Nymphalis antiopa - (Linnaeus, 1758)
Mourning Cloak
Other English Common Names: mourning cloak
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Nymphalis antiopa (Linnaeus, 1758) (TSN 188597)
French Common Names: morio
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.114902
Element Code: IILEPK6030
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Insects - Butterflies and Moths - Butterflies and Skippers
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Insecta Lepidoptera Nymphalidae Nymphalis
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Opler, P. A., and A. D. Warren. 2002. Butterflies of North America. 2. Scientific Names List for Butterfly Species of North America, north of Mexico. C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. 79 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B02OPL01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Nymphalis antiopa
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 14Jun2016
Global Status Last Changed: 01Sep1998
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Widespread holarctic species.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (01Sep1998)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (12Sep2009)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (SU), Alaska (SNR), Arizona (SNR), Arkansas (S4), California (SNR), Colorado (S5), Connecticut (S5), Delaware (S5), District of Columbia (SNR), Florida (SNA), Georgia (S5), Idaho (SNR), Illinois (S5), Indiana (S5), Iowa (S4), Kansas (S5), Kentucky (S5), Louisiana (SNA), Maine (S5), Maryland (S5B), Massachusetts (S5), Michigan (S5), Minnesota (S5), Mississippi (SNR), Missouri (S5), Montana (S5), Nebraska (S5), Nevada (SNR), New Hampshire (S5), New Jersey (S5), New Mexico (SNR), New York (S5), North Carolina (S5), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (S5), Oklahoma (S4), Oregon (SNR), Pennsylvania (S5), Rhode Island (S5), South Carolina (S5), South Dakota (SNR), Tennessee (S5), Texas (SNR), Utah (SNR), Vermont (S5), Virginia (S5), Washington (S5), West Virginia (S5), Wisconsin (S5), Wyoming (SNR)
Canada Alberta (S5), British Columbia (S5), Labrador (S3?), Manitoba (S5), New Brunswick (S4), Newfoundland Island (S5), Northwest Territories (SNR), Nova Scotia (S5), Nunavut (SNR), Ontario (S5), Prince Edward Island (S3S4), Quebec (S5), Saskatchewan (S5), Yukon Territory (S5)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Holarctic. Occurs in virtually all of North America, except for very dry areas and the high Arctic. Overwinters successfully in most of range but perhaps not in coldest parts and may be present in winter only in some southern areas. Also extends south to Venezuela.

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

Population Size: 10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Holarctic. Occurs in virtually all of North America, except for very dry areas and the high Arctic. Overwinters successfully in most of range but perhaps not in coldest parts and may be present in winter only in some southern areas. Also extends south to Venezuela.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, NU, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AZ Pima (04019)
FL Alachua (12001), Leon (12073), Liberty (12077), Okaloosa (12091)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Oklawaha (03080102)+, Lower Ochlockonee (03120003)+, Apalachicola (03130011)+, Choctawhatchee Bay (03140102)+, Yellow (03140103)+, Blackwater (03140104)+
15 San Cristobal Wash (15070203)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Butterfly, Nymphalidae.
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen, FORESTED WETLAND, Riparian, SCRUB-SHRUB WETLAND
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Conifer, Forest - Hardwood, Forest - Mixed, Savanna, Suburban/orchard, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Habitat Comments: Adults occur in almost any kind of woods or forest and larvae are on the foodplants in or near these habitats. Females will oviposit on willows in rather open situations. In some coastal plain areas (e.g along Delaware Bay) dense mixed swamps are important hibernation areas even though there are often no breeding habits nearby.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Forest or Woodland Nymphalidae

