to the ocean. However, it is desirable (and practical) to subdivide this sometimes very large occurrence, sometimes overlapping with many other spaghetti-like occurrences extending down from the upstream spawning areas to the ocean, into separate source features or sub-occurrences, labeled with a feature label that reflects the life history stage in that area. Moreover, it may make practical sense to treat the areas downstream of spawning and/or rearing areas as a mixed element animal assemblage: Freshwater Salmon Migration Corridor. This negates the need to separately map each occurrence down to the ocean from its upstream spawning location. Information about areas with different life-history uses can be generated by using best professional judgment by district or regional fish biologists and may or may not incorporate specific locational information from spawning surveys or other surveys.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat that is very unlikely to be submerged even during periods of exceptionally high water (e.g., 100-year flood or 1% flood).
Alternate Separation Procedure: For anadromous populations and migratory populations that have distinct and separate spawning and nonspawning areas, the area used by each population whose spawning area is separated by a gap of at least 10 stream-km from other spawning areas within a stream system is potentially mappable as a distinct occurrence that extends down to the ocean (but see mapping guidance), regardless of whether the spawning areas are in the same or different tributaries.

For other (e.g., nonanadromous) populations in streams, separation distance is 10 stream-km for both suitable and unsuitable habitat. However, if it is known that the same population occupies sites separated by more than 10 km (e.g., this may be common for migratory, nonanadromous populations), those sites should be included within the same occurrence. In lakes, occurrences include all suitable habitat that is presumed to be occupied (based on expert judgment), even if documented collection/observation points are more than 10 km apart. Separate sub-occurrences or source features may usefully document locations of critical spawning areas within a lake.

Separation Justification: The separation distance is arbitrary but was selected to ensure that occurrences are of manageable size but not too small. Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

"Restricted movement is the norm in populations of stream salmonids during nonmigratory periods," but there is considerable variation in movements within and among species (Rodriguez 2002). Redband trout in Montana had October-December home ranges of 5-377 m, consistent with small movements observed for radio-tagged brook trout and cutthroat trout during fall and winter (Muhlfeld et al. 2001). For nonanadromous populations, little is known about juvenile dispersal (e.g., how far fishes may move between between their embryonic developmental habitat and eventual spawning site).

In summer and fall, radio-tagged cutthroat trout in Strawberry Reservoir in Utah had single-month home ranges that were usually about 3-4 km in maximum length (Baldwin et al. 2002). In the Blackfoot River drainage, Montana, radio-tagged westslope cutthroat trout moved 3-72 km (mean 31 km) to access spawning tributaries (Schmetterling 2001). This indicates that migratory but nonanadromous populations may use extensive areas and that one should not invoke the 10-km separation distance without considering the full extent of the population.

Date: 25Nov2009
Author: Hammerson, G., and L. Master
Notes: This Specs Group comprises fish species that include anadromous populations (may also include nonanadromous populations), such as lampreys, sturgeons, herrings, shads, salmonids, and smelts.

Criteria for marine occurrences (Location Use Class: Marine) have not yet been established. These may not be needed for marine occurrences of species that likely will be dealt with as mixed element assemblages (e.g., Salmonid Marine Concentration Area).

Feature Descriptor Definitions:

Spawning Area: area used for spawning but not for rearing or migration.

Rearing Area: area used for larval/juvenile development but not for spawning or migration.

Migration Corridor: area used for migration but not for rearing or spawning.

Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 21Jan2010
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 21Jan2010
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Allendorf, F. W., D. Bayles, D. L. Bottom, K. P. Currens, C. A. Frissell, D. Hankin, J. A. Lichatowich, W. Nehlsen, P. C. Trotter, and T. H. Williams. 1997. Prioritizing Pacific salmon stocks for conservation. Conservation Biology 11:140-152.

  • Aquin, P. 1999. Évaluation de la situation des groupes taxonomiques des poissons du Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune. 9 pages.

  • Atton, F.M. and J.J. Merkowsky. 1983. Atlas of Saskatchewan Fish. Saskatchewan Department of Parks and Renewable Resources, Fisheries Branch Technical Report 83-2. 281pp.

  • B.C. Ministry of Environment. Recovery Planning in BC. B.C. Minist. Environ. Victoria, BC. Available: http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/wld/recoveryplans/rcvry1.htm

  • Berg, D. R. 1995. Riparian silvicultural system design and assessment in the Pacific Northwest Cascade Mountains, USA. Ecological Applications 5:87-96.

  • Burgner, R. L. 1991. Life history of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Pages 1-117 in C. Groot and L. Margolis, editors. Pacific salmon life histories. University of British Columbia Press, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. xv + 564 pp.

  • COSEWIC. 2003d. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka (Cultus population) in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. ix + 57 pp.

  • Cooper, E.L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania. Penn State Univ. Press, University Park, PA.

  • Everhart, W. H. and W. R. Seaman. 1971. Fishes of Colorado. Colorado Game, Fish and Parks.

  • Foerster, R.E. 1968. The sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka. Bulletin of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 162 xv + 422 pp.

  • General Status, Environment Canada. 2015. Manitoba fish species and subnational ranks proposed by DFO.

  • George, C.J. 1980. The fishes of the Adirondack Park. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Albany, NY 94 pp.

  • Gustafson, R. G., T. C. Wainwright, G. A. Winans, F. W. Waknitz, L. T. Parker, and R. S. Waples. 1997. Status review of sockeye salmon from Washington and Oregon. U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NWFSC-33. 282 pp.

  • Hendry, A. P., J. K. Wenburg, P. Bentzen, E. C. Volk, and T. P. Quinn. 2000. Rapid evolution of reproductive isolation in the wild: evidence from introduced salmon. Science 290:516-518.

  • Huntington, C., W. Nehlsen, and J. Bowers. 1996. A survey of healthy native stocks of anadromous salmonids in the Pacific Northwest and California. Fisheries 21(3):6-14.

  • Kokanee. 1999. B.C. Fish Facts. Conserv. Sect., Fish. Manage. Branch, B.C. Minist. Fish. 2pp.

  • La Rivers, I. 1994. Fishes and fisheries of Nevada. University of Nevada Press, Reno. 782 pp.

  • Lee, D. C., and J. Hyman. 1992. The stochastic life-cycle model (SLCM): simulating the population dynamics of anadromous salmonids. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Paper INT-459, Ogden, Utah. 30 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Legendre, V. et J.F. Bergeron. 1977. Liste des poissons d' eau douce du Québec. MLCP, Service Aménage. Expl. Faune. Rap. dact. 6

  • Marshall, T.L. and R.P. Johnson. 1971. History and results of fish introductions in Saskatchewan: 1900 - 1969. Fisheries Report No 8. Fisheries and Wildlife Branch, Department of Natural Resources, Province of Saskatchewan.

  • McKinnell, S. M., C. C. Wood, D. T. Rutherford, K. D. Hyatt, and D. W. Welch. 2001. The demise of Owikeno Lake sockeye salmon. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 21:774-791.

  • McPhail, J.D. and C.C. Lindsey. 1970. Freshwater fishes of northwestern Canada and Alaska. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 173, Ottawa.

  • Meffe, G. K. 1992. Techno-arrogance and halfway technologies: salmon hatcheries on the Pacific coast of North America. Conservation Biology 6:350-354.

  • Metcalfe, C. D. 1989. Tests for predicting carcinogenicity in fish. Reviews in Aquatic Sciences 1(1):111-129.

  • Minckley, W. L. 1973. Fishes of Arizona. Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, Arizona. 293 pp.

  • Morrow, J.E. 1980. The freshwater fishes of Alaska. Alaska Northwest Publishing Company, Anchorage, AK. 248 pp.

  • Moyle, P. B. 1976a. Inland fishes of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, California. 405 pp.

  • Moyle, P. B. 2002. Inland fishes of California. Revised and expanded. University of California Press, Berkeley. xv + 502 pp.