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: A location where the species occurs, or has occurred, where there is potential for persistence or regular recurrence. Minimally a place where the species has been collected or verified by an expert from a diagnostic photograph and is associated with sufficient suitable habitat to support a population.
Mapping Guidance: Usually habitats will be large blocks of somewhat diverse forest or woodlands. Boundaries of such can be used for mapping. In practice occurrence definition for this group is likely to be extremely difficult in boreal or montane regions with extensive forest lands, but in most such cases these taxa will not likely be mapped. A particularly difficult case would be POLYGONIA FAUNUS SMYTHI. This one probably can at least be assumed confined to higher, cooler northern hardwoods and spruce-fir forests and openings and outcrops in them. Occurrences in this SPECS group should not be based solely on larval foodplants but must also include adult habitat, although in some cases it would be prudent to map foodplant patches. Consult habitat and foodplant comments fields for species-specific information on what constitutes suitable habitat when mapping occurrences for individual species.
Separation Barriers: Generally none or unknown. Many of the species are migratory or at least subject to large range fluctuations and such species can cross virtually any barrier including several kilometers of ocean and cities.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 20 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: If an EO is on an island such as one of the Florida Keys it is reasonable to consider each island as a separate occurrence regardless of distance and even if some movement between islands occurs. Consult habitat and foodplant comments fields for species-specific information on what constitutes suitable habitat when mapping occurrences for individual species.
For regularly recurring "populations" and probably in some other cases for several of these species the Specs for breeding Immigrant Lepidoptera may be substituted.

Separation Justification: Both distances are arbitrary but reflect the near certainty that most of these species are very mobile, many are long lived (at least in the overwintering brood), mostly somewhat to highly migratory, and that persistent populations cannot occur in small scraps of habitat. It is not really known but for most species, defensible persistent occurrences are probably hundreds to many thousands of hectares; or they may occur as metapopulations with adults moving widely between smaller breeding areas (e.g. POLYGONIA PROGNE southward).
Suitable habitat is also problematic and some judgement based on local knowledge may be needed to define it. For example the adult habitat for NYMPHALIS ANTIOPA is primarily forests at least during aestivation, hibernation, and late winter-early spring courtship and mating period but in many regions the breeding habitats are willow swamps and other shrublands or backyard shade trees. While they generally do stay in forests, taiga, woodlands, or openings in them, adults of the boreal POLYGONIA and NYMPHALIS etc. are not restricted to the vicinity of the larval foodplants. Conceptually suitability should be based on adult as well as larval habitat.

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 2 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Use either 2 kilometers or the full extent of contiguous or nearly contiguous available habitat, whichever is less. These are not butterflies of small habitats. Obviously many occurrences are much greater than the roughly 1000 kilometers here defined and/or the potentially persistent occurrences is a cluster of numerous small habitats. Where these butterflies occupy vast expanses of habitat they are often landscape level species with undefinable occurrences.
Date: 12Sep2001
Author: Schweitzer, D.F.
Notes: Conceptually separate non-breeding EOs, specifically hibernation or aestivation areas, would be appropriate for some of these species. However since the obvious examples are very common species such as NYMPHALIS CALIFORNICA for example around Mt. Shasta or both widespread eastern POLYGONIA for example in southern New Jersey, this issue is not addressed with these Specs. Such species are unlikely to be tracked or mapped in such places. In fact most years P. COMMA is resident in most of southern New Jersey only from about October through March. As far as known most of the boreal species and montane breeders in these genera occur essentially in the same places year round. As far as known most of the more southern taxa that are likely to be tracked do also. These Specs were written primarily for species of Polygonia and Nymphalis (senus lato) but seem applicable for ANAEA also, although for that genus habitats will seldom permit use of the 20 km distance.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 05Oct2000
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Opler, P.A.; Schweitzer, D.F.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 18May2001

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Opler, P. A., and A. D. Warren. 2002. Butterflies of North America. 2. Scientific Names List for Butterfly Species of North America, north of Mexico. C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. 79 pp.

  • Pelham, J. P. 2008. A catalogue of the butterflies of the United States and Canada with a complete bibliography of the descriptive and systematic literature. The Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera. Volume 40. 658 pp.

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