  • Nehlsen, W., J. E. Williams, and J. A. Lichatowich. 1991. Pacific salmon at the crossroads: stocks at risk from California, Oregon, Idaho, and Washington. Fisheries 16(2):4-21.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Nielsen, J. L., editor. 1995. Evolution and the aquatic ecosystem: defining unique units in population conservation. American Fisheries Society Symposium 17, Bethesda, Maryland. xii + 435 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Pauley, G. B., R. Risher, and G. L. Thomas. 1989. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): sockeye salmon. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Report 82(11.116). 22 pp.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Rodriguez, M. A. 2002. Restricted movement in stream fish: the paradigm is complete, not lost. Ecology 83(1):1-13.

  • Scott, W. B., and E. J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184. 966 pp.

  • Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman. 1979. Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa. 966 pp.

  • Sigler, W. F., and J. W. Sigler. 1987. Fishes of the Great Basin: a natural history. University of Nevada Press, Reno, Nevada. xvi + 425 pp.

  • Sigler, W. F., and R. R. Miller. 1963. Fishes of Utah. Utah Department of Fish and Game, Salt Lake City, Utah. 203 pp.

  • Slaney, T. L., K. D. Hyatt, T. G. Northcote, and R. J. Fielden. 1996. Status of anadromous salmon and trout in British Columbia and Yukon. Fisheries 21(10):20-35.

  • Smith, C.L. 1985. The Inland Fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY. 522pp.

  • Spencer, C. N., B. R. McClelland, and J. A. Stanford. 1991. Shrimp stocking, salmon collapse, and eagle displacement. BioScience 41:14-21.

  • Stearley, R. F. 1992. Historical ecology of Salmoninae, with special reference to Oncorhynchus. Pages 622-658 in R.L. Mayden, editor. Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xxvi + 969 pp.

  • Stewart, K.W., and D. A. Watkinson. 2004. The freshwater fishes of Manitoba. University of Manitoba Press. Winnipeg. 276 p.

  • Sublette, J. E., M. D Hatch, and M. Sublette. 1990. The fishes of New Mexico. University New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 393 pp.

  • Taylor, E. B., C. J. Foote, and C. C. Wood. 1996. Molecular genetic evidence for parallel life-history evolution within a Pacific salmon (sockeye salmon and kokanee, Oncorhynchus nerka). Evolution 50:401-416.

  • Thomas, J. W., Ward, J., Raphael, M.G., Anthony, R.G., Forsman, E.D., Gunderson, A.G., Holthausen, R.S., Marcot, B.G., Reeves, G.H., Sedell, J.R. and Solis, D.M. 1993. Viability assessments and management considerations for species associated with late-successional and old-growth forests of the Pacific Northwest. The report of the Scientific Analysis Team. USDA Forest Service, Spotted Owl EIS Team, Portland Oregon. 530 pp.

  • Waples, R. S. 1990a. Conservation genetics of Pacific salmon. II. Effective population size and the rate of loss of genetic variability. Journal of Heredity 81:267-276.

  • Waples, R. S. 1990b. Conservation genetics of Pacific salmon. III. Estimating effective population size. Journal of Heredity 81:277-289.

  • Waples, R. S., and D. J. Teel. 1990. Conservation genetics of Pacific salmon. I. Temporal changes in allele frequency. Conservation Biology 4:144-156.

  • Werner, R.G. 1980. Freshwater fishes of New York State. N.Y.: Syracuse University Press. 186 pp.

  • Williams, J. E., J. A. Lichatowich, and W. Nehlsen. 1992b. Declining salmon and steelhead populations: new endangered species concerns for the West. Endangered Species Update 9(4):1-8.

  • Wydoski, R. S., and R. R. Whitney. 1979. Inland fishes of Washington. The University of Washington Press, Seattle. 220 pp.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Master, L. L. 1996. Synoptic national assessment of comparative risks to biological diversity and landscape types: species distributions. Summary Progress Report submitted to Environmental Protection Agency. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia. 60 pp.

  • Master, L. L. and A. L. Stock. 1998. Synoptic national assessment of comparative risks to biological diversity and landscape types: species distributions. Summary Report submitted to Environmental Protection Agency. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA. 36 pp.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2018.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2018 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2018. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.